Publications by authors named "Junya Kawauchi"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[The Role of Pharmacists in Home Medical Care of Patients with Heart Failure].

Yakugaku Zasshi 2020 ;140(7):869-875

Medical Corporation Junyuukai Wata Clinic.

In recent years, home medical care has been strongly promoted. As a consequence, the conditions managed in home medical care have become increasingly diverse. Heart failure is one of the most common disorders after malignant diseases. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are often forced into hospitalization because of the inability to control symptoms with oral medications, even though they hope to stay at home. Recently, we have experienced a case where the patient required continuous administration of dobutamine at home. In order to carry out CHF care at home successfully, it is necessary to adjust the doses of catecholamine and furosemide swiftly in response to changes in patients' conditions. In this case, the patient was able to spend four months at home thanks to the cooperation of a team of a physician, nurses, and pharmacists. Catecholamine-dependent patients with terminal CHF require expensive medical infusion pumps for precise administration. However, the economic assistance to such patients remains insufficient. Furthermore, dobutamine and furosemide injections are not dispensed extramurally, and therefore might become an impediment to the cooperation of the team. In this symposium, I consider and discuss the role of pharmacists in a home medical care team for patients with terminal CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.19-00237-4DOI Listing
September 2020

The stress response gene ATF3 is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inhibits the invasion and migration of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells.

PLoS One 2018 2;13(7):e0194160. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis and the progression of human colorectal cancers, and mutations in the components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are observed in the majority of patients. Therefore, extensive studies on the Wnt signaling pathway and its target genes are crucial to understand the molecular events of tumorigenesis and develop an efficacious therapy. In this study, we showed that the stress response gene ATF3 is transcriptionally activated by the binding of β-catenin and TCF4 to the redundant TCF4 site at the proximal promoter region of the ATF3 gene, indicating that ATF3 is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The loss of function or overexpression studies showed that ATF3 inhibited the migration or invasion of HCT116 cells. The expression of some MMP and TIMP genes and the ratio of MMP2/9 to TIMP3/4 mRNAs was differentially regulated by ATF3. Therefore, though ATF3 is activated downstream of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, it acts as a negative regulator of the migration and invasion of HCT116 human colon cancer cells exhibiting aberrant Wnt/β-catenin activity. ATF3 is a candidate biomarker and target for human colorectal cancer treatment and prevention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194160PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6028230PMC
December 2018

Role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced sensitization of p53-deficient human colon cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis through up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) by zerumbone and celecoxib.

J Biol Chem 2014 Aug 17;289(31):21544-61. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

From the Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan,

Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a death domain-containing transmembrane receptor that triggers cell death upon binding to its ligand, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and a combination of TRAIL and agents that increase the expression of DR5 is expected to be a novel anticancer therapy. In this report, we demonstrate that the stress response gene ATF3 is required for endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated DR5 induction upon zerumbone (ZER) and celecoxib (CCB) in human p53-deficient colorectal cancer cells. Both agents activated PERK-eIF2α kinases and induced the expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein, which were remarkably suppressed by reactive oxygen species scavengers. In the absence of ATF3, the induction of DR5 mRNA and protein was abrogated significantly, and this was associated with reduced cell death by cotreatment of TRAIL with ZER or CCB. By contrast, exogenous expression of ATF3 caused a more rapid and elevated expression of DR5, resulting in enhanced sensitivity to apoptotic cell death by TRAIL/ZER or TRAIL/CCB. A reporter assay demonstrated that at least two ATF/cAMP response element motifs as well as C/EBP homologous protein motif at the proximal region of the human DR5 gene promoter were required for ZER-induced DR5 gene transcription. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the role of ATF3 as an essential transcription factor for p53-independent DR5 induction upon both ZER and CCB treatment, and this may be a useful biomarker for TRAIL-based anticancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.558890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4118115PMC
August 2014

Transcriptional properties of mammalian elongin A and its role in stress response.

