Publications by authors named "Junlei Zhang"

41 Publications

A clinically acceptable strategy for sensitizing anti-PD-1 treatment by hypoxia relief.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 2;335:408-419. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

The hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) hinders the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Alleviating tumor hypoxia to improve the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represented by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody has become a meaningful strategy. In this study, we adopted three methods to alleviate hypoxia, including direct oxygen delivery using two different carriers and an indirect way involving HIF-1α inhibition. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that liposomes modified with perfluorocarbon or hemoglobin ([email protected] or [email protected]) were able to efficiently load and release oxygen, relieving tumor hypoxia. However, the gas release behavior of [email protected] was uncontrollable, which might induce acute hyperoxia side effects during intravenous injection and reduce its biosafety. In contrast, whether administered locally or systemically, [email protected] revealed high animal tolerance, and was much safer than commercial HIF-1α inhibitor (PX-478), displaying prospects as a promising oxygen carrier for clinical practice. Pharmacodynamic experiments suggested that [email protected] helped PD-1 antibody break the therapeutic bottleneck and significantly inhibited the progression of 4 T1 breast cancer. But in CT26 colon cancer, the combination therapy failed to suppress tumor growth. After in-depth analysis and comparison, we found that the ratio of M1/M2 tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) between these two tumor models were dramatically different. And the lower M1/M2 ratio in CT26 tumors limited the anti-tumor effect of combination therapy. In this study, three methods for alleviating tumor hypoxia were compared from the perspectives of biosafety, efficacy and clinical applicability. Among them, [email protected] stood out, and its combined use with PD-1 antibody exhibit a distinct synergistic suppression effect on tumors with more M1 macrophages presented in the microenvironment. Our work provided a good reference for improving the efficacy of PD-1 antibody by alleviating tumor hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.06.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Cocktail strategy for 'cold' tumors therapy via active recruitment of CD8+ T cells and enhancing their function.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 6;334:413-426. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

In immunotherapy, 'cold' tumors, with low T cells infiltration, hardly benefit from the treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). To address this issue, we screened two 'cold' tumor models for mice with high expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) and designed a cocktail strategy to actively recruit CD8+ T cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME), which reversed 'cold' tumors into 'hot' and remarkably elevated their ICIs-responsiveness. Gal-3, an important driving force of tumorigenesis, inhibits T cell infiltration into tumor tissue that shapes 'cold' tumor phenotype, and promotes tumor metastasis. In this respect, Gal-3 antagonist G3-C12 peptide was chosen and further loaded into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres, with the prepared [email protected] playing a dual role of antitumor, namely, killing two birds with one stone. Specifically, [email protected] actively recruit T cells into 'cold' tumors by rescuing IFN-γ, and simultaneously inhibit tumor metastasis induced by Gal-3. Moreover, when combined with chemotherapeutic agent (Oxaliplatin) and anti-PD-1 peptide (APP), the immunopotentiating effect of dendritic cells (DCs) was extremely improved, with T-cell depletion dramatically reversed. In vivo experiments showed that such cocktail therapy exerted remarkable antitumor effect on 'cold' breast cancer (BC) and ovarian serous cancer (OSC). These results indicated that our strategy might be promising in treating 'cold' tumors with high expression of Gal-3, which not only enhance cancer treatment outcome, but provide a new platform for the prevention of postoperative tumor recurrence/metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Expression levels and activation status of Yap splicing isoforms determine self-renewal and differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells.

Stem Cells 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Laboratory of Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Army Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Yap is the key effector of Hippo signaling; however, its role in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains controversial. Here, we identify two Yap splicing isoforms (Yap472 and Yap488), which show equal expression levels but heterogeneous distribution in ESCs. Knockout (KO) of both isoforms reduces ESC self-renewal, accelerates pluripotency exit but arrests terminal differentiation, while overexpression of each isoform leads to the reverse phenotype. The effect of both Yap isoforms on self-renewal is Teads-dependent and mediated by c-Myc. Nonetheless, different isoforms are found to affect overlapping yet distinct genes, and confer different developmental potential to Yap-KO cells, with Yap472 exerting a more pronounced biological effect and being more essential for neuroectoderm differentiation. Constitutive activation of Yaps, particularly Yap472, dramatically upregulates p53 and Cdx2, inducing trophectoderm trans-differentiation even under self-renewal conditions. These findings reveal the combined roles of different Yap splicing isoforms and mechanisms in regulating self-renewal efficiency and differentiation potential of ESCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3389DOI Listing
May 2021

Fate mapping analysis reveals a novel murine dermal migratory Langerhans-like cell population.

Elife 2021 Mar 26;10. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Nanyang Technological University, School of Biological Sciences, Singapore, Singapore.

