Publications by authors named "Junrui Cheng"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biomanufacturing of Small Molecules in the Mammalian Gut by Probiotic .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, United States.

is a probiotic yeast that exhibits rapid growth at 37 °C, is easy to transform, and can produce therapeutic proteins in the gut. To establish its ability to produce small molecules encoded by multigene pathways, we measured the amount and variance in protein expression enabled by promoters, terminators, selective markers, and copy number control elements. We next demonstrated efficient (>95%) CRISPR-mediated genome editing in this strain, allowing us to probe engineered gene expression across different genomic sites. We leveraged these strategies to assemble pathways enabling a wide range of vitamin precursor (β-carotene) and drug (violacein) titers. We found that colonizes germ-free mice stably for over 30 days and competes for niche space with commensal microbes, exhibiting short (1-2 day) gut residence times in conventional and antibiotic-treated mice. Using these tools, we enabled β-carotene synthesis (194 μg total) in the germ-free mouse gut over 14 days, estimating that the total mass of additional β-carotene recovered in feces was 56-fold higher than the β-carotene present in the initial probiotic dose. This work quantifies heterologous small molecule production titers by living in the mammalian gut and provides a set of tools for modulating these titers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00562DOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple roles of Ca in the interaction of ciprofloxacin with activated sludge: Spectroscopic investigations of extracellular polymeric substances.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 7;751:142246. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Calcium ion is an important cation influencing the binding of recalcitrant organic contaminants with activated sludge during wastewater treatment process, but there is still unknown about its role in amphoteric fluoroquinolones binding. Binding experiments show that Ca markedly inhibited binding of ciprofloxacin (CIP) onto sludge, causing 7-203 times of CIP release. Multi-spectroscopic examinations indicate that tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like proteins in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were dominant components for CIP binding by static quenching and forming CIP-proteins complexes. Addition of Ca into EPS and CIP binding systems induced increase of association constants (from 0.024-0.064 to 0.027-0.084 L/μmol) and binding constants (from 0.002-0.039 to 0.012-0.107) and decrease of binding sites number (from 0.893-2.007 to 0.721-1.386). Functional groups of EPS and secondary structure of proteins were remarkably changed upon reactions with CIP and Ca. Calcium ion interacted with EPS and CIP binding system in two distinct ways: Ca shielded CO in amide I in EPS for CIP binding, whereas strengthened binding between CIP and functional groups including CO in carboxyl groups in extra-microcolony polymers and OH in extra-cellular polymers by forming ternary complexes. Cation competition for CO in amide I is responsible for Ca induced CIP release from the sludge. Results suggest the highly potential release of CIP from high saline wastewater and cation-conditioned sludge which needs further monitoring and evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142246DOI Listing
January 2021

The Promising Effects of Astaxanthin on Lung Diseases.

Adv Nutr 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA.

Astaxanthin (ASX) is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that it is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, whereas other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and asthma are of high prevalence. In the past decade, mounting evidence has suggested a protective role for ASX against lung diseases. This article reviews the potential role of ASX in protecting against lung diseases, including lung cancer. It also summarizes the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ASX protects against pulmonary diseases, including regulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor/heme oxygenase-1 pathway, NF-κB signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 signaling, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, and modulating immune response. Several future directions are proposed in this review. However, most in vitro and in vivo studies have used ASX at concentrations that are not achievable by humans. Also, no clinical trials have been conducted and/or reported. Thus, preclinical studies with ASX treatment within physiological concentrations as well as human studies are required to examine the health benefits of ASX with respect to lung diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa143DOI Listing
November 2020

Modeling the sources and retention of phosphorus nutrient in a coastal river system in China using SWAT.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jan 1;278(Pt 2):111556. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang, 315211, China. Electronic address:

The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for exploring the sources and retention dynamics of phosphorus nutrient in the river system of the Yong River Basin, China. The performance of the SWAT model was assessed. The retention dynamics of phosphorus nutrient in the river continuum and the factors contributing to those patterns were studied. The results showed that an average of 1828 tons of TP entered the river network of the Yong River Basin annually and in-stream processes trapped 1161 tons yr of TP in the watercourse, which accounted for 63.5% of the annual TP inputs. The TP retention rates in the river network ranged from 3.08 to 63.43 mg m day. An average of 666.9 tons of TP was delivered from the estuary to the East China Sea annually. The unit area riverine exports of TP ranged from 102.21 to 244.00 kg km yr. The river network is a net sink for TP and is going through a phosphorus accumulation phase. The results confirm that the river system has a considerable phosphorus retention capacity that is highly variable on a spatiotemporal scale. Because of the cumulative effect of continued phosphorus removal along the entire flow path, the retention fractions of phosphorus removed from all streams at the basin scale is considerably higher than that of an individual river portion. The variations of hydrological regimes, water surface area, unit area inputs of phosphorus, and the concentrations of suspended sediments have a great influence on phosphorus retention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111556DOI Listing
January 2021