J Biol Chem 2013 Aug 3;288(34):24302-15. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

Elongin A was shown previously to be capable of potently activating the rate of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation in vitro by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme at many sites along DNA templates. The role of Elongin A in RNAPII transcription in mammalian cells, however, has not been clearly established. In this report, we investigate the function of Elongin A in RNAPII transcription. We present evidence that Elongin A associates with the IIO form of RNAPII at sites of newly transcribed RNA and is relocated to dotlike domains distinct from those containing RNAPII when cells are treated with the kinase inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole. Significantly, Elongin A is required for maximal induction of transcription of the stress response genes ATF3 and p21 in response to several stimuli. Evidence from structure-function studies argues that Elongin A transcription elongation activity, but not its ubiquitination activity, is most important for its function in induction of transcription of ATF3 and p21. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the function of Elongin A in RNAPII transcription and bring to light a previously unrecognized role for Elongin A in the regulation of stress response genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.496703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3750133PMC
August 2013

Transcriptional elongation factor elongin A regulates retinoic acid-induced gene expression during neuronal differentiation.

Cell Rep 2012 Nov 1;2(5):1129-36. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

Department of Functional Genomics, Kochi Medical School, Kohasu, Oko-cho, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan.

Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A(-/-)) embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A(-/-) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A(-/-) ESCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2012.09.031DOI Listing
November 2012

Systems analysis of ATF3 in stress response and cancer reveals opposing effects on pro-apoptotic genes in p53 pathway.

PLoS One 2011 26;6(10):e26848. Epub 2011 Oct 26.

Laboratory of Genome Structure and Regulation, School of Biomedical Science and Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Stress-inducible transcription factors play a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to environment to maintain homeostasis and integrity of the genome. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced by a variety of stress and inflammatory conditions and is over-expressed in many kinds of cancer cells. However, molecular mechanisms underlying pleiotropic functions of ATF3 have remained elusive. Here we employed systems analysis to identify genome-wide targets of ATF3 that is either induced by an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or over-expressed in a prostate tumour cell line LNCaP. We show that stress-induced and cancer-associated ATF3 is recruited to 5,984 and 1,423 targets, respectively, in the human genome, 89% of which are common. Notably, ATF3 targets are highly enriched for not only ATF/CRE motifs but also binding sites of several other stress-inducible transcription factors indicating an extensive network of stress response factors in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Further analysis of effects of ATF3 knockdown on these targets revealed that stress-induced ATF3 regulates genes in metabolic pathways, cell cycle, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and signalling including insulin, p53, Wnt, and VEGF pathways. Cancer-associated ATF3 is involved in regulation of distinct sets of genes in processes such as calcium signalling, Wnt, p53 and diabetes pathways. Notably, stress-induced ATF3 binds to 40% of p53 targets and activates pro-apoptotic genes such as TNFRSF10B/DR5 and BBC3/PUMA. Cancer-associated ATF3, by contrast, represses these pro-apoptotic genes in addition to CDKN1A/p21. Taken together, our data reveal an extensive network of stress-inducible transcription factors and demonstrate that ATF3 has opposing, cell context-dependent effects on p53 target genes in DNA damage response and cancer development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0026848PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3202577PMC
March 2012

Co-transcriptional RNA cleavage provides a failsafe termination mechanism for yeast RNA polymerase I.

Nucleic Acids Res 2011 Mar 23;39(4):1439-48. Epub 2010 Oct 23.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK.

Ribosomal RNA, transcribed by RNA polymerase (Pol) I, accounts for most cellular RNA. Since Pol I transcribes rDNA repeats with high processivity and polymerase density, transcription termination is a critical process. Early in vitro studies proposed polymerase pausing by Reb1 and transcript release at the T-rich element T1 determined transcription termination. However recent in vivo studies revealed a 'torpedo' mechanism for Pol I termination: co-transcriptional RNA cleavage by Rnt1 provides an entry site for the 5'-3' exonuclease Rat1 that degrades Pol I-associated transcripts destabilizing the transcription complex. Significantly Rnt1 inactivation in vivo reveals a second co-transcriptional RNA cleavage event at T1 which provides Pol I with an alternative termination pathway. An intact Reb1-binding site is also required for Rnt1-independent termination. Consequently our results reconcile the original Reb1-mediated termination pathway as part of a failsafe mechanism for this essential transcription process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkq894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045592PMC
March 2011

Fail-safe transcriptional termination for protein-coding genes in S. cerevisiae.