Dendritic cells residing in the skin represent a large family of antigen-presenting cells, ranging from long-lived Langerhans cells (LC) in the epidermis to various distinct classical dendritic cell subsets in the dermis. Through genetic fate mapping analysis and single-cell RNA-sequencing, we have identified a novel separate population of LC-independent CD207CD326 LC cells in the dermis that homed at a slow rate to the lymph nodes (LNs). These LC cells are long-lived and radio-resistant but, unlike LCs, they are gradually replenished by bone marrow-derived precursors under steady state. LC cells together with cDC1s are the main migratory CD207CD326 cell fractions present in the LN and not, as currently assumed, LCs, which are barely detectable, if at all. Cutaneous tolerance to haptens depends on LC cells, whereas LCs suppress effector CD8 T-cell functions and inflammation locally in the skin during contact hypersensitivity. These findings bring new insights into the dynamism of cutaneous dendritic cells and their function opening novel avenues in the development of treatments to cure inflammatory skin disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.65412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110305PMC
March 2021

Enhanced immune memory through a constant photothermal-metabolism regulation for cancer prevention and treatment.

Biomaterials 2021 03 19;270:120678. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Tumor vaccine inducing effective and perdurable antitumor immunity has a great potential for cancer prevention and therapy. The key indicator for a successful tumor vaccine is boosting the immune system to produce more memory T cells. Although many tumor vaccines have been designed, few of them involve in actively regulating immune memory CD8+T cells. Here a tumor vaccine vector ([email protected]) by encapsulating tumor antigen (TA), metformin (Met) and Hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was presented. TA via the treatment of photothermal therapy (PTT) showed high immunogenicity and immune-adjuvant effectiveness. And NIR light-mediated photothermal effect can lead to a pulsed-release behavior of TA and Met from the microspheres. The released TA can regulate primary T cell expansion and contraction, and stimulate the production of effector T cells at the early immunization stage. The metabolic behavior of the cells is then intervened from glycolysis into fatty acids oxidation (FAO) through the activation of AMPK mediated by Met, which can enhance T cell survival and facilitate the differentiation of memory CD8+T cells. This study may present a valuable insight to design tumor vaccine for enhanced cancer prevention and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120678DOI Listing
March 2021

A Vaccination with Boosted Cross Presentation by ER-Targeted Antigen Delivery for Anti-Tumor Immunotherapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 04 27;10(8):e2001934. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, 310058, P. R. China.

Vaccination is a widely-accepted resort against the invasion or proliferation of bacteria, parasites, viruses, and even cancer, which accounts heavily on an active involvement of CD8 T cells. As one of the pivotal strategies taken by dendritic cells (DCs) to promote the responsiveness of CD8 T cells to exogenous antigens, cross presentation culminates in an elevated overall host defense against cancer or infection. However, the precise mechanisms regulating such a process remains elusive, and current attempts to fuel cross presentation usually fail to exert efficiency. Here, model antigen OVA-loaded, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting cationic liposome ([email protected]) is developed and characterized with a booster effect on the activation and maturation of DCs. Moreover, [email protected] pulsed DCs exhibit overwhelming superiority in triggering cytotoxic T lymphocyte response both in vivo and in vitro. Data reveal that lipoT alters the intracellular trafficking and presenting pathway of antigen, which promotes cross presentation and bears close relationship to the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These results may drop a hint about the interconnectivity between cross presentation and ER-targeted antigen delivery, provide extra information to the understanding of ERAD-mediated cross priming, and even shed new light on the design and optimization of vaccines against currently intractable cancers or virus-infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001934DOI Listing
April 2021

Characterization of Pathogenicity-Associated V2 Protein of Tobacco Curly Shoot Virus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 18;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Disease Biology, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.

V2 proteins encoded by some whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses were reported to be functionally important proteins. However, the functions of the V2 protein of tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV), a monopartite begomovirus that causes leaf curl disease on tomato and tobacco in China, remains to be characterized. In our report, an infiltration-mediated transient expression assay indicated that TbCSV V2 can suppress local and systemic RNA silencing and the deletion analyses demonstrated that the amino acid region 1-92 of V2, including the five predicted α-helices, are required for local RNA silencing suppression. Site-directed substitutions showed that the conserved basic and ring-structured amino acids in TbCSV V2 are critical for its suppressor activity. Potato virus X-mediated heteroexpression of TbCSV V2 in induced hypersensitive response-like (HR-like) cell death and systemic necrosis in a manner independent of V2's suppressor activity. Furthermore, TbCSV infectious clone mutant with untranslated V2 protein (TbCSV) could not induce visual symptoms, and coinfection with betasatellite (TbCSB) could obviously elevate the viral accumulation and symptom development. Interestingly, symptom recovery occurred at 15 days postinoculation (dpi) and onward in TbCSV/TbCSB-inoculated plants. The presented work contributes to understanding the RNA silencing suppression activity of TbCSV V2 and extends our knowledge of the multifunctional role of begomovirus-encoded V2 proteins during viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831499PMC
January 2021

Identification of novel Taz isoforms and functional comparison in pluripotency maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cells.

