Publications by authors named "Junhee Lee"

90 Publications

Pyrimethamine Modulates Interplay between Apoptosis and Autophagy in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 29;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 24 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Pyrimethamine (Pyri) is being used in combination with other medications to treat serious parasitic infections of the body, brain, or eye and to also reduce toxoplasmosis infection in the patients with HIV infection. Additionally, Pyri can display significant anti-cancer potential in different tumor models, but the possible mode of its actions remains unclear. Hence, in this study, the possible anti-tumoral impact of Pyri on human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was deciphered. Pyri inhibited cell growth in various types of tumor cells and exhibited a marked inhibitory action on CML cells. In addition to apoptosis, Pyri also triggered sustained autophagy. Targeted inhibition of autophagy sensitized the tumor cells to Pyri-induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and its downstream target gene Bcl-2 was attenuated by Pyri. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated STAT5 knockdown augmented Pyri-induced autophagy and apoptosis and promoted the suppressive action of Pyri on cell viability. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Bcl-2 protected the cells from Pyri-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Overall, the data indicated that the attenuation of STAT5-Bcl-2 cascade by Pyri can regulate its growth inhibitory properties by simultaneously targeting both apoptosis and autophagy cell death mechanism(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347135PMC
July 2021

Predictive protein markers for depression severity in mood disorders: A preliminary trans-diagnostic approach study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Oct 24;142:63-72. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Depression is a common symptom of many mental disorders, especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Previous studies have reported that these diseases share common pathophysiological pathways; therefore, this study elucidated whether the plasma levels of protein markers related to common depressive symptoms differed between patients with BD and those with MDD. Plasma samples of 71 patients with mood disorders and clinical manifestations were analyzed in this study. After depleting the abundant proteins, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and label-free quantification were performed. Five proteins, viz., cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein D (APOD), mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 (MASP2), Ig lambda chain V-II region BO (IGLV2-8) and Ig kappa chain V-III region NG9 (IGKV3-20) were negatively associated with the total scores of the Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D), after adjusting for the covariates. CETP and APOD also showed significant negative correlations with the anhedonia/retardation and guilt/agitation scores of the HAM-D. Four proteins, namely, Ig kappa chain V-II region TEW (IGKC; IGKV2D-28), Ig lambda variable 5-45 (IGLV5-45), complement factor H (CFH) and attractin (ATRN), showed significant associations with anhedonia/retardation after adjusting for covariates. Proteins that significantly correlated with the symptoms could predict the remission state of depression (area under the curve [AUC], 0.83) and anhedonia/retardation (AUC, 0.80). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that complement activation, immune response, and lipid metabolism were significantly enriched pathways. Although our study design was cross-sectional and no controls were included, protein markers identified in this preliminary study will be further investigated in our subsequent longitudinal study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.07.041DOI Listing
October 2021

Review of Capacitive Touchscreen Technologies: Overview, Research Trends, and Machine Learning Approaches.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 13;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Touchscreens have been studied and developed for a long time to provide user-friendly and intuitive interfaces on displays. This paper describes the touchscreen technologies in four categories of resistive, capacitive, acoustic wave, and optical methods. Then, it addresses the main studies of SNR improvement and stylus support on the capacitive touchscreens that have been widely adopted in most consumer electronics such as smartphones, tablet PCs, and notebook PCs. In addition, the machine learning approaches for capacitive touchscreens are explained in four applications of user identification/authentication, gesture detection, accuracy improvement, and input discrimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309784PMC
July 2021

Ginkgolide C promotes apoptosis and abrogates metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells by targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

IUBMB Life 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Ginkgolide C (GGC), isolated from Ginkbiloba, has been reported to display various pharmacological actions, although, anti-cancer effect of GGC has been poorly understood till now. This study aimed to investigate whether GGC can exhibit anti-neoplastic effects against colon cancer cells and explore underlying mechanism. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling can regulate cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and migration. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) and acts as a potential therapeutic target. Abnormal activation of this signaling cascades has been reported in colon CRC. We found that GGC down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. GGC inhibited the expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, and β-catenin down-stream signals (Axin-1, p-GSK3β, and β-TrCP). Also, GGC suppressed the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway target genes including c-myc, cyclin D1, and survivin. Additionally, GGC induced apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. GGC down-regulated the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 proteins. Moreover, silencing of β-catenin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the GGC-induced apoptosis and inhibitory action of GGC on invasion. Overall, our results indicate that GGC can reduce proliferation and promote apoptosis in colon cancer cells through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Thus, GGC can serve as a potent therapeutic agent for management of colon cancer as a novel wnt signaling inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2532DOI Listing
July 2021

DG-LoRa: Deterministic Group Acknowledgment Transmissions in LoRa Networks for Industrial IoT Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Industrial IoT Intelligence Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 34129, Korea.