Mol Cell 2009 Oct;36(1):88-98

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK.

Transcription termination of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on protein-coding genes in S. cerevisiae relies on pA site recognition by 3' end processing factors. Here we demonstrate the existence of two alternative termination mechanisms that rescue polymerases failing to disengage from the template at pA sites. One of these fail-safe mechanisms is mediated by the NRD complex, similar to termination of short noncoding genes. The other termination mechanism is mediated by Rnt1 cleavage of the nascent transcript. Both fail-safe termination mechanisms trigger degradation of readthrough transcripts by the exosome. However, Rnt1-mediated termination can also enhance the usage of weak pA signals and thereby generate functional mRNA. We propose that these alternative Pol II termination pathways serve the dual function of avoiding transcription interference and promoting rapid removal of aberrant transcripts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2009.07.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779338PMC
October 2009

Budding yeast RNA polymerases I and II employ parallel mechanisms of transcriptional termination.

Genes Dev 2008 Apr;22(8):1082-92

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom.

Both RNA polymerase I and II (Pol I and Pol II) in budding yeast employ a functionally homologous "torpedo-like" mechanism to promote transcriptional termination. For two well-defined Pol II-transcribed genes, CYC1 and PMA1, we demonstrate that both Rat1p exonuclease and Sen1p helicase are required for efficient termination by promoting degradation of the nascent transcript associated with Pol II, following mRNA 3' end processing. Similarly, Pol I termination relies on prior Rnt1p cleavage at the 3' end of the pre-rRNA 35S transcript. This is followed by the combined actions of Rat1p and Sen1p to degrade the Pol I-associated nascent transcript that consequently promote termination in the downstream rDNA spacer sequence. Our data suggest that the previously defined in vitro Pol I termination mechanism involving the action of the Reb1p DNA-binding factor to "road-block" Pol I transcription close to the termination region may have overlooked more complex in vivo molecular processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.463408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2335328PMC
April 2008

RNA polymerase I in yeast transcribes dynamic nucleosomal rDNA.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2007 Feb 28;14(2):123-30. Epub 2007 Jan 28.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK.

RNA polymerase (Pol) I-transcribed ribosomal genes of budding yeast exist as a tandem array (about 150 repeats) with transcription units separated by spacer sequences. Half of these rDNAs are inactivated by repressive chromatin structure, whereas the rest exist in an open conformation transcribed by closely spaced Pol I elongation complexes. Whereas previous studies have suggested that active rDNA is devoid of nucleosomal structure, we demonstrate that active rDNA has nucleosomal structure, according to chromatin immunoprecipitation and biochemical fractionation. Using a yeast strain with reduced numbers of all actively transcribed rDNA repeats, we show that rDNA exists in a dynamic chromatin structure of unphased nucleosomes. Furthermore, it is associated with chromatin-remodeling enzymes Chd1p, Isw1p and Isw2p, whose inactivation causes defects in transcription termination. We suggest that Pol I transcription, like that of Pol II, may be modulated by specific chromatin structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nsmb1199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941936PMC
February 2007

Stress response gene ATF3 is a target of c-myc in serum-induced cell proliferation.

EMBO J 2005 Jul 30;24(14):2590-601. Epub 2005 Jun 30.

