Publications by authors named "Junyan Zhang"

143 Publications

Risk analysis of pulmonary metastasis of chondrosarcoma by establishing and validating a new clinical prediction model: a clinical study based on SEER database.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 9;22(1):529. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, 999078, China.

Background: The prognosis of lung metastasis (LM) in patients with chondrosarcoma was poor. The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic nomogram to predict the risk of LM, which was imperative and helpful for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: Data of all chondrosarcoma patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2016 was queried from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. In this retrospective study, a total of 944 patients were enrolled and randomly splitting into training sets (n = 644) and validation cohorts(n = 280) at a ratio of 7:3. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic nomogram. The predictive ability of the nomogram model was assessed by calibration plots and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) curve, while decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curve (CIC) were applied to measure predictive accuracy and clinical practice. Moreover, the nomogram was validated by the internal cohort.

Results: Five independent risk factors including age, sex, marital, tumor size, and lymph node involvement were identified by univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Calibration plots indicated great discrimination power of nomogram, while DCA and CIC presented that the nomogram had great clinical utility. In addition, receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) curve provided a predictive ability in the training sets (AUC = 0.789, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.789-0.808) and the validation cohorts (AUC = 0.796, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.744-0.841).

Conclusion: In our study, the nomogram accurately predicted risk factors of LM in patients with chondrosarcoma, which may guide surgeons and oncologists to optimize individual treatment and make a better clinical decisions.

Trial Registration: JOSR-D-20-02045, 29 Dec 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04414-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191035PMC
June 2021

Ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting NLRP1 inflammasomes in HT22 cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 19;22(1):782. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medicine College, Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immunopharmacology, Ministry of Education, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, P.R. China.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a toxic component of cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria that are widely present in gastrointestinal tracts. Increasing evidence showed that LPS plays important roles in the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). NADPH oxidase s2 (NOX2) is a complex membrane protein that contributes to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several neurological diseases. The NLRP1 inflammasome can be activated in response to an accumulation of ROS in neurons. However, it is still unknown whether LPS exposure can deteriorate neuronal damage by activating NOX2-NLRP1 inflammasomes. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has protective effects on neurons, although whether Rg1 alleviates LPS-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting NOX2-NLRP1 inflammasomes remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of concentration gradients and different times of LPS exposure on neuronal damage was investigated in HT22 cells, and further observed the effect of Rg1 treatment on NOX2-NLPR1 inflammasome activation, ROS production and neuronal damage in LPS-treated HT22 cells. The results demonstrated that LPS exposure significantly induced NOX2-NLRP1 inflammasome activation, excessive production of ROS, and neuronal damage in HT22 cells. It was also shown that Rg1 treatment significantly decreased NOX2-NLRP1 inflammasome activation and ROS production and alleviated neuronal damage in LPS-induced HT22 cells. The present data suggested that Rg1 has protective effects on LPS-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting NOX2-NLRP1 inflammasomes in HT22 cells, and Rg1 may be a potential therapeutic approach for delaying neuronal damage in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145787PMC
July 2021

The role and mechanism of hyperoside against myocardial infarction in mice by regulating autophagy via NLRP1 inflammation pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 4;276:114187. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, No.81 Meishan Road, Hefei, 230032, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Hypericum are widely distributed in China. Hypericum perforatum L. (genus Hypericum, family Hypericaceae) has a long history as a traditional Chinese medicine, which was traditionally used for the treatment of emotional distress, cardiothoracic depression, and acute mastitis. Hyperoside (Hyp) extracted from Hypericum perforatum L. has been affirmed to exert therapeutic effects on cardiovascular diseases, with widespread existence in plants of genus Hypericum. Hyp could also be extracted from Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge (genus Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge, family Rosaceae), another traditional Chinese medicine that traditionally prevented and treated heart disease in China. The cardioprotection and mechanism of Hyp comprise anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, activation of autophagy, and reversal of cardiac remodeling.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to explore the Hyp effect against MI and its underlying mechanism.

Materials And Methods: The MI model was constructed in the KM mice via a ligating surgery of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Subsequently, the mice were divided into following seven groups: Sham group, MI group, MI + Hyp 9 mg/kg group, MI + Hyp18 mg/kg group, MI + Hyp36 mg/kg group, MI + Fosinopril group, and MI + Hyp-36 mg/kg+3-MA group. Each group was treated with Hyp in different concentrations or positive medicine for two weeks except for the sham group. After two weeks, we examined the cardiac function, electrocardiogram (ECG), myocardial hypertrophy in the non-infarct area, collagen volume fraction (CVF), perivascular collagen area (PVCA) in the infarct area, and several serum cytokines. Autophagy and inflammation in cardiomyocytes were assessed via measuring autophagy-associated proteins and NLRP1 inflammasome pathway related proteins.

Results: Hyp reversed LV remodeling and adverse ECG changes through reducing CVF and myocardial hypertrophy. Additionally, Hyp treatment could reduce inflammation levels in cardiomyocytes, compared with those in MI group. Moreover, NLRP1inflammation pathway was activated after MI. Up-regulation of autophagic flux suppressed NLRP1 inflammation pathway after Hyp treatment. However, co-treatment with 3-MA abrogated above effects of Hyp.

