Publications by authors named "Junhua Li"

378 Publications

Fabrication of Nanohybrid [email protected] Catalysts for Propane Oxidation: Modified Spinel and Enhanced Activity by Temperature-Dependent Acid Sites.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 7;13(23):27106-27118. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 828 West Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

Modulating the catalyst electronic structure is a promising direction to enhance the catalytic oxidation performance. Herein, we report an innovative synthesis of the nanohybrid [email protected] catalyst with a broad biphasic interface for propane oxidation. The reaction rate of [email protected] catalyst was significantly increased compared to the physically mixed spinel+CuO catalyst. Lattice distortions and severe blurring of lattice fringes adjacent to the interface (between the spinel and CuO) comes with the [email protected] system, which enhanced interfacial interaction to form defect structures. The cobalt cations were selectively doped into the spinel lattice and occupied both the A and the B sites, while the CuO was not affected. At lower temperatures (∼200 °C), the enrichment of Brønsted acid sites increased the adsorption energy of propane. At higher temperatures (∼350 °C), the A and B sites cobalt weakened the Cu-O bond to make the oxygen vacancies form more readily, thereby enriching the Lewis acid sites. The substitution doping also resulted in lattice distortion in the spinel species, promoting the formation of a defect structure. The broad interface and temperature-dependent acid sites were conducive to propane oxidation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06633DOI Listing
June 2021

Editorial: Recent Developments of Deep Learning in Analyzing, Decoding, and Understanding Neuroimaging Signals.

Authors:
Junhua Li

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:652073. Epub 2021 May 21.

Laboratory for Brain-Bionic Intelligence and Computational Neuroscience, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.652073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175846PMC
May 2021

Transvesical versus extravesical approach to laparoscopic posthysterectomy vesicovaginal fistula repair: A retrospective study from two medical centers.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Urology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Background: The controversy on the best surgical approach for vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repair remains due to the scarcity of high-level evidences. We aim to analyze the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic transvesical (LT) and laparoscopic extravesical (LE) approaches to posthysterectomy VVF (PH-VVF).

Methods: Data of 64 patients with PH-VVFs who were laparoscopicly treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University and the Hangzhou Third Hospital from January 2011 to November 2019 were retrospectively collected. The operative time (OT), estimated bleeding volume (EBV), postoperative bladder function and complications, hospital stay length (HSL), surgery success rate, and recurrence were compared between the two groups.

Results: In all, there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between those two arms. Both approaches were successfully performed without open conversion in either group. The LT group was significantly corrected with a shorter mean OT than the LE group (p < 0.001), regardless of the fistula's position. No significant differences existed in the mean EBV and HSL between the two interventions (p = 0.136 and p = 0.210, respectively). The tendency of postoperative complications and success rates of surgery were also comparable in both groups. The patients in the LT group had similar bladder functions to those in LE group. The recurrence occurred in one patient in each arm during the follow-up periods of 12-36 months.

Conclusions: The LT approach is significantly related to a shorter OT than the LE approach without compromising the safety and success rates in repairing PH-VVF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24724DOI Listing
May 2021

Quasispecies of SARS-CoV-2 revealed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):1209-1226

Institute for Hepatology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China.

New SARS-CoV-2 mutants have been continuously indentified with enhanced transmission ever since its outbreak in early 2020. As an RNA virus, SARS-CoV-2 has a high mutation rate due to the low fidelity of RNA polymerase. To study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, 158 SNPs with high confidence were identified by deep meta-transcriptomic sequencing, and the most common SNP type was C > T. Analyses of intra-host population diversity revealed that intra-host quasispecies' composition varies with time during the early onset of symptoms, which implicates viral evolution during infection. Network analysis of co-occurring SNPs revealed the most abundant non-synonymous SNP 22,638 in the S glycoprotein RBD region and 28,144 in the ORF8 region. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 variations differ in an individual's respiratory tissue (nose, throat, BALF, or sputum), suggesting independent compartmentalization of SARS-CoV-2 populations in patients. The positive selection analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome uncovered the positive selected amino acid G251V on ORF3a. lternative llele requency pectrum (AAFS) of all variants revealed that ORF8 could bear alternate alleles with high frequency. Overall, the results show the quasispecies' profile of SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract in the first two months after the outbreak.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1911477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158041PMC
December 2021