Gene 2021 Mar 29;773:145383. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Laboratory of Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China. Electronic address:

Alternative splicing (AS) is a key process to expand the diversity of mRNA and protein from the genome and it is crucial for fate determination of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by encoding isoforms with different functions to regulate the balance between pluripotency maintenance and differentiation. Since the role of the Hippo pathway in ESCs is controversial, there may be novel isoforms of Taz, a key effector of the Hippo pathway, previously unknown to us. Here, we identified three variants of Taz in mESCs. Apart from the canonical Taz1185, there were also two novel variants, Taz402 and Taz1086. We found their structure and subcellular localization to be different, while they could all interact with TEAD2 with similar binding affinities and activate transcription. Under the LIF condition, overexpression of them all induced apoptosis and differentiation of mESCs, among which the phenotype of Taz1086 was the most dramatic. Taken together, we discovered novel variants of Taz and compared their structure and functional differences in mESC pluripotency maintenance. These findings will help us to understand the Taz gene and clarify its role in mESC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145383DOI Listing
March 2021

Surface dual redox cycles of Mn(III)/Mn(IV) and Cu(I)/Cu(II) for heterogeneous peroxymonosulfate activation to degrade diclofenac: Performance, mechanism and toxicity assessment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 18;410:124623. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, PR China. Electronic address:

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on heterogeneous catalytic activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) have been becoming alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment technologies to directly degrade chemical contaminants. To build dual/multi redox cycles of different metal ions may be an effective means for better PMS activation. Herein, this study designed MnO/CuBiO with dual redox cycles of Mn(III)/Mn(IV) and Cu(I)/Cu(II) to activate PMS for efficiently decomposing and mineralizing diclofenac sodium (DCF). Under optimal reaction conditions, DCF (50 mg/L) was degraded totally within 10 min, and TOC removal rate reached up to 74.3%. The possible mechanism of PMS activation by MnO/CuBiO was proposed, wherein dual redox cycles of Mn(III)/Mn(IV) and Cu(I)/Cu(II) on MnO/CuBiO effectively facilitated PMS activation to generate ·O, O, SO· and ·OH, which was responsible for DCF degradation. Moreover, combined with degraded products detected by high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and corresponding toxic assessment results, the possible degradation pathways of DCF were proposed and the relative toxicity of degraded products was evaluated. This work may be useful for developing stronger heterogeneous activators of PMS to construct more efficient AOPs for purifying wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124623DOI Listing
May 2021

Perdurable PD-1 blockage awakes anti-tumor immunity suppressed by precise chemotherapy.

J Control Release 2021 Jan 20;329:1023-1036. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

The application of nanocarriers as drug delivery system for chemotherapeutic drugs has become a research hotspot in cancer treatment. Chemotherapy with high tumor-targeting accuracy and drug release specificity is the key to improve the efficacy of tumor chemotherapy and reduce the side effects caused by repeated doses drugs. Here, we synthesized a redox-sensitive nano-micelle formed by hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugated with d-α-tocopherol succinate (TOS) using a disulfide bond as the linker (HA-SS-TOS, HSST), which could actively accumulate to the tumor sites and metastasis cancer cells with high expression of CD44. The micelles could dissociate under the high GSH level in cancer cells, triggering a release of paclitaxel (PTX). Surprisingly, the precise chemotherapy instead induced a suppressive tendency of immune system, manifested by a significant increase in TGF-β, which weakened the therapeutic effect of micelles. Moreover, the high levels of TGF-β might be related to the increased drug-resistance of cancer cells. Research has shown that PD-1 pathway blockade can result in reduction in TGF-β expression, thus, a PLGA microsphere encapsulating PD-1 antagonist peptides A12 ([email protected]) was further prepared to activate the host immune response. Our data indicated that PTX-loaded HSST could accurately "find" the tumors as well as metastasis cancer cells, and efficiently kill most of them. The joining of a durable PD-1 blockage significantly boosted the efficacy of [email protected] on multiple tumor models, including lung metastatic tumors and even multidrug-resistant tumors. Thus, our work presented an optimal chemo-immunotherapy combined system, which shows profound significance for future cancer therapy in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.031DOI Listing
January 2021

Novel alternative splicing variants of Klf4 display different capacities for self-renewal and pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 11 31;532(3):377-384. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Laboratory of Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are unique in their ability to self-renew indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. Krüppel-like factor (Klf) 4 is an important member of the Klf family that is known to play a key role in pluripotency and somatic cell reprogramming. However, the identification and functional comparison of Klf4 splicing isoforms in mouse ESCs (mESCs) remains to be elucidated. Here, we identified three novel alternative splicing variants of Klf4 in mESCs-mKlf4-108, mKlf4-375 and mKlf4-1482-that are distinct from the previously known mKlf4-1449. mKlf4-1449 and mKlf4-1482 may stimulate the growth of ESCs, while mKlf4-108 can only promote the growth of ESCs in LIF/serum conditions. In addition, both mKlf4-1449 and mKlf4-1482 can inhibit the differentiation of mESCs. However, the ability of mKlf4-1482 to promote self-renewal and inhibit differentiation is not as strong as that of mKlf4-1449. In contrast, both mKlf4-108 and mKlf4-375 may have the ability to induce endodermal differentiation. Taken together, we have identified for the first time the existence of alternative splicing variants of mKlf4 and have revealed their different roles, which provide new insights into the contribution of Klf4 to the self-renewal and pluripotency of mouse ESCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.08.054DOI Listing
November 2020

Targeting DNA to the endoplasmic reticulum efficiently enhances gene delivery and therapy.