Conclusions: Hyp had obvious protective effect on heart injury in MI mice. Echocanrdiographic and histological measurements demonstrated that Hyp treatment improved cardiac function, and ameliorated myocardial hypertrophy and fibrinogen deposition after MI. The partial mechanism is that Hyp could up-regulate autophagy after MI. Furthermore, the promotion of autophagic flux would suppress NLRP1 inflammation pathway induced by MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114187DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of a targetable KRAS-mutant epithelial population in non-small cell lung cancer.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 14;4(1):370. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Pisa, Italy.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Tumor heterogeneity, which hampers development of targeted therapies, was herein deconvoluted via single cell RNA sequencing in aggressive human adenocarcinomas (carrying Kras-mutations) and comparable murine model. We identified a tumor-specific, mutant-KRAS-associated subpopulation which is conserved in both human and murine lung cancer. We previously reported a key role for the oncogene BMI-1 in adenocarcinomas. We therefore investigated the effects of in vivo PTC596 treatment, which affects BMI-1 activity, in our murine model. Post-treatment, MRI analysis showed decreased tumor size, while single cell transcriptomics concomitantly detected near complete ablation of the mutant-KRAS-associated subpopulation, signifying the presence of a pharmacologically targetable, tumor-associated subpopulation. Our findings therefore hold promise for the development of a targeted therapy for KRAS-mutant adenocarcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01897-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046784PMC
April 2021

The pivotal role of oxygen in establishing superlow friction by inducing the in situ formation of a robust MoS transfer film.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 15;594:824-835. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

The achievement of superlow friction is vital for the engineering application of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC), but it always fails in an oxygen atmosphere. In this paper, robust superlow friction was achieved by MoS flakes and H-DLC composite films in a large range of atmospheres, especially in oxygen. The results showed that the composite structure could only retain the superlow friction for an short time in pure argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide; surprisingly, oxygen was capable of remaining in the near frictionless state with a friction coefficient as low as 0.002, and the duration was prolonged significantly by the introduction of oxygen in those other gases. The stability of the transfer film that induced the near frictionless state was also studied comprehensively. The experimental results and first-principle calculations demonstrated that oxygen could bond with the molybdenum, sulfur and aluminum atoms to form bridge bonds that fixed the MoS transfer film on the counterface; this led to the formation of incommensurate contact between the MoS tribo-layer and H-DLC film, which enabled robust superlow friction. This finding supports a simple strategy to resolve the challenge of superlubric failure and opens a path for the actual application of H-DLC in oxygen-rich environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.037DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of an activated carbon filtration step and high throughput screening method to remove host cell proteins from a recombinant enzyme process.

Biotechnol Prog 2021 Mar 25:e3151. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Manufacturing Sciences and Technology, MilliporeSigma, Burlington, Massachusetts, USA.

An increasing number of non-mAb recombinant proteins are being developed today. These biotherapeutics provide greater purification challenges where multiple polishing steps may be required to meet final purity specifications or the process steps may require extensive optimization. Recent studies have shown that activated carbon can be employed in downstream purification processes to selectively separate host cell proteins (HCPs) from monoclonal antibodies (mAb). However, the use of activated carbon as a unit operation in a cGMP purification process is relatively new. As such, the goal of this work is to provide guidance on development approaches, insight into operating parameters and solution conditions that can impact HCP removal, as well as further investigate the mechanism of removal by using mass spectrometry. In this work, activated carbon was evaluated to remove HCPs in the downstream purification process of a recombinant enzyme. Impact of process placement, flux (or residence time), and mass loading on HCP removal was investigated. Feasibility of high throughput screening (HTS) using loose activated carbon was assessed to reduce the amount of therapeutic protein needed and enable testing of a larger number of solution conditions. Finally, mass spectrometry was used to determine the population of HCPs removed by activated carbon. Our work demonstrates that activated carbon can be used effectively in downstream processes of biopharmaceuticals to remove HCPs (up to a 3 log reduction) and that an HTS format can be implemented to reduce material demands by up to 23x and allow for process optimization of this adsorbent for purification purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.3151DOI Listing
March 2021

High Expression of CLEC11A Predicts Favorable Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:608932. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Hematology, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease of the hematopoietic system, for which identification of novel molecular markers is potentially important for clinical prognosis and is an urgent need for treatment optimization.

Methods: We selected C-type lectin domain family 11, member A (CLEC11A) for study several public databases, comparing expression among a variety of tumors and normal samples as well as different organs and tissues. To investigated the relationship between CLEC11A expression and clinical characteristics, we derived an AML cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA); we also investigated the Bloodspot and HemaExplorer databases. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to evaluate the associations between CLEC11A mRNA expression, as well as DNA methylation, and overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and relapse-free survival (RFS). DNA methylation levels of CLEC11A from our own 28 AML patients were assessed and related to chemotherapeutic outcomes. Bioinformatics analysis of CLEC11A was carried out using public databases.

Results: Multiple public databases revealed that CLEC11A expression was higher in leukemia. The TCGA data revealed that high CLEC11A expression was linked with favorable prognosis (OS -value = 2e-04; EFS -value = 6e-04), which was validated in GSE6891 (OS -value = 0; EFS -value = 0; RFS -value = 2e-03). Methylation of CLEC11A was negatively associated with CLEC11A expression, and high CLEC11A methylation level group was linked to poorer prognosis (OS -value = 1e-02; EFS -value = 2e-02). Meanwhile, CLEC11A hypermethylation was associated with poor induction remission rate and dismal survival. Bioinformatic analysis also showed that CLEC11A was an up-regulated gene in leukemogenesis.