ADP Induces Blood Glucose Through Direct and Indirect Mechanisms in Promotion of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Elevation of NADH.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 27;12:663530. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Extracellular ADP, a derivative of ATP, interacts with the purinergic receptors in the cell membrane to regulate cellular activities. This signaling pathway remains unknown in the regulation of blood glucose . We investigated the acute activity of ADP in mice through a peritoneal injection. In the lean mice, in response to the ADP treatment, the blood glucose was elevated, and pyruvate tolerance was impaired. Hepatic gluconeogenesis was enhanced with elevated expression of glucogenic genes ( and ) in the liver. An elevation was observed in NADH, cAMP, AMP, GMP and citrate in the liver tissue in the targeted metabolomics assay. In the primary hepatocytes, ADP activated the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, which was blocked by the antagonist (2211) of the ADP receptor P2Y13. In the circulation, gluconeogenic hormones including glucagon and corticosterone were elevated by ADP. Insulin and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were not altered in the blood. In the diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, NADH was elevated in the liver tissue to match the hepatic insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was intensified by ADP for further impairment in insulin tolerance. These data suggest that ADP induced the blood glucose through direct and indirect actions in liver. One of the potential pathways involves activation of the P2Y13/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in hepatocytes and the indirect pathway may involve induction of the gluconeogenic hormones. NADH is a signal for gluconeogenesis in the liver of both DIO mice and lean mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.663530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111448PMC
April 2021

BDNF Participates in Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain via Transcriptionally Activating P2X in Primary Sensory Neurons.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Neuropathic pain, resulting from the pathological changes of the somatosensory nervous system, remains a severe public health problem worldwide. The effect of treatment targeting neuropathic pain is very limited, as the underlying mechanism of neuropathic pain is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was remarkably and time-dependently increased in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG microinjection of BDNF siRNA in DRG ameliorated chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced mechanical, thermal, and cold nociceptive hypersensitivities. Overexpressing BDNF through microinjection of the AAV5-BDNF in DRG caused enhanced responses to basal mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli in mice exposed to CCI. Mechanically, the P2X promoter activity was enhanced by CCI-induced increase of DRG BDNF protein and was involved in the CCI-induced upregulation of DRG P2X protein. The overexpression of BDNF also increased P2X expression in DRG neurons, which was validated in in vivo and in vitro experiments. BDNF may exert crucial effect via transcriptionally activating the P2X gene in primary sensory neurons, since P2X acts as a role of endogenous agitator in neuropathic pain and BDNF largely co-expresses with P2X in DRG neurons. Therefore, our data provide evidence that BDNF may be a promising therapeutic target for neuropathic pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02410-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Galectin-1 ameliorates perioperative neurocognitive disorders in aged mice.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jul 4;27(7):842-856. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: The incidence of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) is higher in the elderly patients undergoing surgery. Microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PND. Galectin-1 has been identified as a pivotal modulator in the central nervous system (CNS), while the role of galectin-1 in PND induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is still undetermined.

Methods: An exploratory laparotomy model anesthetized with isoflurane was employed to investigate the role of galectin-1 on PND in aged mice. Open field test and Morris water maze were used to test the cognitive function 3- or 7-days post-surgery. The activation of microglia in the hippocampus of aged mice was tested by immunohistochemistry. Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were employed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Results: Galectin-1 attenuated the cognitive dysfunction induced by surgery in aged mice and inhibited microglial activity. Moreover, galectin-1 decreased the expression level of inflammatory proteins (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α), and prevented neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Galectin-1 inhibited the inflammation of BV2 microglial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide via decreasing the translocation of NF-κB p65 and c-Jun, while this kind of inhibition was rescued when overexpressing IRAK1.

Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that galectin-1 may inhibit IRAK1 expression, thus suppressing inflammatory response, inhibiting neuroinflammation, and improving ensuing cognitive dysfunction. Collectively, these findings unveil that galectin-1 may elicit protective effects on surgery-induced neuroinflammation and neurocognitive disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193703PMC
July 2021

Improving gelling properties of diluted whole hen eggs with sodium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate: Study on intermolecular forces, water state and microstructure.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 20;358:129823. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

Individual and synergistic effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) on the physicochemical and gelling properties of highly diluted liquid whole eggs were studied. Results showed that NaCl and STPP acted differently whereby NaCl addition increased the surface hydrophobicity of the egg proteins and STPP addition increased the protein solubility and the negative surface charge. When combined together, these changes led to a significant increase in a number of intermolecular forces after heat treatment, including hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds, and hydrogen bonds, contributing to the best structure and texture of the whole egg gels enriched with binary salts. The amount of the free water in the heat-induced gel products with the addition of both NaCl and STPP were the least as compared to systems with single salt addition, which was related to the coarse and dense network microstructure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129823DOI Listing
October 2021

Case Report: Splenic Irradiation for the Treatment of Chronic Active Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Allograft Recipients With Donor-Specific Antibodies.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:661614. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Institute of Organ Transplantation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in renal transplantation is usually refractory to current conventional treatment with rituximab, plasmapheresis (PP), and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Splenic irradiation has been reported to be effective in the rescue of early severe acute AMR after kidney transplantation; however, its effect in chronic active AMR has not been reported to date. In order to reduce donor-specific antibody (DSA) and prevent the progression of chronic AMR, we used repetitive low-dose splenic irradiation, together with rituximab and PP/IVIG, in two living-related kidney transplant recipients with pathologically diagnosed chronic active AMR and the presence of long-term class II- DSA. DSA monitoring and repeated renal biopsy revealed significantly reduced DSA levels as well as alleviated glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis in both patients after treatment, and these therapies may have played a role in delaying the progression of chronic AMR. Although DSA levels in both patients eventually rebounded to some extent after treatment, serum creatinine increased slowly in one patient during the 16-month follow-up period and remained stable in the other during the 12-month follow-up period. Given the poor efficacy of conventional treatment at present, splenic irradiation may still be one of the treatment options for chronic active AMR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.661614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083054PMC
April 2021