Nanoscale 2020 Sep 28;12(35):18249-18262. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, P. R. China.

Gene therapy mediated by non-viral carriers is gaining an increasing popularity due to its high biosafety and the convenience of production on a large scale, yet inefficient gene delivery is a limiting obstacle. Few gene vectors can avoid the endosome-lysosome route, and as a result, their DNA payloads are easily decomposed during transfection. Herein, a peptide (pardaxin, PAR)-modified cationic liposome (PAR-Lipo) targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was developed for improving the gene delivery efficiency. Interestingly, compared to non-PAR-modified cationic liposomes (Non-Lipos) and Lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo 2000, a commercial genetic vector), PAR-Lipos showed remarkably higher gene delivery efficiency in vitro and better antitumor efficacy in vivo. It was demonstrated that PAR-Lipos could be accumulated into the ER via a non-lysosome intracellular route after cellular internalization, which induced the retention of the DNA payload in the ER close to the nucleus, while Non-Lipos, like most conventional cationic carriers, mainly presented lysosomal retention after their endocytosis. The unique intracellular transport behavior of PAR-Lipos can enhance the protection of the DNA payload, prolong their residence time in the cell, and promote their entry into the nucleus relying on the intimate relationship between the ER and nuclear membrane, which is the explanation for the enhanced gene-therapy effect mediated by PAR-Lipos. Our research may provide alternative means of efficiently delivering genes in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr03156aDOI Listing
September 2020

ABHD11 Is Critical for Embryonic Stem Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Lipid Metabolic Homeostasis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 7;8:570. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Growing evidence supports the notion that lipid metabolism is critical for embryonic stem cell (ESC) maintenance. Recently, α/β-hydrolase domain-containing (ABHD) proteins have emerged as novel pivotal regulators in lipid synthesis or degradation while their functions in ESCs have not been investigated. In this study, we revealed the role of ABHD11 in ESC function using classical loss and gain of function experiments. Knockout of hampered ESC expansion and differentiation, triggering the autophagic flux and apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression exerted anti-apoptotic effects in ESCs. Moreover, knockout disturbed GSK3β/β-Catenin and ERK signaling transduction. Finally, knockout led to the misexpression of key metabolic enzymes related to lipid synthesis, glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism, and ABHD11 contributed to the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. These findings provide new insights into the broad role of ABHD proteins and highlight the significance of regulators of lipid metabolism in the control of stem cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358615PMC
July 2020

Appropriate Delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 System through the Nonlysosomal Route: Application for Therapeutic Gene Editing.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Jul 13;7(14):1903381. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310058 P. R. China.

The development of gene delivery has attracted increasing attention, especially when the introduction and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system appears promising for gene therapy. However, ensuring biosafety and high gene editing efficiency at the same time poses a great challenge for its in vivo applications. Herein, a pardaxin peptide (PAR)-modified cationic liposome (PAR-Lipo) is developed. The results are indicative that significantly enhanced gene editing efficiency can be obtained through the mediation of PAR-Lipos compared to non-Lipos (non-PAR-modified liposomes) and Lipofectamine 2000, owing to its protection toward carried nucleotide by the prevention of lysosomal capture, prolongation of retention time in cells through the accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and more importantly, facilitation of the nuclear access via an ER-nucleus route. Accumulation of PAR-Lipos in the ER may improve the binding of Cas9 and sgRNA, thus further contributing to the eventually enhanced gene editing efficiency. Given their high biosafety, PAR-Lipos are used to mediate the knockout of the oncogene CDC6 in vivo, which results in significant tumor growth inhibition. This work may provide a useful reference for enhancing the delivery of gene editing systems, thus improving the potential for their future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201903381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375254PMC
July 2020

Virus-like Nonvirus Cationic Liposome for Efficient Gene Delivery via Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathway.

ACS Cent Sci 2020 Feb 11;6(2):174-188. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, P. R. China.