Conclusion: CLEC11A may be used as a prognostic biomarker, and could do benefit for AML patients by providing precise treatment indications, and its unique gene pattern should aid in further understanding the heterogeneous AML mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.608932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966831PMC
March 2021

The potential of dairy manure and sewage management pathways towards a circular economy: A meta-analysis from the life cycle perspective.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 12;779:146396. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Economics and Rural Development Laboratory, TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux B-5030, Belgium.

The global dairy farming sector has markedly expanded and intensified over the past decades due to the growing demand for milk and dairy products. The interest in implementing life cycle assessments of various manure and sewage management (MSM) strategies is increasing on a global scale, which is motivated by the concerns of environmental degradation caused by unsustainable MSM and growing awareness of circular economy. Life cycle thinking concept has been widely introduced to favor the comparative studies of different MSM strategies, with the aim of identifying suitable MSM strategies and formulating related policies. This meta-analysis presented comparative results of publicly available dairy MSM pathways, including waste-to-energy, composting, recycling, and other management pathways, aiming to explore potential benefits towards a circular economy. Results showed a consensus that waste-to-energy pathway significantly reduced global warming, eutrophication, and ecotoxicity potential. More specifically, the comparative performances of various detailed technologies belonging to a specified pathway were analyzed. Results indicated that anaerobic mono-digestion decreased global warming and eutrophication remarkably; its integrated management technologies reduced global warming considerably and an obvious decrease in eutrophication potential was observed. It revealed that most of current MSM strategies had limited potential and uncertain consequences to reduce environmental impacts and costs. In terms of influence factors, besides the intrinsic factor (pathway type), key extrinsic determinants including location, country income level, and farm scale were proved to affect mitigation potential of some specific impacts. Overall, it is necessary for the scientific community and policy-makers to focus on more possible trade-offs of different life cycle performances towards sustainability and circularity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146396DOI Listing
July 2021

Validity of the MemTrax Memory Test Compared to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer's Disease in a Chinese Cohort.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;80(3):1257-1267

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Background: A valid, reliable, accessible, engaging, and affordable digital cognitive screen instrument for clinical use is in urgent demand.

Objective: To assess the clinical utility of the MemTrax memory test for early detection of cognitive impairment in a Chinese cohort.

Methods: The 2.5-minute MemTrax and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were performed by 50 clinically diagnosed cognitively normal (CON), 50 mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD), and 50 Alzheimer's disease (AD) volunteer participants. The percentage of correct responses (MTx-% C), the mean response time (MTx-RT), and the composite scores (MTx-Cp) of MemTrax and the MoCA scores were comparatively analyzed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves generated.

Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated MTx-% C, MTx-Cp, and the MoCA score were significantly lower in MCI-AD versus CON and in AD versus MCI-AD groups (all with p≤0.001). For the differentiation of MCI-AD from CON, an optimized MTx-% C cutoff of 81% had 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.839, whereas the MoCA score of 23 had 54% sensitivity and 86% specificity with an AUC of 0.740. For the differentiation of AD from MCI-AD, MTx-Cp of 43.0 had 70% sensitivity and 82% specificity with an AUC of 0.799, whereas the MoCA score of 20 had 84% sensitivity and 62% specificity with an AUC of 0.767.

Conclusion: MemTrax can effectively detect both clinically diagnosed MCI and AD with better accuracy as compared to the MoCA based on AUCs in a Chinese cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200936DOI Listing
January 2021

E-cadherin is regulated by GATA-2 and marks the early commitment of mouse hematopoietic progenitors to the basophil and mast cell fates.

Sci Immunol 2021 02;6(56)

Division of Hematology/Oncology, O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

E-cadherin is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule extensively studied for its involvement in tissue formation, epithelial cell behavior, and suppression of cancer. However, E-cadherin expression in the hematopoietic system has not been fully elucidated. Combining single-cell RNA-sequencing analyses and immunophenotyping, we revealed that progenitors expressing high levels of E-cadherin and contained within the granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) fraction have an enriched capacity to differentiate into basophils and mast cells. We detected E-cadherin expression on committed progenitors before the expression of other reported markers of these lineages. We named such progenitors pro-BMPs (pro-basophil and mast cell progenitors). Using RNA sequencing, we observed transcriptional priming of pro-BMPs to the basophil and mast cell lineages. We also showed that GATA-2 directly regulates E-cadherin expression in the basophil and mast cell lineages, thus providing a mechanistic connection between the expression of this cell surface marker and the basophil and mast cell fate specification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aba0178DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence and Population Analysis of Isolated from Freshwater Fish in Zhejiang Province, China.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 Feb 25;18(2):139-146. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Microbiology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