Two-Step Reverse Transcription Droplet Digital PCR Protocols for SARS-CoV-2 Detection and Quantification.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 31(169). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences;

Diagnosis of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a priority for all countries across the globe. Currently, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis as no permanent solution is available. However effective this technique may be, research has emerged showing its limitations in detection and diagnosis especially when it comes to low abundant targets. In contrast, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), a recent emerging technology with superior advantages over qPCR, has been shown to overcome the challenges of RT-qPCR in diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 from low abundant target samples. Prospectively, in this article, the capabilities of RT-ddPCR are further expanded by showing steps on how to develop simplex, duplex, triplex probe mix, and quadruplex assays using a two-color detection system. Using primers and probes targeting specific sites of the SARS-CoV-2 genome (N, ORF1ab, RPP30, and RBD2), the development of these assays is shown to be possible. Additionally, step by step detailed protocols, notes, and suggestions on how to improve the assays workflow and analyze data are provided. Adapting this workflow in future works will ensure that the maximum number of targets can be sensitively detected in a small sample significantly improving on cost and sample throughput.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62295DOI Listing
March 2021

Characterization of respiratory microbial dysbiosis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Cell Discov 2021 Apr 13;7(1):23. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the microbial composition of the respiratory tract and other infected tissues as well as their possible pathogenic contributions to varying degrees of disease severity in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. Between 27 January and 26 February 2020, serial clinical specimens (sputum, nasal and throat swab, anal swab and feces) were collected from a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, including 8 mildly and 15 severely ill patients in Guangdong province, China. Total RNA was extracted and ultra-deep metatranscriptomic sequencing was performed in combination with laboratory diagnostic assays. We identified distinct signatures of microbial dysbiosis among severely ill COVID-19 patients on broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Co-detection of other human respiratory viruses (including human alphaherpesvirus 1, rhinovirus B, and human orthopneumovirus) was demonstrated in 30.8% (4/13) of the severely ill patients, but not in any of the mildly affected patients. Notably, the predominant respiratory microbial taxa of severely ill patients were Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Mycoplasma spp. (including M. hominis and M. orale). The presence of the former two bacterial taxa was also confirmed by clinical cultures of respiratory specimens (expectorated sputum or nasal secretions) in 23.1% (3/13) of the severe cases. Finally, a time-dependent, secondary infection of B. cenocepacia with expressions of multiple virulence genes was demonstrated in one severely ill patient, which might accelerate his disease deterioration and death occurring one month after ICU admission. Our findings point to SARS-CoV-2-related microbial dysbiosis and various antibiotic-resistant respiratory microbes/pathogens in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to disease severity. Detection and tracking strategies are needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance, improve the treatment regimen and clinical outcomes of hospitalized, severely ill COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00257-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043102PMC
April 2021

Risk Factors and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Kidney Dis (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;7(2):111-119. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Nephrology, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global health threat with a great number of deaths worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study in the intensive care unit of Tongji Hospital, which was assigned responsibility for the treatments of severe COVID-19 patients by the Wuhan government. AKI was defined and staged based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Mild AKI was defined as stage 1, and severe AKI was defined as stage 2 or stage 3. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate AKI risk factors, and Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between AKI and in-hospital mortality.

Results: A total of 119 patients with COVID-19 were included in our study. The median patient age was 70 years (interquartile range, 59-77) and 61.3% were male. Fifty-one (42.8%) patients developed AKI during hospitalization, corresponding to 14.3% in stage 1, 28.6% in stage 2 and 18.5% in stage 3, respectively. Compared to patients without AKI, patients with AKI had a higher proportion of mechanical ventilation mortality and higher in-hospital mortality. A total of 97.1% of patients with severe AKI received mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality was up to 79.4%. Severe AKI was independently associated with high in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high serum interleukin-8 (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.23-14.38), interleukin-10 (OR: 3.32; 95% CI: 1.04-10.59) and interleukin-2 receptor (OR: 4.50; 95% CI: 0.73-6.78) were risk factors for severe AKI development.

Conclusions: Severe AKI was associated with high in-hospital mortality, and inflammatory response may play a role in AKI development in critically ill patients with COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649690PMC
March 2021

Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant tandem-repeat dimeric RBD-based protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) against COVID-19 in adults: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 trials.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study.