The Role of Diet, Eating Behavior, and Nutrition Intervention in Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychol 2020 4;11:1451. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Affiliated Wuhan Mental Health Center, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a biological and mood disorder with a seasonal pattern. Dietary intervention and nutritional status have been reported to affect SAD severity. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of associations between SAD and diet, eating behavior, and nutrition intervention. We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception up to July 1, 2019. Studies that examined diet and eating behaviors in SAD patients and tests of nutrition interventions for SAD were included. Two independent investigators extracted data based on study designs, participants, outcomes, exposures, and association measures. Eleven studies were included: six studies examined distinctive dietary patterns and eating behaviors in SAD patients and five studies explored the efficacy of nutrition interventions for SAD. Vegetarianism and alcoholism were associated with higher SAD prevalence, but normal alcohol intake was not correlated with SAD severity. Compared with non-clinical subjects, SAD patients tended to consume significantly larger dinners and more evening snacks during weekdays and weekends and exhibit a higher frequency of binge eating, external eating, and emotional eating. Additionally, compared to healthy controls, SAD patients presented more cravings for starch-rich food and food with high fiber. However, neither the ingestion of carbohydrate-loaded meals nor Vitamin D/B12 supplementation showed benefit for SAD. Studies suggest that SAD patients may exhibit distinctive diet preferences and eating behaviors, but no current nutrition intervention has demonstrated efficacy for ameliorating SAD symptoms. Further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and longer durations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438823PMC
August 2020

Lycopene Protects against Smoking-Induced Lung Cancer by Inducing Base Excision Repair.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jul 21;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, 600 Laureate Way, Room 3204, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA.

Background: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in lung cancer progression. Carotenoids are efficient antioxidants. The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and carotenoids in cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress within A549 human lung cancer epithelial cells.

Methods: A549 cells were pretreated with 1-nM, 10-nM, 100-nM, 1-μM and 10-μM ATRA, β-carotene (BC) and lycopene for 24 h, followed by exposure to cigarette smoke using a smoking chamber.

Results: The OxyBlot analysis showed that smoking significantly increased oxidative stress, which was inhibited by lycopene at 1 nM and 10 nM ( < 0.05). In the cells exposed to smoke, lycopene increased 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) expression at 1 nM, 10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 μM ( < 0.05), but not at 10 μM. Lycopene at lower doses also improved Nei like DNA glycosylases (NEIL1, NEIL2, NEIL3), and connexin-43 (Cx43) protein levels ( < 0.05). Interestingly, lycopene at lower concentrations promoted OGG1 expression within the cells exposed to smoke to an even greater extent than the cells not exposed to smoke ( < 0.01). This may be attributed to the increased SR-B1 mRNA levels with cigarette smoke exposure ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Lycopene treatment at a lower dosage could inhibit smoke-induced oxidative stress and promote genome stability. These novel findings will shed light on the molecular mechanism of lycopene action against lung cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402151PMC
July 2020

A Novel Botanical Combination Attenuates Light-Induced Retinal Damage through Antioxidant and Prosurvival Mechanisms.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 13;2020:7676818. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Nutrilite Health Institute, 720 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

The prevalence of light-induced eye fatigue is increasing globally. Efficient regimen for mitigating light-induced retinal damage is becoming a compelling need for modern society. We investigated the effects of a novel combination of lutein ester, zeaxanthin, chrysanthemum, goji berry, and black currant extracts against retinal damage. In the current work, both and light-induced retinal damage models were employed. Animal study showed that under strong light exposure (15000 lx for 2 hours), the -wave and -wave from electroretinogram were significantly decreased. Treatment with the combination significantly restored the decrease for -wave under high- and low-stimulus intensity. Histological analysis reported a substantial decrease in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in the model group, while the supplementation with the combination significantly improved the ONL thickness. To further explore the underlying mechanism of the protective effects, we utilized ARPE-19 retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found that strong light stimulation (2900 lx for 30 minutes) significantly increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and decreased HIF expression. Intriguingly, chrysanthemum, black currant extracts, lutein ester, and zeaxanthin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, while chrysanthemum, goji berry, black currant extracts, and lutein ester restored HIF expression. The botanical combination can alleviate light-induced retina damage, potentially through antioxidant and prosurvival mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7676818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097764PMC
December 2020

The combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan protects against chronic superficial gastritis and alters gut microbiota: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Jun 22;59(4):1655-1666. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Nutrilite Health Institute, Amway R&D Center, 720 Cailun Road, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Purpose: Chronic gastritis is observed in almost half world population. Traditional medications against chronic gastritis might produce adverse effects, so alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the aggravation of gastric mucosal damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of the combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan (WPF) on adults diagnosed with chronic superficial gastritis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Methods: Participants were randomized to receive WPF (N = 53) or placebo (N = 53) once daily for 45 days. Pathological grading of gastric mucosal damage was scored using gastroscopy. Fecal samples were collected for the determination of calprotectin, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) levels and metagenomics analysis. Questionnaires for self-reported gastrointestinal discomforts, life quality and food frequency were collected throughout the study.

Results: WPF intervention reduced gastric mucosal damage in 70% subjects (P < 0.001). Significantly less stomach pain (P < 0.001), belching (P = 0.028), bloating (P < 0.001), acid reflux (P < 0.001), loss of appetite (P = 0.021), increased food intake (P = 0.020), and promoted life quality (P = 0.014) were reported in the WPF group. WPF intervention significantly decreased fecal calprotectin level (P = 0.003) while slightly increased fecal SCFAs level (P = 0.092). In addition, we found altered microbiota composition post-intervention with increased Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (P = 0.032), Eubacterium siraeum (P = 0.036), Bacteroides intestinalis (P = 0.024) and decreased Prevotella copri (P = 0.055).

Conclusions: WPF intervention could be utilized as a nutritional alternative to mitigate the progression of chronic gastritis. Furthermore, WPF played an important role in altering gut microbial profile and SCFA production, which might benefit the lower gastrointestinal tract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02020-6DOI Listing
June 2020

Interaction of ciprofloxacin with the activated sludge of the sewage treatment plant.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 16;25(35):35064-35073. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Faculty of Architectural, Civil Engineering and Environment, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.

Interaction of ciprofloxacin with the activated sludge of the sewage treatment plant is of importance for the ciprofloxacin migration and risk control. More than 96.0% ciprofloxacin was removed through the sludge adsorption. The sludge surface charge varied little with ciprofloxacin since most ciprofloxacin was dissociated into the neutral one. No obvious shift was observed for the soluble carbohydrate concentration and composition with the addition of ciprofloxacin, indicating the weak interaction between the carbohydrates and ciprofloxacin. The introduction of ciprofloxacin resulted in a reduction of the soluble protein concentration, a marked increase of the extracellular protein fluorescence intensities, and a dramatic emergence of new extracellular proteins. The alteration of the proteins highlights the strong interaction between the extracellular proteins and ciprofloxacin, and the consequent integration of certain soluble proteins and original unextractable inner layer extracellular proteins into the extractable extracellular proteins. Different types of interactions are suggested to dominate between the extracellular proteins and the differently dissociated ciprofloxacin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3413-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid inhibits cancer cell migration and angiogenesis and induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ.

J Nutr Biochem 2018 06 31;56:26-34. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Nutrition and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:

Scope: We have previously shown that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid (ALA), a derivative of lycopene through cleavage by carotene-9',10'-oxygenase, inhibits tumor progression and metastasis in both liver and lung cancer animal models. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that ALA inhibits cancer cell motility and angiogenesis by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) which is involved in controlling angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis.

Methods And Results: ALA treatment, in dose-dependent manner, was effective at inhibiting migration and invasion of liver and lung cancer cells (HuH7 and A549) in both Transwell and wound-healing models, as well as suppressing actin remodeling and ruffling/lamellipodia formation in HuH7 and immortalized lung BEAS-2B cells. ALA treatment resulted in suppression of angiogenesis in both tube formation and aortic ring assays and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activation in both HuH7 and A549 cells. Additionally, ALA dose-dependently increased the mRNA expression and protein levels of PPARγ in human THLE-2 liver cells.

Conclusion: ALA inhibits cancer cell motility and angiogenesis and induces PPARγ expression, which could be one of the potential mechanisms for ALA protecting against tumor progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.01.003DOI Listing
June 2018

Impacts of land-use on surface waters at the watershed scale in southeastern China: Insight from fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and PARAFAC.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 2;627:647-657. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

The Belle W. Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, Georgetown, 29440, USA; School of Agricultural, Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson 29634, USA.