The previous researches revealed that has been detected in freshwater fish samples. However, the molecular characteristics of isolated from freshwater fish, including pathogenic and pandemic strains, are still unknown. This study aims to characterize and identify molecular properties of the bacterium. In addition, it identifies the source of from freshwater fish samples in Zhejiang Province, China. Four hundred and twenty-one freshwater fish samples (from fishing farms, retail markets, and restaurants) and 212 seafood samples (from retail markets) were collected in 10 cities of Zhejiang Province. strains were isolated from these samples and comparatively analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility test, and polymerase chain reaction, targeting common toxin genes (, ) and markers for pandemic strains (, ). Sixty-eight strains were isolated from the 421 freshwater fish samples, and 89 isolates were identified out of 212 seafood samples. The detection rate of was significantly different ( < 0.05) between the fishing farms, the retail markets, and the restaurants. The isolates from freshwater fish samples were divided into eight O serotypes with three O3:K6 isolates, which contain three pandemic complexes (, , ). A total of 53 different sequence types (STs) were identified among the 68 isolates, including 28 novel STs. Antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that 76.5% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin. A third (3/9) of the isolates from fishing farm sources shared the same STs with their counterparts from retail markets. Compared with the isolates from the seafood samples collected in the same sampling sites, 13.2% (9/68) freshwater fish isolates overlapped with seafood isolates. Our study showed that population in freshwater fish is genetically diverse. The contaminates might have come from both fishing farm sources and cross-contamination from seafood in the closed area at the markets. Freshwater fish may work as a reservoir of pathogenic and pandemic isolates, indicating potential public health and food safety risks associated with the consumption of freshwater fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2020.2798DOI Listing
February 2021

The Clinical Significance and Mechanisms of REG4 in Human Cancers.

Front Oncol 2020 8;10:559230. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Tumors, Ministry of Education, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Regenerating islet-derived type 4 (), a member of the calcium-dependent lectin gene superfamily, is abnormally expressed in various cancers, such as colorectal, gastric, gallbladder, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate, and lung cancer. is associated with a relatively unfavorable prognosis and clinicopathologic features in cancers, including advanced tumor and nodal stage, histological differentiation, and liver and peritoneal metastasis. Moreover, -positive cancer cells show more frequent resistance to chemoradiotherapy, especially 5-FU-based chemotherapy. participates in many aspects of carcinogenesis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. The underlying mechanisms are complex and involve a series of signaling mediators and multiple pathways. Thus, may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker as well as a candidate therapeutic target in cancer patients. In this review, we systematically summarize the advances about the clinical significance, biological functions, and mechanisms underlying in cancer to provide new directions for future cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.559230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819868PMC
January 2021

DsbA-L deficiency in T cells promotes diet-induced thermogenesis through suppressing IFN-γ production.

Nat Commun 2021 01 12;12(1):326. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, and Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 410011, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Adipose tissue-resident T cells have been recognized as a critical regulator of thermogenesis and energy expenditure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding greatly suppresses the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlates with reduced T cell mitochondrial function. T cell-specific knockout of DsbA-L enhances diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and protects mice from HFD-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, DsbA-L deficiency in T cells reduces IFN-γ production and activates protein kinase A by reducing phosphodiesterase-4D expression, leading to increased BAT thermogenesis. Taken together, our study uncovers a mechanism by which T cells communicate with brown adipocytes to regulate BAT thermogenesis and whole-body energy homeostasis. Our findings highlight a therapeutic potential of targeting T cells for the treatment of over nutrition-induced obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20665-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804451PMC
January 2021

Electrokinetic detection and separation of living algae in a microfluidic chip: implication for ship's ballast water analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 11;28(18):22853-22863. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Detecting living algae from treated ship's ballast water is an important task for port state control (PSC) under the requirement of the International Ballast Water Convention. In this paper, electrokinetic detection and separation of living algae from NaClO- and UV-treated ship's ballast water in a microfluidic chip are presented. The electrokinetic movement of algae in a straight poly ethylene glycol (PEG)-modified PDMS microchannel filled with 10% PEG solution was measured by using an optical microscope. The experimental results show that the moving velocity of dead algae is lower by more than 80% in comparison with living algae. The decreased velocity is larger for larger dead algae and the velocity is decreased to zero for dead algae larger than 6 μm in diameter. A curve was obtained to evaluate the vitality of algae with similar moving velocity but different sizes. Electrokinetic separation of living algae from a mixture sample in a straight channel was also achieved. The method presented in this paper provides a moving velocity-based approach for quickly evaluating the living status of algae in treated ship's ballast water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12315-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Graphitic Encapsulation and Electronic Shielding of Metal Nanoparticles to Achieve Metal-Carbon Interfacial Superlubricity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 7;13(2):3397-3407. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China.

Presently, approaches to achieve superlubricity for diamond-like carbon (DLC) films rely heavily on the film deposition techniques and parameters, such as other nonmetallic element incorporation and structure optimization. In this work, we report a new feasible pathway to achieve superlubricity for DLC films, which is not dependent on the film preparation parameters but rather on the external effects, i.e., sliding interfacial addition of metal nanoparticles (Cu and Ni). The approach controls the structures of wear products by the introduction of metal nanoparticles and the subsequent effect of metal catalysts, to in situ form graphene-coated particles without impacting the overall performances of the films. Through detailed experimental investigations combined with density functional theory (DFT) simulations, graphitic encapsulation and electronic shielding of metal nanoparticles are responsible for the dramatic changes at the frictional interface leading to metal-carbon interfacial superlubricity. We expect that the approach will enrich the understanding of the lubrication mechanism of DLC films and promote the DLC films' superlubricity toward applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c18900DOI Listing
January 2021

Identifying key pathways in manure and sewage management of dairy farming based on a quantitative typology: A case study in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 12;760:143326. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Economics and Rural Development Laboratory, TERRA Teaching and Research Centre, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux B-5030, Belgium.