Gene vectors play a critical role in gene therapy. To achieve efficient transfection, we developed a novel nonvirus cationic liposome (Lipo-Par), which was bound covalently with the cationic polypeptide pardaxin (Par). Interestingly, the Lipo-Pars exhibited highly enhanced gene transfection efficiency in various cell lines compared to that of the non-Par-bonded liposomes (Lipo-Nons). As a result, the internalization and intracellular transport mechanisms of the Lipo-Pars were investigated, and the findings indicated their ability to actively target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by moving along the cell cytoskeleton after undergoing caveolin-mediated endocytosis. This intracellular transport process is similar to that of some viruses. It was also found that ER stress and calcium level disturbances can affect the Lipo-Par-mediated expression of certain exogenous genes. A possible, yet non-negligible explanation for the high transfection efficiency of the Lipo-Par is its virus-like intracellular behavior and the intimate relationship between the ER membrane and the nuclear envelope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.9b01052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047280PMC
February 2020

Identification and functional comparison of Bcl2 splicing isoforms in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 04 31;524(2):502-509. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an ideal model for investigating developmental processes and are great sources for developing regenerative medicine. Harnessing apoptosis facilitates accurate recapitulation of signalling events during embryogenesis and allows efficient expansion of the ESCs during differentiation. Bcl2, a key regulator of intrinsic anti-apoptotic pathway, encodes two splicing isoforms. However, the identification and functional comparison of Bcl2 splicing isoforms in mouse ESCs (mESCs) remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide the evidence that both Bcl2 splicing variants are expressed in mESCs. Despite the structural difference, they have similar subcellular localisation. Both Bcl2α and Bcl2β enhance differentiation efficiency of the ESCs and effectively improve the survival and growth of ESCs under serum-free conditions. However, the functional effect of Bcl2α was more potent than that of Bcl2β. Moreover, only Bcl2α could maintain the long-term expansion and pluripotency of ESCs cultured in serum-free medium. Taken together, our results demonstrate previously unknown functional differences in Bcl2 alternative splicing isoforms in ESCs, and lay the foundation for future efforts to engineer ESCs for regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.01.140DOI Listing
April 2020

Extremely Effective Chemoradiotherapy by Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death and Radio-Triggered Drug Release under Hypoxia Alleviation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Dec 3;11(50):46536-46547. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Zhejiang University , 866 Yuhangtang Road , Hangzhou , Zhejiang 310058 , P. R. China.

Local hypoxia in solid malignancies often results in resistance to radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT), which may be one of the main reasons for their failure in clinical application. Especially, oxygen is an essential element for enhancing DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Here, two biomimetic oxygen delivery systems were designed by encapsulating hemoglobin (Hb) alone into a liposome (Hb-Lipo) or co-encapsulating Hb and doxorubicin (DOX) into a liposome (DOX-Hb-Lipo). Our data indicated that both Hb-Lipo and DOX-Hb-Lipo could effectively alleviate hypoxia in tumors. We demonstrated that RT plus tumor-targeting delivery of oxygen mediated by Hb-Lipo could significantly overcome the tolerance of hypoxic cancer cells to RT, showing significantly enhanced cancer-cell killing and tumor growth inhibition ability, mainly attributing to hypoxia alleviation and increased reactive oxygen species production under RT in cancer cells. Furthermore, a melanoma model that was quite insensitive to both RT and CT was used to test the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy combined with hypoxia alleviation. RT plus Hb-Lipo only caused a limited increase in antitumor activity. However, extremely strong tumor inhibition could be obtained by RT combined with DOX-Hb-Lipo-mediated CT, attributed to radio-triggered DOX release and enhanced immunogenic cell death induced by RT under an oxygen supplement. Our study provided a valuable reference for overcoming hypoxia-induced radioresistance and a useful therapeutic strategy for cancers that are extremely insensitive to chemo- or radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b16837DOI Listing
December 2019

Highly efficient decomposition of ammonia using high-entropy alloy catalysts.

Nat Commun 2019 Sep 5;10(1):4011. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

Ammonia represents a promising liquid fuel for hydrogen storage, but its large-scale application is limited by the need for precious metal ruthenium (Ru) as catalyst. Here we report on highly efficient ammonia decomposition using novel high-entropy alloy (HEA) catalysts made of earth abundant elements. Quinary CoMoFeNiCu nanoparticles are synthesized in a single solid-solution phase with robust control over the Co/Mo atomic ratio, including those ratios considered to be immiscible according to the Co-Mo bimetallic phase diagram. These HEA nanoparticles demonstrate substantially enhanced catalytic activity and stability for ammonia decomposition, with improvement factors achieving >20 versus Ru catalysts. Catalytic activity of HEA nanoparticles is robustly tunable by varying the Co/Mo ratio, allowing for the optimization of surface property to maximize the reactivity under different reaction conditions. Our work highlights the great potential of HEAs for catalyzing chemical transformation and energy conversion reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11848-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728353PMC
September 2019

In situ construction of WO nanoparticles decorated BiMoO microspheres for boosting photocatalytic degradation of refractory pollutants.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Nov 22;556:335-344. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Institute of Eco-Chongming (IEC), Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:

Visible-light-driven (VLD) heterojunction photocatalysts for refractory contaminant degradation have aroused huge interest because of their outstanding photocatalytic performance. From the aspect of practical application, it is important to develop a highly efficient, durable, eco-friendly and inexpensive VLD photocatalyst. Herein, we report a novel VLD WO/BiMoO heterojunction photocatalyst with remarkable photocatalytic activity, which was fabricated via an electrospinning-calcination-solvothermal route. The phase, composition, morphologies, and optical properties of WO/BiMoO heterojunctions were comprehensively characterized. The photocatalytic performance of WO/BiMoO heterojunctions was assessed by the removal of rhodamine (RhB) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) under visible light (VL). WO/BiMoO heterojunctions displayed superior photocatalytic activities compared to BiMoO, WO, or the mechanical mixture of WO and BiMoO. In particular, the heterojunction material (0.4WB, theoretical molar ratio of WO/BiMoO is 0.4/1.0) exhibited the best degradation efficiency (100%) and mineralization rate (52.3%) in 90 min, both of which exceeded the observed rates for BiMoO by 5.3 and 6.4 times, respectively. Moreover, 0.4WB showed a good durability in eight runs. The optimized photocatalytic property of WO/BiMoO can be attributed to enhanced VL absorption and reduced recombination efficiency of carriers owing to the synergistic effects between BiMoO and WO. The necessity of direct contact between WO/BiMoO and contaminants was experimentally verified. The study on photocatalytic mechanism demonstrates that superoxide free radicals (O) and photo-generated hole (h) are dominantly responsible for the pollutant degradation, as demonstrated by the trapping experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis. Therefore, the WO/BiMoO heterojunction holds huge potential to be utilized as a durable and highly active photocatalyst for wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.08.077DOI Listing
November 2019

Facile Formation of BiOCO/BiMoO Nanosheets for Visible Light-Driven Photocatalysis.

ACS Omega 2019 Feb 22;4(2):3871-3880. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China.

BiOCO/BiMoO heterojunction catalysts were prepared by treating BiMoO sheets with aqueous NaHCO solutions at room temperature. All the BiOCO/BiMoO heterojunctions exhibited higher activities than pristine BiMoO in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange, and ciprofloxacin under visible-light irradiation, and the most active photocatalyst was found to be the one with a C/Bi molar ratio of ∼1/2.3. Relevant samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The higher activity of BiOCO/BiMoO than pristine BiMoO is explained by the enhanced separation and transfer of photogenerated electron/hole pairs, as verified by transient photocurrent densities, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photogenerated holes (h) and superoxide radical anions (O) were found to be the main active species. The good reusability of BiOCO/BiMoO was testified by cycling degradation of RhB and tetracycline hydrochloride.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b03699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6648943PMC
February 2019

Targeting photodynamic and photothermal therapy to the endoplasmic reticulum enhances immunogenic cancer cell death.

Nat Commun 2019 07 26;10(1):3349. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P. R. China.

Immunogenic cell death (ICD)-associated immunogenicity can be evoked through reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we generate a double ER-targeting strategy to realize photodynamic therapy (PDT) photothermal therapy (PTT) immunotherapy. This nanosystem consists of ER-targeting pardaxin (FAL) peptides modified-, indocyanine green (ICG) conjugated- hollow gold nanospheres (FAL-ICG-HAuNS), together with an oxygen-delivering hemoglobin (Hb) liposome (FAL-Hb lipo), designed to reverse hypoxia. Compared with non-targeting nanosystems, the ER-targeting naosystem induces robust ER stress and calreticulin (CRT) exposure on the cell surface under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. CRT, a marker for ICD, acts as an 'eat me' signal to stimulate the antigen presenting function of dendritic cells. As a result, a series of immunological responses are activated, including CD8 T cell proliferation and cytotoxic cytokine secretion. In conclusion, ER-targeting PDT-PTT promoted ICD-associated immunotherapy through direct ROS-based ER stress and exhibited enhanced anti-tumour efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11269-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659660PMC
July 2019

Allelopathically inhibitory effects of eucalyptus extracts on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa.

Chemosphere 2019 Jun 12;225:424-433. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, PR China.

Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa), as the dominant algae in eutrophic water bodies, has caused a serious harm to the local eco-environment. A biological tool, employing allelopathic inhibitory of eucalyptus to control M. aeruginosa, has been receiving tremendous attention. This work presents the results of the allelopathic inhibitory effects of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis × E.urophylla 'GLGU9') extracts of roots (ERE), stems (ESE), and leaves (ELE) on culture solutions of M. aeruginosa and its eco-physiological mechanism. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on the growth of M. aeruginosa varied greatly with ELE exhibiting the highest level of potency. Modes of action by which ELE inhibited M. aeruginosa growth were established. They involved reduction in photosynthesis, disruption of the cell membrane integrity, and inhibition of esterase activities of the cyanobacterial cells. However, ELE did not exhibit any gradients of toxicity towards zebrafish nor Washington grass plant. Species abundance and diversity in the systems remained likewise unaffected by ELE. The synergistic interaction between ELE and single-component allelochemicals (e.g., gallic acid and berberine) was ascribed to the increase in efficacy of allelochemicals in the various systems. The results of this study provide an underlying, novel, and attractive approach for controlling the growth of M. aeruginosa in aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.070DOI Listing
June 2019

Evaluation of the use of eucalyptus to control algae bloom and improve water quality.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 19;667:412-418. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, PR China.