In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened its efforts in surface water protection and restoration through strict policies and heavy investments. A clear understanding of the impacts of land use on water quality is necessary in order to ensure an effective and efficient implementation of the ongoing surface water restoration program in China. To this end, four small watersheds (less than 5000 ha) in southeastern China, which have clear gradients in the intensities of agriculture (17.0-45.4%), forest (35.2-73.6%) and built-up area (3.3-8.5%), were investigated regarding the impacts of land use on water quality. In addition to the general water quality indices, characteristic components derived by fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were employed to explore a more accurate association between land use and water quality. The results show that agricultural intensity has significant effects by elevating the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, an approximate six-fold increase) and total phosphorous (TP, an approximate four-fold increase) in the surface waters. A total of five PARAFAC components representing terrestrial (three components) and protein-like (two components) substances were identified. The PARAFAC results indicate that land-use patterns affected the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the aspects of both amount and composition. The intensity (R.U.) of the terrestrial components showed a strong correlation (r = 0.95, p = 0.01) with agricultural land percentage. Moreover, although the proportion of built-up area varies with a relatively small range, a protein-like component could predict its impact with excellent sensitivity (r = 0.94, p = 0.02), whereas the general water quality indices were incapable of predicting the impact due to their multiple sources. The results of this study demonstrate that the FEEMs-PARAFAC technique provides an inexpensive and effective tool for policy makers to overcome the insensitivity of general water quality indices, particularly for the restoration of watersheds with complex land-use patterns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.279DOI Listing
June 2018

Tomato Powder Inhibits Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation Potentially Through Restoring SIRT1 Activity and Adiponectin Function Independent of Carotenoid Cleavage Enzymes in Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 04 22;62(8):e1700738. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Nutrition and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA-Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Scope: Beta-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) and beta-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) metabolize lycopene to biologically active metabolites, which can ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigate the effects of tomato powder (TP containing substantial lycopene (2.3 mg/g)) on NAFLD development and gut microbiome in the absence of both BCO1 and BCO2 in mice.

Method And Results: BCO1 /BCO2 double knockout mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone (n = 9) or with TP feeding (n = 9) for 24 weeks. TP feeding significantly reduced pathological severity of steatosis and hepatic triglyceride levels in BCO1 /BCO2 mice (p < 0.04 vs HFD alone). This was associated with increased SIRT1 activity, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase expression and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and subsequently decreased lipogenesis, hepatic fatty acid uptake, and increasing fatty acid β-oxidation (p < 0.05). TP feeding significantly decreased mRNA expression of proinflammatory genes (tnf-α, il-1β, and il-6) in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue, which were associated with increased plasma adiponectin and hepatic adiponectin receptor-2. Multiplexed 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed using DNA extracted from cecum fecal samples. TP feeding increased microbial richness and decreased relative abundance of the genus Clostridium.

Conclusion: Dietary TP can inhibit NAFLD independent of carotenoid cleavage enzymes, potentially through increasing SIRT1 activity and adiponectin production and decreasing Clostridium abundance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700738DOI Listing
April 2018

Ablation of systemic SIRT1 activity promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by affecting liver-mesenteric adipose tissue fatty acid mobilization.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2017 11 5;1863(11):2783-2790. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Nutrition and Cancer Biology Lab, JM USDA-HNRCA at Tufts University, USA; Friedman School of Nutrition and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been reported to protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. The mechanism of how SIRT1 deacetylase activity affects NAFLD has not been well investigated. The current investigation addressed the causal effect of systemic SIRT1 activity on NAFLD development and the underlying mechanism involved in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). Both SIRT1 homozygous mice ablated the catalytic activity (sirt1) and their corresponding wild type littermates (WT) were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 60% calories from fat) for 34weeks. Sirt1 mice showed significantly higher level of hepatic triglyceride which was accompanied with higher levels of SREBP-1 and SCD1and decreased phosphorylation of LKB1 and AMPK in the liver. Compared with WT mice, mRNA expression of lipogenic genes (lxrα, srebp-1c, scd1 and fas) in the MAT increased significantly in sirt1 mice. Fatty acid oxidation biomarkers (acox1, acox3, cpt, ucp1, sirt3) in both liver and MAT were comparable between groups. Interestingly, we observed that in sirt1 mice, the mRNA level of hormone sensitive lipase (hsl), adipose triglyceride lipase (atgl) and perilipin-2 (plin-2), all involved in lipolysis, significantly increased in MAT, but not in epididymal adipose tissue. These changes positively correlated with circulating free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and higher hepatic mRNA expression of cd36 for FFA uptake. The present study has provided novel evidence to suggest that under HFD-induced metabolic surplus, the lack of SIRT1 catalytic activity promotes release of FFA from MAT and escalate NAFLD by interfering with lipid homeostasis in both liver and MAT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.08.004DOI Listing
November 2017