Methods: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 μg or 50 μg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 μg or 50 μg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing.

Findings: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 μg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 μg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 μg vaccine (n=150), or 50 μg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 μg vaccine (n=150), or 50 μg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 μg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 μg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 μg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 μg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 μg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 μg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 μg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 μg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 μg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 μg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 μg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 μg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 μg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 μg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 μg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 μg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 μg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 μg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 μg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 μg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 μg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 μg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 μg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 μg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 μg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 μg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 μg group.

Interpretation: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 μg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy.

Funding: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00127-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990482PMC
March 2021

Draft Genome Sequence of a Polymyxin-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strain Carrying and .

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Mar 25;10(12). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China

Carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) is a major threat to global health. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a clinical strain carrying and .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01224-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996464PMC
March 2021

Global Landscape of Clostridioides Difficile Phylogeography, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Toxin Polymorphisms by Post-Hoc Whole-Genome Sequencing from the MODIFY I/II Studies.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jun 22;10(2):853-870. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

Introduction: Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection, the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, represents a significant burden on global healthcare systems. Despite being a global issue, information on C. difficile from a global perspective is lacking. The aim of this study is to model the global phylogeography of clinical C. difficile.

Methods: Using samples collected from the MODIFY I and II studies (NCT01241552, NCT01513239), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1501 clinical isolates including 37 novel sequence types (STs), representing the largest worldwide collection to date.

Results: Our data showed ribotypes, multi-locus sequence typing clades, and whole-genome phylogeny were in good accordance. The clinical C. difficile genome was found to be more conserved than previously reported (61% core genes), and modest recombination rates of 1.4-5.0 were observed across clades. We observed a significant continent distribution preference among five C. difficile clades (Benjamini-Hochberg corrected Fisher's exact test P < 0.01); moreover, weak association between geographic and genetic distance among ribotypes suggested sources beyond healthcare-related transmission. Markedly different trends of antibiotic susceptibility among lineages and regions were identified, and three novel mutations (in pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase family protein: Tyr130Ser, Tyr130Cys, and a promoter SNP) associated with metronidazole-reduced susceptibility were discovered on a nim-related gene and its promotor by genome-wide association study. Toxin gene polymorphisms were shown to vary within and between prevalent ribotypes, and novel severe mutations were found on the tcdC toxin regulator protein.

Conclusion: Our systematic characterization of a global set of clinical trial C. difficile isolates from infected individuals demonstrated the complexity of the genetic makeup of this pathogenic organism. The geographic variability of clades, variability in toxin genes, and mutations associated with antibiotic susceptibility indicate a highly complex interaction of C. difficile between host and environment. This dataset will provide a useful resource for validation of findings and future research of C. difficile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00426-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116447PMC
June 2021

Genomic epidemiology of a densely sampled COVID-19 outbreak in China.

Virus Evol 2021 Jan 14;7(1):veaa102. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Microbiology, Weifang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Weifang 261061, China.

Analysis of genetic sequence data from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic can provide insights into epidemic origins, worldwide dispersal, and epidemiological history. With few exceptions, genomic epidemiological analysis has focused on geographically distributed data sets with few isolates in any given location. Here, we report an analysis of 20 whole SARS- CoV-2 genomes from a single relatively small and geographically constrained outbreak in Weifang, People's Republic of China. Using Bayesian model-based phylodynamic methods, we estimate a mean basic reproduction number () of 3.4 (95% highest posterior density interval: 2.1-5.2) in Weifang, and a mean effective reproduction number ( that falls below 1 on 4 February. We further estimate the number of infections through time and compare these estimates to confirmed diagnoses by the Weifang Centers for Disease Control. We find that these estimates are consistent with reported cases and there is unlikely to be a large undiagnosed burden of infection over the period we studied.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955981PMC
January 2021

Balance of activation and ring-breaking for toluene oxidation over CuO-MnO bimetallic oxides.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 13;415:125637. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, National Engineering Laboratory for Multi Flue Gas Pollution Control Technology and Equipment, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.

CuMn oxides have been studied for many years to catalytic degradation of toluene, but there are still many divergences on the essence of their great catalytic activity and reaction mechanism. A series of CuMn bimetallic oxides were synthesized for the catalytic oxidation of toluene in this study. CuMn exhibited the highest toluene oxidation rate per specific surface area, which was approximately 4 times that of monometallic CuO and MnO. Benzoic acid was the only intermediates which could be observed during toluene oxidation. Between monometallic CuO and MnO, toluene was more difficult to be activated by MnO to generate benzoic acid (toluene activation), whereas benzoic acid was oxidized (ring-breaking) by CuO with more difficulty. As for CuMn, the superior reducibility combined with the balance between ring-breaking of benzoic acid and activation of toluene-to-benzoic acid determined the high toluene oxidation rate. DFT simulations exhibited that in O-Cu-O-Mn-O structure, the Mn-O site was a more effective activation site for toluene-to-benzoic acid oxidation, whereas Cu-O mainly performed as an adsorption site for toluene. This work identifies the different roles of Cu and Mn entities in toluene oxidation and provides the novel design strategy for toluene removal catalysts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125637DOI Listing
August 2021