With the greatly increased demand for animal products, the global dairy sector has experienced rapid expansion and intensification. The correspondingly increasing manure and sewage produced has been the major contributor to environmental burden and human health, especially in developing countries like China. Both worldwide environmental concerns and growing awareness of the circular economy have focused the governments' attention on environmental policies related to sustainable manure and sewage management (MSM). However, inherently dynamic decision-making processes of individual farms result in a great diversity of MSM practices, which leads to enormous difficulties and complexity in further sustainability and policy evaluation. Hence, it is essential to explore the key MSM pathways to represent diversity at a scientific and statistic view. While it is rarely practiced, particularly in China's dairy farming. We used China as a case study to develop the key MSM pathways using data from the nationwide survey of 306 scale dairy farms via a quantitative typology methodology. The results by optimal clustering solution revealed four key pathways based on the individual practices which are associated with the collection, storage, and processing and utilization stages. Furthermore, general characteristics were compared to identify potential determinant factors. It revealed that the major indicators such as resource endowments, milk productivity and quality, and revenues and expenditure showed a consistently increasing trend among pathways. The results indicated resource availability and intensive degree, to a certain extent, affected the farmers' selection. The possibilities of performing sustainability and policy evaluation at a higher scale were also demonstrated. Overall, the identified key pathways can help to know regional waste utilization and economic potential to evolve their MSM strategies. They are especially critical for developing countries to obtain typical MSM profiles and formulate targeted policies more effectively, aiming to promote dairy sustainable development and achieve the circular economy globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143326DOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in chicken bursae of Fabricius during infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

BMC Genomics 2020 Oct 19;21(1):724. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Changjiang Road No. 600, Xiang Fang District, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

Background: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes acute, highly contagious, immunosuppressive, and lethal infectious disease in young chickens and mainly infects the bursa of Fabricius (BF). To investigate interactions between IBDV and its host, RNA sequencing was applied to analyze the responses of the differentially expressed transcriptional profiles of BF infected by very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV).

Results: In total, 317 upregulated and 94 downregulated mRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed in infected chickens, compared to controls. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and circular RNA (circRNA) alterations were identified in IBDV-infected chickens, and significantly different expression was observed in 272 lncRNAs and 143 circRNAs. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed to assess the functions of significantly dysregulated genes, which showed that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and apoptosis may be activated by IBDV infection. We predicted interactions between differentially expressed genes and produced lncRNA-mRNA and circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulator network.

Conclusions: The present study identified the expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs during vvIBDV infection and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of IBDV and antiviral immunity of the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07129-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574500PMC
October 2020

Shorter recovery times and better cognitive function-A comparative pilot study of magnetic seizure therapy and electroconvulsive therapy in patients with depressive episodes.

Brain Behav 2020 12 17;10(12):e01900. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a new convulsive therapy that is as effective as traditional electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating depression but with fewer cognitive side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and cognitive effects between MST (100 Hz applied over the vertex) and bifrontal ECT for treating patients with depressive episodes.

Methods: Forty-five patients with depressive episodes were enrolled, with 18 receiving MST and 27 receiving ECT. MST was administered over the vertex with 100 Hz frequency. Treatment consisted of six sessions. The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) was used to assess the severity of depression. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was used to assess cognition. Assessments were performed at baseline and after the third and sixth treatment sessions.

Results: Both MST and ECT improved the patients' depressive symptoms significantly, yet no significant difference was found between the two groups (p > .05). The response rates and remission rates of MST and ECT were 72.2% versus 81.5% and 61.1% versus 63.0%, respectively. The MST group showed significant improvements in immediate memory (p < .001), delayed memory (p = .002), and attention (p < .001) than ECT. The recovery times for consciousness (p < .001), spontaneous breathing (p < .001), and orientation (p < .001) were shorter in MST group than ECT group. RBANS improvements were negatively correlated with the recovery time for orientation (r = .561, p < .001).

Conclusion: Magnetic seizure therapy showed similar efficacy to bifrontal ECT for treating depressive episodes. While MST may be an effective alternative to ECT, larger randomized trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749607PMC
December 2020

Stevioside inhibits unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced kidney fibrosis and upregulates renal PPARγ expression in mice.

J Food Biochem 2020 12 12;44(12):e13520. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

This study aimed to examine the inhibitory effect of stevioside on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced kidney fibrosis. The UUO mice were daily given 50-100 mg/kg stevioside by gavage for 14 days after the operation. The results showed that stevioside decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and renal hydroxyproline, severity of kidney fibrosis, and expressions of renal collagen I/III and α-smooth muscle actin proteins. Importantly, stevioside increased the expressions of renal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and Smad7 proteins and level of renal glutathione peroxidase, decreased the expressions of renal nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), p-STAT3, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad2/3, and p-Smad2/3 proteins, suggesting that the antifibrotic mechanisms are related to the activation of PPARγ and subsequent downregulations of NF-κB-mediated STAT3 and TGF-β1 expressions and inhibition of Smad-mediated signaling pathway. These findings provide an applied perspective of stevioside for kidney fibrosis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Stevioside is widely used in food products as a sweetener, and it has many beneficial biological effects, including antidiabetes, antihypertension, and renal protective action. Here, we provide a novel potential application of stevioside in the prevention and treatment of kidney fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13520DOI Listing
December 2020

Matrix Metallopeptidase 14: A Candidate Prognostic Biomarker for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2020 20;10:1520. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Hematology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14) is an important gene in the regulation of T-cell function. However, the correlation between MMP14 expression, prognosis, and immune cell infiltration in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unclear.