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute and Laboratory of Genome Structure and Regulation, School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The c-myc proto-oncogene encodes a transcription factor that promotes cell cycle progression and cell proliferation, and its deficiency results in severely retarded proliferation rates. The ATF3 stress response gene encodes a transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate under stress conditions. Its biological significance in the control of cell proliferation and its crosstalk regulation, however, are not well understood. Here, we report that the serum response of the ATF3 gene expression depends on c-myc gene and that the c-Myc complex at ATF/CREB site of the gene promoter plays a role in mediating the serum response. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of ATF3 promotes proliferation of c-myc-deficient cells, mostly by alleviating the impeded G1-phase progression observed in these cells, whereas ATF3 knockdown significantly suppresses proliferation of wild-type cells. Our study demonstrates that ATF3 is downstream of the c-Myc signaling pathway and plays a role in mediating the cell proliferation function of c-Myc. Our results provide a novel insight into the functional link of the stress response gene ATF3 and the proto-oncogene c-myc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7600742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1176468PMC
July 2005

Critical role of cyclin D1 nuclear import in cardiomyocyte proliferation.

Circ Res 2003 Jan;92(1):e12-9

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Mammalian cardiomyocytes irreversibly lose their capacity to proliferate soon after birth, yet the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. Cyclin D1 and its partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), are important for promoting the G1-to-S phase progression via phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Mitogenic stimulation induces hypertrophic cell growth and upregulates expression of cyclin D1 in postmitotic cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we show that, in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, D-type cyclins and CDK4 were predominantly cytoplasmic, whereas Rb remained in an underphosphorylated state. Ectopically expressed cyclin D1 localized in the nucleus of fetal but not neonatal cardiomyocytes. To target cyclin D1 to the nucleus efficiently, we constructed a variant of cyclin D1 (D1NLS), which directly linked to nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Coinfection of recombinant adenoviruses expressing D1NLS and CDK4 induced Rb phosphorylation and CDK2 kinase activity. Furthermore, D1NLS/CDK4 was sufficient to promote the reentry into the cell cycle, leading to cell division. The number of cardiomyocytes coinfected with these viruses increased 3-fold 5 days after infection. Finally, D1NLS/CDK4 promoted cell cycle reentry of cardiomyocytes in adult hearts injected with these viruses, evaluated by the expression of Ki-67, which is expressed in proliferating cells in all phases of the cell cycle, and BrdU incorporation. Thus, postmitotic cardiomyocytes have the potential to proliferate provided that cyclin D1/CDK4 accumulate in the nucleus, and the prevention of their nuclear import plays a critical role as a physical barrier to prevent cardiomyocyte proliferation. Our results provide new insights into the development of therapeutics strategies to induce regeneration of cardiomyocytes. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.res.0000049105.15329.1cDOI Listing
January 2003

ATF3 inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes: a novel cardioprotective role of ATF3.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2002 Oct;34(10):1387-97

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.

Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3, a member of the ATF/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors, is induced by a wide range of stress stimuli. Although the ATF3 homodimer is known to repress transcription of several genes, its precise biological roles are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in doxorubicin (DOX=adriamycin)-treated neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. DOX rapidly activated JNK and c-Jun and induced ATF3 at both mRNA and protein level. Adenovirus-mediated expression of ATF3 protected cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry, cell viability, and TUNEL assay. It was further shown that p53, one of the apoptosis-inducing transcription factors, was downregulated in the ATF3-overexpressing cardiomyocytes. These results strongly suggest that ATF3 may function as a cytoprotective transcription factor in DOX-treated cardiac myocytes, at least in part, owing to downregulation of p53. ATF3 may be a novel therapeutic target that protects cardiac myocytes from DOX-induced apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmcc.2002.2091DOI Listing
October 2002

Transcriptional activation of the human stress-inducible transcriptional repressor ATF3 gene promoter by p53.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Oct;297(5):1302-10