A Novel Bacteriophage Endolysin LysAB54 With High Antibacterial Activity Against Multiple Gram-Negative Microbes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 2;11:637313. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

The rapid spread and emergence of multidrug-resistant and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria spurred scientists and clinicians to look for alternative therapeutic agents to conventional antibiotics. In the present study, an bacteriophage p54 was isolated and characterized. Morphological and genome analysis revealed that bacteriophage p54 belongs to Myoviridae family with a genome size of 165,813 bps. A novel endolysin, namely LysAB54, showing low similarity with other well-known related endolysins, was cloned, expressed, and characterized from the bacteriophage p54. LysAB54 showed significant bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant and other Gram-negative bacteria, including , , and , in the absence of outer membrane permeabilizers. Based on all those observations, LysAB54 could represent a potential agent for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative superbugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.637313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960757PMC
March 2021

Changes in stability and in vitro digestion of egg-protein stabilized emulsions and β-carotene gels in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Engineering, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Egg proteins are effective emulsifiers and gelators in food systems. However, the physicochemical stability and control release properties of egg-protein stabilized emulsions and gels need to be further improved. The potential of sodium tripolyphosphate (St) to improve the functionality of egg proteins was evaluated.

Results: The emulsions with St had smaller particle sizes and higher zeta potential, leading to better physical stability. Furthermore, the oxidation stability increased with increasing St contents, possibly due to its metal chelating capacity and the improved emulsifying activity of whole-egg dispersions. Phosphate had a positive impact on the chemical stability of β-carotene in whole-egg liquids and gels, decreasing the degradation during thermal treatment. The gel made with St was firm and broke down slowly, leading to a low rate of digestion and β-carotene release in simulated gastric fluid.

Conclusion: This study shows that St is useful to improve the egg proteins stabilized emulsions and gels, which is applicable in the development of emulsion-based food grade gel products. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11210DOI Listing
March 2021

Population Bottlenecks and Intra-host Evolution During Human-to-Human Transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 15;8:585358. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The emergence of the novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes a global COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. Here, we have characterized and compared viral populations of SARS-CoV-2 among COVID-19 patients within and across households. Our work showed an active viral replication activity in the human respiratory tract and the co-existence of genetically distinct viruses within the same host. The inter-host comparison among viral populations further revealed a narrow transmission bottleneck between patients from the same households, suggesting a dominated role of stochastic dynamics in both inter-host and intra-host evolutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.585358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917136PMC
February 2021

Longitudinal Study of the Drug Resistance in of a Tertiary Hospital, China: Phenotypic Epidemiology Analysis (2013-2018).

Infect Drug Resist 2021 17;14:613-626. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Multi-drug resistant (MDR KP) is spreading worldwide and has posed a huge medical burden to public health. However, studies on drug resistance surveillance of KP, especially MDR KP, with a large longitudinal sample size in a tertiary hospital are rare. This study aims to investigate phenotypic epidemiology characteristics of 4128 KP isolates in a Chinese tertiary hospital covering a period of 5 years.

Methods: All the KP clinical isolates were retrospectively collected from a tertiary hospital in Hunan province of China from Jan 5, 2013 to Jul 24, 2018. All the isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Twenty-four antimicrobial agents were tested by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Fisher exact test and logistic regression were used to analyze the association between clinical factors and antimicrobial non-susceptibility for seven second-choice antimicrobials.

Results: A total of 4128 KP isolates were collected in our study. The non-susceptible rates (NSRs) to ertapenem, imipenem and tigecycline increased considerably from 2013 to 2018 (13.6% to 28.6%, 10.1% to 28.9%, 10.8% to 46.5%, respectively). Amikacin presents the lowest NSR among 3 aminoglycosides (3.8-22.8%). The multi-drug NSRs among KP isolates to second-choice antimicrobials (88.6-100%) were higher than to all drugs (68.0%). The NSRs varied significantly among departments and sample sources. Higher ETP/IPM/AK NSRs (39.8/39.7/30.6%) were observed in Intensive Care Unit, and ETP/IPM non-susceptible isolates tended to distribute in cerebrospinal fluid. From 2015 to 2017, the NSRs of ETP, IPM, and AK showed an opposite trend of seasonal fluctuations to SXT.

Conclusion: Higher multi-drug resistance (MDR) rates were observed in KP isolates to second-choice antimicrobials than to others, among which MDR rates to carbapenems or AK are the highest. A unique pattern of MIC and time distributions of MDR were observed. Clinical factors including gender were correlated with MDR rates of KP. Isolates in ICU and CSF showed higher NSRs in carbapenems which should be paid more attention to, and temporal distribution of NSRs was observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S294989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898056PMC
February 2021

Intra-host variation and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 populations in COVID-19 patients.