Methods: We investigated the influence of MMP14 on clinical prognosis using data obtained from three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database sets (GSE98588, GSE10846, and GSE4475). The expression of MMP14 was analyzed using the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The correlation between MMP14 and immune cell infiltration was investigated using the Cell-type Identification By Estimating Relative Subsets Of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT) and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) tools. In addition, the correlation between MMP14 expression and immune gene markers was analyzed by TIMER and GEPIA.

Results: MMP14 expression positively correlated with favorable progression-free survival (PFS; GSE98588, = 0.02) and overall survival (OS; GSE98588, = 0.003; GSE10846, = 5.517e-05; and GSE4475, = 9.85e-04). Moreover, MMP14 expression was higher in DLBCL tumors than in normal tissues. Regarding clinical characteristics, high MMP14 expression was found to be correlated with race. MMP14 expression was also correlated with immune cell infiltration and had a remarkable correlation with various immune marker sets. It was found that M0 macrophages were the immune cells most related to survival, decreasing with the increase in Ann Arbor clinical stage. The results especially showed that MMP14 was a prognostic biomarker and related to the macrophages M0.

Conclusion: The results suggest that MMP14 is a novel prognostic molecular marker for DLBCL and is related to the immune cell infiltration, especially related to the macrophages M0. Our study provides insights for understanding the potential roles of MMP14 in tumor immunology and its suitability as a prognosis biomarker in DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473157PMC
August 2020

Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus-induced immune injury is involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokines imbalance in the bursa of fabricius.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jan 6;114:103839. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, PR China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, PR China. Electronic address:

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) can cause a highly contagious disease in young chickens, resulting in bursal necrosis that causes severe damage to the immune system. The effects of various IBDV strains on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) have been extensively studied; however, few studies have investigated the effects of IBDV strain LJ-5, a newly discovered very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV), infection on young chicken BF. In this study, three-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were infected with vvIBDV for one to five days. LJ-5 decreased the bursa index, B lymphocyte viability and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, including IgM and IgA in the bursa and IgY in the sera. Histopathological analysis revealed necrosis and depletion of the lymphoid cells and complete loss of bursal architecture in the BF, and transmission electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial vacuoles, cristae breaks, and nuclear damage in vvIBDV-infected bursa tissue. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive nuclei significantly increased following IBDV infection. Cytokine levels increased in the bursa after IBDV infection, promoting inflammation and causing an inflammatory imbalance. Apoptotic gene expression confirmed that vvIBDV infection promotes the apoptosis of bursal cells. These results suggest that vvIBDV infection attenuate immune responses by reducing B lymphocyte activity of secretion Ig in the bursa or sera and triggers inflammation, apoptosis, and an imbalance of inflammatory cytokines in the BF, resulting in immune injury in SPF chickens, which offered basic data for further study of vvIBDV pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103839DOI Listing
January 2021

High mobility group box 2 regulates skeletal muscle development through ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1.

FASEB J 2020 09 20;34(9):12367-12378. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

HMGB2, a DNA-binding protein, highly expresses during embryogenesis and plays an important role in development of some organs and tissues. However, it remains to be further investigated weather HMGB2 influences muscle development. In this work, we identified HMGB2 as an essential factor in myogenesis. Compared to wild type (WT) mice, body weights of systemic hmgb2 homozygous knockout (hmgb2 ) mice especially males were reduced. Diameter and cross-section area of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle fibers as well as expression of Myogenin and MyHC were all decreased in hmgb2 mice. CTX injury model revealed that HMGB2 was required for satellite cell proliferation and muscle regeneration. Moreover, HMGB2 interacted with S6K1 and regulated the kinase activity of S6K1 during cell proliferation. Knockdown and inactivation of S6K1 in C2C12 cells both resulted in impaired proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, expression of cyclin D1 and Myf5 were both decreased when HMGB2 or S6K1 were knocked down and kinase activity of S6K1 was inhibited. These results indicate that HMGB2 is required for skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and HMGB2 maintains proliferation of myoblasts through regulating kinase activity of S6K1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001183RDOI Listing
September 2020