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, 113-8510, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is an immediate early response gene that is induced in cells exposed to a variety of stress stimuli. In this report, upon exposure of cells to ultraviolet (UV) or proteasome inhibitor MG132, ATF3 protein was induced more efficiently in cells with intact p53 allele than in those with null mutant p53 allele. In Saos-2 cells harboring the temperature-sensitive mutant p53(Val-138), the expression of ATF3 gene was more significant at permissive temperature of 32.5 degrees C than at non-permissive 37.5 degrees C. Reporter assay of the human ATF3 gene promoter identified two p53-responsive elements at -379 to -370 and -351 to -342 from the transcriptional start site. These elements were capable of conferring p53 responsiveness to a heterologous promoter and specifically bound p53 protein in electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Furthermore, ATF3 gene promoter was more significantly activated by UV in cells with wild p53 allele. These results clearly show that the human ATF3 gene is one of the target genes directly activated by p53 and may suggest a functional link between stress-inducible transcriptional repressor ATF3 and p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(02)02382-3DOI Listing
October 2002

Expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 causes hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in culture: a possible implication for cardiac hypertrophy.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Aug;296(2):274-80

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Differentiated cardiomyocytes have little capacity to proliferate and show the hypertrophic growth in response to alpha1-adrenergic stimuli via the Ras/MEK pathway. In this study, we investigated a role of cyclin D1 and CDK4, a positive regulator of cell cycle, in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. D-type cyclins including cyclin D1 were induced in cells stimulated by phenylephrine. This induction was inhibited by MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the dominant negative RasN17, but mimicked by expression of the constitutive active Ras61L. Over-expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 using adenovirus gene transfer caused the hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by an increase of the cell size as well as the amount of cellular protein and its rate of synthesis. However, the cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase activity was not up-regulated in cells treated by hypertrophic stimuli or in cells over-expressing the cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, a CDK inhibitor, p16, did not inhibit the hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. These results clearly indicated that cyclin D1 and CDK4 have a role in hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes through a novel mechanism(s) which appears not to be related to its activity required for cell cycle progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(02)00854-9DOI Listing
August 2002

Transcriptional repressor activating transcription factor 3 protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of p53 transcription.

J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 2;277(41):39025-34. Epub 2002 Aug 2.

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a transcriptional repressor that is rapidly induced in cells exposed to a wide range of stress stimuli. To clarify the role of ATF3 in determining cell fate, we overexpressed it in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. ATF3 protected these cells from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced apoptosis, as measured by flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion assay, and cleavage of procaspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Northern blot and nuclear run on assay showed that the transcription of tumor suppressor gene p53 was down-regulated in the ATF3-overexpressing cells. In the transient expression assay, ATF3 suppressed the p53 gene promoter activity through its specific binding to an atypical AP-1 element, PF-1 site, in the p53 gene promoter. Furthermore, the cell-protecting effect of ATF3 was remarkably reduced in p53-deficient cells. These results demonstrate that overexpression of ATF3 suppresses TNF-alpha-induced cell death of HUVECs, at least in part, through down-regulating the transcription of p53 gene. ATF3 may function as a cell survival factor of endothelial cells during vascular inflammation and atherogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M202974200DOI Listing
October 2002

An alternatively spliced isoform of transcriptional repressor ATF3 and its induction by stress stimuli.

Nucleic Acids Res 2002 Jun;30(11):2398-406

Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute and Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and its expression is increased by various pathophysiological conditions and in several cancer cells. In this study, we describe two alternatively spliced ATF3DeltaZip mRNAs: ATF3DeltaZip2a and ATF3DeltaZip2b. Both variants encoded the same truncated protein of 135 amino acids, which lacked the leucine zipper domain and was incapable of binding to the ATF/CRE motif. The ATF3DeltaZip2 protein was shown to be localized in the nuclei and counteracted the transcriptional repression by the full-length ATF3. Western blot analysis showed that ATF3DeltaZip2 was expressed in cells exposed to A23187. Further study showed that, similar to the full-length ATF3, the expression of ATF3DeltaZip2 was induced by a wide range of stress stimuli. However, its expression was not detectable in cancer cells that constitutively over-expressed ATF3. Taken together, our results suggest that ATF3DeltaZip2, a protein derived from alternatively spliced mRNAs, is induced by various stress signals and may modulate the activity of the full-length ATF3 protein during stress response.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC117192PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/30.11.2398DOI Listing
June 2002