Genome Med 2021 02 22;13(1):30. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong, China.

Background: Since early February 2021, the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, has infected over 104 million people with more than 2 million deaths according to official reports. The key to understanding the biology and virus-host interactions of SARS-CoV-2 requires the knowledge of mutation and evolution of this virus at both inter- and intra-host levels. However, despite quite a few polymorphic sites identified among SARS-CoV-2 populations, intra-host variant spectra and their evolutionary dynamics remain mostly unknown.

Methods: Using high-throughput sequencing of metatranscriptomic and hybrid captured libraries, we characterized consensus genomes and intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs) of serial samples collected from eight patients with COVID-19. The distribution of iSNVs along the SARS-CoV-2 genome was analyzed and co-occurring iSNVs among COVID-19 patients were identified. We also compared the evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 population in the respiratory tract (RT) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

Results: The 32 consensus genomes revealed the co-existence of different genotypes within the same patient. We further identified 40 intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs). Most (30/40) iSNVs presented in a single patient, while ten iSNVs were found in at least two patients or identical to consensus variants. Comparing allele frequencies of the iSNVs revealed a clear genetic differentiation between intra-host populations from the respiratory tract (RT) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), mostly driven by bottleneck events during intra-host migrations. Compared to RT populations, the GIT populations showed a better maintenance and rapid development of viral genetic diversity following the suspected intra-host bottlenecks.

Conclusions: Our findings here illustrate the intra-host bottlenecks and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in different anatomic sites and may provide new insights to understand the virus-host interactions of coronaviruses and other RNA viruses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00847-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898256PMC
February 2021

The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SR1 Modulates the Submergence Response by Degrading Phosphorylated WRKY33 in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Key Laboratory for Bio-resources and Eco-environment & State Key Lab of Hydraulics & Mountain River Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Oxygen deprivation caused by flooding activates acclimation responses to stress and restricts plant growth. After experiencing flooding stress, plants must restore normal growth; however, which genes are dynamically and precisely controlled by flooding stress remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana ubiquitin E3 ligase SUBMERGENCE RESISTANT1 (SR1) regulates the stability of the transcription factor WRKY33 to modulate the submergence response. SR1 physically interacts with WRKY33 in vivo and in vitro and controls its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Both the sr1 mutant and WRKY33 overexpressors exhibited enhanced submergence tolerance and enhanced expression of hypoxia-responsive genes. Genetic experiments showed that WRKY33 functions downstream of SR1 during the submergence response. Submergence induced the phosphorylation of WRKY33, which enhanced the activation of RAP2.2, a positive regulator of hypoxia-response genes. Phosphorylated WRKY33 and RAP2.2 were degraded by SR1 and the N-degron pathway during reoxygenation, respectively. Taken together, our findings reveal that the on-and-off module SR1-WRKY33-RAP2.2 is connected to the well-known N-degron pathway to regulate acclimation to submergence in Arabidopsis. These two different but related modulation cascades precisely balance submergence acclimation with normal plant growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab062DOI Listing
February 2021

Preoperative Management of MGD with Vectored Thermal Pulsation before Cataract Surgery: A Prospective, Controlled Clinical Trial.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 15;36(1-2):2-8. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

: To investigate the efficacy of preoperative monocular treatment in elderly cataract patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) utilizing vectored thermal pulsation treatment.: This study was a prospective, examiner-masked contralateral eye clinical trial. Patients previously diagnosed with MGD undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery in two eyes were enrolled. The eye perceived by the patient to be more symptomatic of MGD received a 12 min vectored thermal pulsation treatment using the LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System, and was referred to as the LipiFlow-surgery eye. The contralateral eye then served as the nonLipiFlow-surgery eye. Patients with MGD not undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled as the control group. Within the control group, the eye that received LipiFlow treatment was considered the LipiFlow-nonsurgery eye, while the contralateral eye served as the nonLipiFlow-nonsurgery eye. All patients were examined before treatment and at one-week, one-month, and three-month intervals after treatment. Clinical parameters included dry eye symptoms, average lipid layer thickness (LLT-ave), tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining, Schirmer I tests, Meibomian glands yielding liquid secretion (MGYLS), and meibomian gland dropout.: A total of 32 patients (64 eyes) were examined during the three-month follow-up. There was a significant reduction in dry eye symptoms in non-surgery patients with monocular treatment of MGD, while no change in surgery patients was observed. Significant improvement of MGYLS in LipiFlow-surgery and LipiFlow-nonsurgery eyes during the follow-up time ( < .001) was reported, while no difference was observed in nonLipiFlow-surgery and nonLipiFlow-nonsurgery eyes. A statistically significant difference was seen in TBUT between LipiFlow-surgery and nonLipiFlow-surgery eyes at one-week and one-month intervals ( = .019 and 0.019, respectively). Differences in other clinical parameters were not statistically significant.: Our findings suggest that although subjective symptoms were not alleviated, a single application of LipiFlow treatment before cataract surgery is effective in alleviating blockage of meibomian glands and preventing the decline of TBUT after cataract surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2021.1881567DOI Listing
February 2021

Hsa_circ_0107593 Suppresses the Progression of Cervical Cancer Sponging hsa-miR-20a-5p/93-5p/106b-5p.