Diagnosis of chronic stage of hypertensive retinopathy based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 07 3;22(7):1247-1252. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Hypertensive retinopathy refers to the retinal vascular changes associated with systemic arterial hypertension. Hypertensive retinopathy can be divided into chronic and acute phases. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore a method of measurement in the diameters of retinal vessels for diagnosis of chronic hypertensive retinopathy based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The central retinal artery diameter (CRAD), the central retinal vein diameter (CRVD), and the artery-to-vein ratio (AVR) were measured. A total of 119 subjects with 119 eyes were included in this study, in which 56 subjects with 56 eyes were included in hypertensive group and 63 subjects with 63 eyes were included in normotensive group. There were significant differences between the two groups in the CRAD (t = -2.14, P = .04) and the AVR (t = -2.59, P = .01). The cutoff point of 0.75 was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (area under the curve, AUC 0.786; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.70-0.87). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the probability of AVR below to 0.75 was more in patients with high systolic blood pressure (odds ratio OR 4.39; P = .048), more in male (OR 4.15; P = .004) and more in smokers (OR 5.80; P = .01). Bland-Altman plots showed small mean bias between the measurements of the two technicians in the CRAD, the CRVD, and the AVR. In summary, application of SD-OCT is an accurate, reproducible, convenient method for measuring the diameters of retinal vessels. It is valuable for the diagnosis of chronic stage of hypertensive retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496937PMC
July 2020

Anticoagulant-active sulfated arabinogalactan from Chaetomorpha linum: Structural characterization and action on coagulation factors.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Aug 23;242:116394. Epub 2020 May 23.

Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Glycoscience and Glycotechnology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

A sulfated polysaccharide from the green alga Chaetomorpha linum, designated CLS4, was isolated by water extraction, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses demonstrated that CLS4 was a sulfated arabinogalactan, which was constituted by (1→6)-β-d-galactopyranose and (1→5)-α-l-arabinofuranose residues with sulfate groups at C-2/ C-3 of (1→5)-α-l-arabinofuranose and C-2/C-4 of (1→6)-β-d-galactopyranose. CLS4 possessed strong anticoagulant activity in vitro or in vivo as evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays. CLS4 largely inhibited the activities of the coagulation factors XII, XI, IX and VIII. CLS4 was a potent thrombin inhibitor mediated by antithrombin III (ATIII) or heparin cofactor II, and it also effectively stimulated the factor Xa inhibition by potentiating ATIII. Moreover, CLS4 had a high thrombolytic activity in vitro as assessed by clot lytic rate assay. The results suggested that CLS4 could be a promising source of anticoagulant agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116394DOI Listing
August 2020

Epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of Torque teno sus virus.

Vet Microbiol 2020 May 6;244:108668. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Institute of Immunology and College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Single stranded (ss) DNA viruses are increasingly being discovered due to the ongoing development of modern technologies in exploring the virosphere. Characterized by high rates of recombination and nucleotide substitutions, it could be comparable to RNA virus ones. Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a standard ssDNA virus with a high population diversity, whose evolution is still obscure, further, it is frequently found in co-infections with other viruses threatening the porcine industry and therefore share the same host and epidemiological context. Here, we implement and describe approach to integrate viral nucleotide sequence analysis, surveillance data, and a structural approach to examine the evolution of TTSuVs, we collected samples from pigs displaying respiratory signs in China and revealed a high prevalence of TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2, frequently as part of co-infections with porcine circoviruses (PCVs), especially in spleen and lung. In addition, thirty six strains sequenced were obtained to investigate their genetic diversity in China. The evolutionary history of TTSuVs were unveiled as following: At the nucleotide sequence level, TTSuVs ORF1 was confirmed to be a robust phylogenetic maker to study evolution comparably to full genomes. Additionally, extensive recombination discovered within TTSuVk2a (also 5 out of the 36 sequenced strains in this study revealed to be recombination). Then, pairwise distance, phylogenetic trees, and amino acid analysis confirmed TTSuVs species, and allowed to define circulating genotypes (TTSuV1a-1, 1a-2, 1b-1, 1b-2, 1b-3, and k2a-1, k2a-2, k2b). Selection analysis uncovered seven and six positive selected sites in TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2, respectively. At the protein structure level, mapping of sites onto the three-dimensional structure revealed that several positive selected sites locate into potential epitopes, which might related to the potential escaping from host immune response. Our result could assist future studies on swine ssDNA virus classification, surveillance and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108668DOI Listing
May 2020

Risk factors for subretinal fibrosis after anti-VEGF treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularisation.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 01 11;105(1):103-108. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China

Purpose: To assess the incidence, clinical features and predictive risk factors of subretinal fibrosis after treatment of active myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

Methods: This post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial included a total of 54 patients with active mCNV. The clinical data at baseline, month 3 and month 12 were used. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography at month 3 were used to determine the presence of subretinal fibrosis after anti-VEGF therapy, and its incidence was calculated. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Visual Function Questionnaire-25 score, macular integrity index (MI) and their changes were compared between eyes with and without subretinal fibrosis. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the risk factors of subretinal fibrosis.

Results: Subretinal fibrosis occurred in 22 of 54 eyes with mCNV. Patients with subretinal fibrosis achieved similar BCVA improvement in comparison with those without fibrosis at 3 and 12 months after the treatment; however, they had lower visual acuity, more subfoveal CNV (p=0.002), higher CNV thickness at baseline (p=0.016), larger CNV size (p=0.030), larger leakage area (p=0.021) and higher presence of advanced myopic maculopathy (p=0.035). Age <45 years, BCVA <60 ETDRS letters, and MI index <20 at baseline were the predictors for subretinal fibrosis occurrence in a logistic regression model.