Lakes represent an important source of drinking water resource for human beings. The presence of harmful algae blooms can pose a serious threat to lakes water quality. This study explored the feasibility of using eucalyptus plants and leaves extracts for controlling algae proliferation in an aquatic milieu. After 30 days of treatment, the inhibitory efficiencies were 85.8% and 20.9% for treatments planting eucalyptus and eucalyptus leaves extracts, respectively. The synergistic effects of allelopathy and competitive absorption for macro nutrients were attributed to the effective control of algae proliferation in the mesocosm systems. Moreover, the analysis of microbial community structures indicated that eucalyptus plants or leaves extracts had no adverse effect on species diversity and their relative abundance. The choice of using eucalyptus to control algae bloom will be dictated by environmental and economic considerations within a geographical region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.276DOI Listing
June 2019

Hypoxic tumor therapy by hemoglobin-mediated drug delivery and reversal of hypoxia-induced chemoresistance.

Biomaterials 2018 11 11;182:145-156. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Chemotherapy has become a critical treatment for many cancer types. However, its efficacy is hindered by chemoresistance and limited drug accumulation induced by the hypoxic tumor environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for useful strategies to alleviate tumor hypoxia and enhance chemotherapy response in solid tumors. Herein, we report the development of a multifunctional liposome simultaneously loading an oxygen carrier (hemoglobin, Hb) and an anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to enhance chemotherapeutic effects against hypoxic tumors. The liposomes, DOX-Hb-lipo (DHL), showed efficient loading of oxygen and site-specific oxygen delivery into tumors, inducing the reversal of tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, the O interference capacity increased the uptake of the drug into hypoxic cancer cells, inducing a remarkably increased toxicity of the drug against cancer cells. Interestingly, the obtained DHL showed a significantly enhanced internalization into cancer cells and accumulation in tumors compared to DL (DOX loaded liposomes without Hb), while the enhanced effect did not occur in normal cells. The specific delivery of DHL into cancer cells should be attributed to the mediation of Hb on the surface of the liposomes. In addition, DHL considerably increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a hypoxic environment and promoted the ROS-mediated cytotoxicity of DOX. Based on the elevated drug accumulation in the tumor sites, increased internalization into cancer cells and enhanced oxygen levels in tumor regions, DHL reversed hypoxia-induced chemoresistance and exhibited stronger antitumor effects. Thus, DHL might be a promising alternative strategy for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.08.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Laser Immunotherapy in Combination with Perdurable PD-1 Blocking for the Treatment of Metastatic Tumors.

ACS Nano 2018 08 23;12(8):7647-7662. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Zhejiang University , 866 Yuhangtang Road , Hangzhou , Zhejiang 310058 , PR China.

A convenient and feasible therapeutic strategy for malignant and metastatic tumors was constructed here by combining photothermal ablation (PTA)-based laser immunotherapy with perdurable PD-1 blockade immunotherapy. Hollow gold nanoshells (HAuNS, a photothermal agent) and AUNP12 (an anti PD-1 peptide, APP) were co-encapsulated into poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Unlike monoclonal PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, PD-1 peptide inhibitor shows lower cost and immunotoxicity but needs frequent administration due to its rapid clearance in vivo. Our data here showed that the formed HAuNS- and APP-loaded PLGA nanoparticles ([email protected]) could maintain release periods of up to 40 days for the peptide, and a single intratumoral injection of [email protected] could replace the frequent administration of free APP. After the administration of [email protected] and irradiation with a near-infrared laser at the tumor site, an excellent killing effect on the primary tumor cells was achieved by the PTA. The nanoparticles also played a vaccine-like role under the adjuvant of cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide and generated a localized antitumor-immune response. Furthermore, sustained APP release with laser-dependent transient triggering could induce the blockage of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway to activate T cells, thus subsequently generating a systemic immune response. Our data demonstrated that the PTA combined with perdurable PD-1 blocking could efficiently eradicate the primary tumors and inhibit the growth of metastatic tumors as well as their formation. The present study provides a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of advanced cancer with metastasis and presents a valuable reference for obtaining better outcomes in clinical cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b00204DOI Listing
August 2018

Ag-AgVO/AgIO composites with enhanced visible-light-driven catalytic activity.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Aug 3;524:16-24. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

Ag-AgVO/AgIO composites composed of Ag-AgVO particles (major component) and AgIO nanosheets (minor component) were obtained via photoreduction of AgVO/AgIO composites prepared by sequential precipitation. The optimal Ag-AgVO/AgIO catalysts (in particular, the one with an AgIO/AgVO mass ratio of 6.4%) were found to be more active than AgIO, AgVO, and Ag-AgVO in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) under visible-light irradiation. Ag-AgVO/AgIO can be reused in cycling experiments. Photogenerated holes (h) and superoxide radical anions (O) were demonstrated by radical-capture experiments as the main active species in the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. The more efficient separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs are responsible for the enhanced activity of Ag-AgVO/AgIO. A possible photocatalytic mechanism is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.04.001DOI Listing
August 2018

MiR-125b Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Injury via Targeting MIP-1α in Chondrogenic Cell ATDC5.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 13;45(6):2305-2316. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Orthopedic Surgery Ward II, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Background/aims: Chondrocyte apoptosis is largely responsible for cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in chondrogenesis and cartilage remodeling. This study explored the effect of miR-125b on inflammatory injury in chondrogenic cells.