Front Oncol 2020 15;10:590627. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Reproductive Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of single-stranded RNAs that form a continuous loop with crucial role in regulation of gene expression. Because their circular conformation conforms numerous properties, circRNAs have been investigated recently to demonstrate their important role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, the function of circRNAs and their regulatory outcomes in cervical cancer (CC) have rarely been explored. In this study, the role and molecular mechanism of hsa_circ_0107593 in cervical cancer are demonstrated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of hsa_circ_0107593 and three miRNAs (hsa-miR-20a-5p, 93-5p, and 106b-5p) in paired CC tissues (tumor tissue adjacent normal cervical tissue), CC cell lines, and human normal cervical epithelial immortalized cell line. A series of functional experiments were conducted to assess the function of hsa_circ_0107593 in CC development. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to estimate the diagnostic value of hsa_circ_0107593 in CC. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to explore the interaction between hsa_circ_0107593 and hsa-miR-20a-5p/93-5p/106b-5p. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to predict the target mRNAs, pathways, and functional enrichment. The results revealed that hsa_circ_0107593 has low expression in CC tissues and CC cell lines. Moreover, negative correlations of hsa_circ_0107593 expression were found against tumor diameter, FIGO stage, and myometrial invasion. Also, hsa_circ_0107593 impedes CC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Based on ROC curve analysis, hsa_circ_0107593 could serve as a diagnostic biomarker. Its low expression may indicate increased patient's risk to developing cervical cancer. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0107593 serves as a sponge of hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, and hsa-miR-106b-5p. Collectively, our study implies that hsa_circ_0107593 has tumor-suppressing activity in CC by physically binding with hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, and hsa-miR-106b-5p.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.590627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874083PMC
January 2021

Multipollutant Control (MPC) of Flue Gas from Stationary Sources Using SCR Technology: A Critical Review.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 03 11;55(5):2743-2766. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 828 West Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

The emission of gaseous pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels is believed to be one of the most serious environmental challenges in the 21st century. Given the increasing demands of multipollutant control (MPC) via adsorption or catalysis technologies, such as NO, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals (Hg etc.), and ammonia, and considering investment costs and site space, the use of existing equipment, especially the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to convert pollutants into harmless or readily adsorbed substances, is one of the most practical approaches. Consequently, many efforts have been directed at achieving the simultaneous elimination of multipollutants in a SCR convertor, and this method has been widely used to mitigate the stationary emission of NO. However, the development of active, selective, stable, and multifunctional catalysts/adsorbents suitable for large-scale commercialization remains challenging. Herein, we summarize recent works on the applications of SCR in MPC, describing the approaches of (i) SCR + VOCs oxidation, (ii) SCR + heavy metal control, and (iii) SCR + NH reduction to reveal that the efficiency of simultaneous elimination depends on catalyst composition and flue gas parameters. Furthermore, the synergistic promotional/inhibitory effects between SCR and VOCs/ammonia/heavy metal oxidations are shown to be the key to the feasibility of the reactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07326DOI Listing
March 2021

PDT-Enhanced Ferroptosis by a Polymer Nanoparticle with pH-Activated Singlet Oxygen Generation and Superb Biocompatibility for Cancer Therapy.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Mar 10;22(3):1167-1176. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, School of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China.

In this study, we reported a nanocomplex (PAF) of PEGylated polygalacturonic acid, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAPP), and Fe for photodynamic therapy (PDT)-enhanced ferroptosis in cancer treatment. PAF exhibited a size of 135 nm and a TAPP and Fe loading content of 6.99 and 0.77%, respectively. The singlet oxygen (O) generation capacity of TAPP can be activated and significantly enhanced at acidic pH (4.5-5.0). Besides, the enhanced near-infrared absorption of TAPP at acidic pH enabled a further increase in O generation capability by a near-infrared laser (760 nm). The polysaccharide-based polymer carrier offers excellent biocompatibility, and PAF displayed a proliferative effect in both normal (L929) and cancer (B16) cells. However, upon light irradiation, PAF exhibited high toxicity to B16 melanoma cells by intracellular reactive oxygen species elevation, glutathione depletion, and lipid peroxidation. PAF displayed a much better anticancer effect than the nanocomplex containing Fe or TAPP alone, indicating the PDT-enhanced ferroptosis in PAF. This study suggested that PDT-enhanced ferroptosis could be a facile and robust strategy of nanotherapeutics with high potency, tumor selectivity, and excellent biocompatibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c01679DOI Listing
March 2021

Regulation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 and GSK-3β participates in sevoflurane-induced dendritic development abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction in developing rats.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 3;341:68-79. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: General anesthetics such as sevoflurane interfere with dendritic development and synaptogenesis, resulting in cognitive impairment. The collapsin response mediator protein2 (CRMP2) plays important roles in dendritic development and synaptic plasticity and its phosphorylation is regulated by cycline dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Here we investigated whether Cdk5/CRMP2 or GSK-3β/CRMP2 pathway is involved in sevoflurane-induced developmental neurotoxicity.