Conclusions: The incidence of subretinal fibrosis after anti-VEGF therapy was 40.7% in eyes with mCNV. Age, baseline BCVA and MI index could serve as predictive risk factors of subretinal fibrosis after anti-VEGF treatment in patients with mCNV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-315763DOI Listing
January 2021

Inhibition of IRF4 in dendritic cells by PRR-independent and -dependent signals inhibit Th2 and promote Th17 responses.

Elife 2020 02 4;9. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, United States.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is involved in many biological processes but little is known regarding its role in shaping immunity. Here we show that cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling (a pattern recognition receptor [PRR]-independent mechanism) regulates conventional type-2 Dendritic Cells (cDC2s) in mice and reprograms their Th17-inducing properties via repression of IRF4 and KLF4, transcription factors essential for cDC2-mediated Th2 induction. In mice, genetic loss of IRF4 phenocopies the effects of cAMP on Th17 induction and restoration of IRF4 prevents the cAMP effect. Moreover, curdlan, a PRR-dependent microbial product, activates CREB and represses IRF4 and KLF4, resulting in a pro-Th17 phenotype of cDC2s. These in vitro and in vivo results define a novel signaling pathway by which cDC2s display plasticity and provide a new molecular basis for the classification of novel cDC2 and cDC17 subsets. The findings also reveal that repressing IRF4 and KLF4 pathway can be harnessed for immuno-regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.49416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000221PMC
February 2020

Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Upper Gastric Cancer Patients in China: A 32-Year Single-Center Retrospective Clinical Study.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2019 1;2019:9248394. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Surgical Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, 155 Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, China.

Purpose: Upper or proximal gastric cancer occurs in the upper third of the stomach between the cardia and a line connecting the greater and lesser curvatures. As it differs from other gastric cancers in pathology and prognosis, we evaluated patient and disease characteristics that might guide improved treatment and survival of upper gastric cancer.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 649 patients with upper gastric cancer and 1551 patients with lower gastric cancer and R0 radical surgery at our institution between January 1980 and December 2012.

Results: Survival after radical surgery for upper gastric cancer was 77.8% at 1 year, 49.6% at 3 years, and 41.1% at 5 years. The corresponding rates for lower gastric cancer were 85.9%, 60.0%, and 57.2% ( < 0.001). Upper gastric cancer had a poor prognosis. Sex ( = 0.036), tumor diameter ( = 0.001), macroscopic type ( < 0.001), pTM stage ( < 0.001), tissue differentiation type ( = 0.003), and serosal invasion ( = 0.034) were independently associated with lymph node metastasis. The macroscopic type ( = 0.045), lymphovascular tumor emboli ( = 0.021), and pTNM stage were independently associated with recurrence and metastasis. Survival of 333 patients with D2 total gastrectomy was 81.3% at 1 year, 54.4% at 3 years, and 45.2% at 5 years. The corresponding rates for 316 proximal gastrectomy patients were 75.4%, 44.9%, and 36.7%. Radical total gastrectomy had better survival than radical proximal resection.

Conclusions: Upper gastric cancers were more aggressive, had a worse prognosis, and were more prone to recurrence and metastasis compared with lower gastric cancers. Survival was better after total gastrectomy than after proximal resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9248394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914896PMC
December 2019

MLL1 promotes myogenesis by epigenetically regulating Myf5.

Cell Prolif 2020 Feb 15;53(2):e12744. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Objectives: Mixed lineage leukaemia protein-1 (MLL1) mediates histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation (me3) and plays vital roles during early embryonic development and hematopoiesis. In our previous study, we found its expression was positively correlated with embryonic myogenic ability in pigs, indicating its potential roles in mammalian muscle development. The present work aimed to explore the roles and regulation mechanisms of MLL1 in myogenesis.

Materials And Methods: The expression of MLL1 in C2C12 cells was experimentally manipulated using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, cell cycle assay, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to assess myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was conducted to detect H3K4me3 enrichment on myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) promoter. A cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated muscle regeneration model was used to investigate the effects of MLL1 on myogenesis in vivo.

Results: MLL1 was highly expressed in proliferating C2C12 cells, and expression decreased after differentiation. Knocking down MLL1 suppressed myoblast proliferation and impaired myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of MLL1 resulted in the arrest of cell cycle in G1 phase, with decreased expressions of Myf5 and Cyclin D1. Mechanically, MLL1 transcriptionally regulated Myf5 by mediating H3K4me3 on its promoter. In vivo data implied that MLL1 was required for Pax7-positive satellite cell proliferation and muscle repair.

Conclusion: MLL1 facilitates proliferation of myoblasts and Pax7-positive satellite cells by epigenetically regulating Myf5 via mediating H3K4me3 on its promoter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046306PMC
February 2020

Recent advances in dielectrophoresis-based cell viability assessment.

Electrophoresis 2020 06 12;41(10-11):917-932. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Department of Marine Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, P. R. China.

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a non-destructive, accurate, and label-free cell manipulating technique and DEP applications have been found in various fields. Assessment of cell viability is one of the important applications and many investigations have been reported. In this paper, cell polarization and its modeling, some key parameters employed for living/dead cell separation, as well as electrode configurations are reviewed. Focus is given to the latest development of DEP devices employed for the assessment of cell viability. Experimentally determined factors for separating living/dead cells, such as the conductivity of suspending medium and the frequency of applied electric field, are summarized. The future directions and potential challenges in this field are also outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201900340DOI Listing
June 2020