Methods: LPS was used to simulate inflammatory injury in murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell lines. Targeting effect of miR-125b on MIP-1α 3'UTR was assessed by dual luciferase activity assay. Regulatory effect of miR-125b on MIP-1α expression and the potential regulatory mechanism on inflammatory injury were assessed by Western blot.

Results: miR-125b expression was decreased in LPS-induced ATDC5 cells and overexpression of miR-125b inhibited LPS-induced cell viability decline, the rise of apoptosis and inflammatory factors' productions. MIP-1α expression was negatively related to miR-125b, and miR-125b directly targeted with 3'UTR of MIP-1α. Knockdown of miR-125b promoted LPS-induced inflammatory response via upregulation of MIP-1α. miR-125b expression in LPS-induced ATDC5 cells was negatively related with activations of NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. Overexpression of miR-125b inhibited LPS-induced inflammation injury via suppressing MIP-1α expression and inhibiting activations of NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways.

Conclusion: miR-125b could play an important role in inflammatory injury of chondrogenic cells and miR-125b affected inflammatory injury of ATDC5 cells via regulating expression of MIP-1α and regulating NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488178DOI Listing
June 2018

Long non-coding RNA HOXA11-AS functions as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate ROCK1 expression by sponging miR-124-3p in osteosarcoma.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Aug 27;92:437-444. Epub 2017 May 27.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been strongly associated with various types of cancer. this study was to explore the critical role of lncRNA HOXA11-AS in osteosarcoma (OS) progression. Briefly, we should that the expression of HOXA11-AS was upregulated in OS tissues and cell lines. The high expression of HOXA11-AS was associated with advanced clinical stage, distant metastasis and poor overall survival of OS. In addition, We found that HOXA11-AS silencing suppressed OS cells proliferation, invasion and induced cell arrest in G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, our data showed that HOXA11-AS acts as an endogenous sponge by directly binding miR-124-3p, and decreasing the expression of miR-124-3p. Moreover, we found that HOXA11-AS may regulate tumor progression by affecting miR-124-3p targets, and ROCK1 expression. To conclude, our study helps to elucidate the effectiveness of HOXA11-AS promotion on OS cell proliferation and metastasis. A better understanding of interaction mechanism between HOXA11-AS-miR-124-3p-ROCK1 signaling axis may be a step forward in the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.05.081DOI Listing
August 2017

Nac1 promotes self-renewal of embryonic stem cells through direct transcriptional regulation of c-Myc.

Oncotarget 2017 Jul;8(29):47607-47618

Laboratory of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

The pluripotency transcriptional network in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is composed of distinct functional units including the core and Myc units. It is hoped that dissection of the cellular functions and interconnections of network factors will aid our understanding of ESC and cancer biology. Proteomic and genomic approaches have identified Nac1 as a member of the core pluripotency network. However, previous studies have predominantly focused on the role of Nac1 in psychomotor stimulant response and cancer pathogenesis. In this study, we report that Nac1 is a self-renewal promoting factor, but is not required for maintaining pluripotency of ESCs. Loss of function of Nac1 in ESCs results in a reduced proliferation rate and an enhanced differentiation propensity. Nac1 overexpression promotes ESC proliferation and delays ESC differentiation in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nac1 directly binds to the c-Myc promoter and regulates c-Myc transcription. The study also revealed that the function of Nac1 in promoting ESC self-renewal appears to be partially mediated by c-Myc. These findings establish a functional link between the core and c-Myc-centered networks and provide new insights into mechanisms of stemness regulation in ESCs and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5564591PMC
July 2017

Facile synthesis of Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles anchored on Bi(2)MoO(6) microflowers with improved visible light photocatalytic activity.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2017 07 1;497:93-101. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Constructing novel semiconductor heterojunctions is emerging as one of the efficient methods to develop excellent photocatalysts. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of BiMoO microflowers decorated by FeO nanoparticles as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst via a simple solvothermal precipitation-calcination method. The as-prepared FeO/BiMoO heterojunctions were systematically characterized by using several techniques. The photocatalytic properties of these heterojunctions were estimated by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) and para-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible light (λ>400nm). They showed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure FeO or BiMoO. The heterojunction with Fe/Bi molar ratio of 0.2 presented the highest activity. The RhB degradation rate constant was about 4.8 times or 3.8 times higher than that of BiMoO or a mechanical mixture of FeO and BiMoO. The remarkable enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the effective suppression of electron-hole recombination. The photogenerated holes (h) and superoxide radical anions (O) were found to be the major active species. FeO/BiMoO has great potential as an effective and stable visible-light-driven photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.02.069DOI Listing
July 2017