Methods: Rats at postnatal day 7 (PND7) were i.p. injected with Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine, GSK-3β inhibitor SB415286 or saline 20 min. before exposure to 2.8% sevoflurane for 4 h. Western-blotting was applied to measure the expression of Cdk5/CRMP2 and GSK-3β/CRMP2 pathway proteins in the hippocampus 6 h after the sevoflurane exposure. When rats grew to adolescence (from PND25), they were tested for open-field and contextual fear conditioning, and then long term potentiation (LTP) from hippocampal slices was recorded, and morphology of pyramidal neuron was examined by Golgi staining and synaptic plasticity-related proteins expression in hippocampus were measured by western-blotting. In another batch of experiment, siRNA-CRMP2 or vehicle control was injected into hippocampus on PND5.

Results: Sevoflurane activated Cdk5/CRMP2 and GSK-3β/CRMP2 pathways in the hippocampus of neonatal rats, reduced dendritic length, branches and the density of dendritic spine in pyramidal neurons. It also reduced the expressions of PSD-95, drebrin and synaptophysin in hippocampus, impaired memory ability of rats and inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices. All the impairment effects by sevoflurane were attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitor of Cdk5 or GSK-3β. Furthermore, rat transfected with siRNA-CRMP2 eliminated the neuroprotective effects of Cdk5 or GSK-3β blocker in neurobehavioral and LTP tests.

Conclusion: Cdk5/CRMP2 and GSK-3β/CRMP2 pathways participate in sevoflurane-induced dendritic development abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction in developing rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.01.023DOI Listing
May 2021

Influence of chitosan on the emulsifying properties of egg yolk hydrolysates: study on creaming, thermal and oxidative stability.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, PR China.

Background: Egg yolk, as a natural emulsifier, is widely used in high-oil-phase food systems, such as mayonnaise and salad. However, the application of egg yolk in an oil-in-water system is still limited due to poor emulsifying stability. To improve the emulsifying capacity of egg yolk, the effect of chitosan addition sequence and concentration on emulsifying properties (creaming stability, thermal tolerance and oxidation resistance) of egg yolk hydrolysates were investigated.

Results: Stacking sequence of multilayer materials has an influence on properties of composite emulsions. The composite emulsions with egg yolk hydrolysis dominate at the interface (functioning on reducing interfacial tension), and chitosan layered on the surface (providing steric hindrance) displayed better stability. Little chitosan addition (0.5 g × kg , w/w) was unhelpful for the dispersion of emulsion droplets as a result of bridging flocculation. At a chitosan concentration of 2 g kg (w/w), the composite emulsion possesses the best stability. When chitosan concentration was higher than 2 g kg (w/w), depletion flocculation would occur. Hydrolyzed egg yolk prepared composite emulsions possessed better thermal resistance, but with poorer oxidative stability as compared to natural egg yolk. In combination with chitosan it also displayed a negative effect on the oxidative stability of the emulsion system.

Conclusion: The research revealed the effect of chitosan addition on the physical and chemical stability of emulsions prepared with egg yolk hydrolysates. The results could provide guidance on expanding the application of egg yolk as an emulsifier in water-abundant food systems such as beverages. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11114DOI Listing
February 2021

Development of soy protein isolate/κ-carrageenan composite hydrogels as a delivery system for hydrophilic compounds: Monascus yellow.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 13;172:281-288. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, PR China; School of Food Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to develop soy protein isolate (SPI) and κ-carrageenan (KC) composite hydrogels as a delivery system for hydrophilic compounds. The pigment of monascus yellow was used as a model. A systematic study was performed to characterize the rheological, textural, microstructural properties and in vitro digestion release profile of monascus yellow of the composite gels. The results of power law modeling, electrophoresis patterns and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that non-covalent interactions were involved in the formation of SPI/KC composite hydrogels. Compared to pure κ-carrageenan hydrogels, the incorporation of SPI could promote the formation of tougher, more uniform and compact composite gels with sustained-release property. In addition, the release behaviors of monascus yellow entrapped in the hydrogel network can be well described by the Ritger-Peppas mathematical model. Overall, our study provided a promising strategy to enhance the sustained release performance of hydrogels in digestive conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.044DOI Listing
March 2021