In this paper, we propose a novel MAC protocol, called DG-LoRa, for improving scalability in low power wide area networks. DG-LoRa is backward compatible with legacy LoRaWAN and adds new features, such as group acknowledgment transmissions in the time-synchronized frame structure that supports determinism on channel access. In DG-LoRa, the number of responses to data frames that are transmitted from end devices is maximized by allocating the spreading factor and timeslot in the frame structure. We evaluate the performance of DG-LoRa using the Monte-Carlo simulation and then compare it with the performance of legacy LoRaWAN in terms of data drop rate and the number of retransmissions. Our numerical results show that DG-LoRa supports approximately five times more connections to the LoRa network satisfying a 5% data drop rate. Also, it is observed that DG-LoRa enables low overhead by reducing the number of data frame retransmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922967PMC
February 2021

Current Advances in 3D Bioprinting Technology and Its Applications for Tissue Engineering.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 11;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has emerged as a powerful biofabrication platform for tissue engineering because of its ability to engineer living cells and biomaterial-based 3D objects. Over the last few decades, droplet-based, extrusion-based, and laser-assisted bioprinters have been developed to fulfill certain requirements in terms of resolution, cell viability, cell density, etc. Simultaneously, various bio-inks based on natural-synthetic biomaterials have been developed and applied for successful tissue regeneration. To engineer more realistic artificial tissues/organs, mixtures of bio-inks with various recipes have also been developed. Taken together, this review describes the fundamental characteristics of the existing bioprinters and bio-inks that have been currently developed, followed by their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, various tissue engineering applications using 3D bioprinting are briefly introduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12122958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764360PMC
December 2020

Prediction of psychosis: model development and internal validation of a personalized risk calculator.

Psychol Med 2020 Dec 14:1-9. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Over the past two decades, early detection and early intervention in psychosis have become essential goals of psychiatry. However, clinical impressions are insufficient for predicting psychosis outcomes in clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals; a more rigorous and objective model is needed. This study aims to develop and internally validate a model for predicting the transition to psychosis within 10 years.

Methods: Two hundred and eight help-seeking individuals who fulfilled the CHR criteria were enrolled from the prospective, naturalistic cohort program for CHR at the Seoul Youth Clinic (SYC). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-penalized Cox regression was used to develop a predictive model for a psychotic transition. We performed k-means clustering and survival analysis to stratify the risk of psychosis.

Results: The predictive model, which includes clinical and cognitive variables, identified the following six baseline variables as important predictors: 1-year percentage decrease in the Global Assessment of Functioning score, IQ, California Verbal Learning Test score, Strange Stories test score, and scores in two domains of the Social Functioning Scale. The predictive model showed a cross-validated Harrell's C-index of 0.78 and identified three subclusters with significantly different risk levels.

Conclusions: Overall, our predictive model showed a predictive ability and could facilitate a personalized therapeutic approach to different risks in high-risk individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720004675DOI Listing
December 2020

In vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid-A/benzodiazepine receptor availability and genetic liability in asymptomatic individuals with high genetic loading of schizophrenia: A [11C]flumazenil positron emission tomography study.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2021 Mar 13;36(2):e2766. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Whilst reduced signalling and gene expression related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play a role in the presumed pathophysiology of schizophrenia, its origin is unclear. Studying asymptomatic individuals with high genetic liability to schizophrenia (AIs) would provide insights. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of genetic liability in GABAergic dysfunction of schizophrenia by exploring in vivo GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor (GABAR) availability in AIs.

Methods: A total of 10 AIs with multiple relatives diagnosed as schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls underwent [11C]flumazenil positron emission tomography and neurocognitive function tests.

Results: There was no significant difference in [11C]flumazenil availability based on the groups. GABAR availability in caudate nuclei had positive correlations with genetic liability of AIs. GABAR availability in caudate nuclei and verbal memory measures of AIs revealed positive correlations. Only the correlation between right caudate and short-term verbal memory survived multiple-comparison correction (p = 0.030).

Conclusions: This study, for the first time, reports correlations between the genetic liability of schizophrenia and GABAR availability. Correlations between [11C]flumazenil binding in caudate of individuals with high genetic liability to schizophrenia suggests that the GABAergic dysfunction may arise from shared genetic factors and also that it may be responsible for cognitive impairment of AIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2766DOI Listing
March 2021

Influence of Cinnamon on Glycemic Control in Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Endocr Soc 2020 Nov 13;4(11):bvaa094. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Korean Medicine Clinical Trial Center, Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Context: The identification of adjunct safe, durable, and cost-effective approaches to reduce the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a clinically relevant, unmet goal. It is unknown whether cinnamon's glucose-lowering properties can be leveraged in individuals with prediabetes.

Objective: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of cinnamon on measures of glucose homeostasis in prediabetes.

Design Setting Participants And Intervention: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial randomly assigned adult individuals meeting any criteria for prediabetes to receive cinnamon 500 mg or placebo thrice daily (n = 27/group). Participants were enrolled and followed at 2 academic centers for 12 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was the between-group difference in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at 12 weeks from baseline. Secondary end points included the change in 2-hour PG of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the change in the PG area under the curve (AUC) derived from the OGTT.

Results: From a similar baseline, FPG rose after 12 weeks with placebo but remained stable with cinnamon, leading to a mean between-group difference of 5 mg/dL ( < .05). When compared to the respective baseline, cinnamon, but not placebo, resulted in a significant decrease of the AUC PG ( < .001) and of the 2-hour PG of the OGTT ( < .05). There were no serious adverse events in either study group.

Conclusions: In individuals with prediabetes, 12 weeks of cinnamon supplementation improved FPG and glucose tolerance, with a favorable safety profile. Longer and larger studies should address cinnamon's effects on the rate of progression from prediabetes to T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577407PMC
November 2020

Fabrication of a Polycaprolactone/Alginate Bipartite Hybrid Scaffold for Osteochondral Tissue Using a Three-Dimensional Bioprinting System.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Sep 25;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Nature-Inspired System and Application, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103, Korea.

Osteochondral defects, including damage to both the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone, are challenging to repair. Although many technological advancements have been made in recent years, there are technical difficulties in the engineering of cartilage and bone layers, simultaneously. Moreover, there is a great need for a valuable in vitro platform enabling the assessment of osteochondral tissues to reduce pre-operative risk. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems may be a promising approach for fabricating human tissues and organs. Here, we aimed to develop a polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate bipartite hybrid scaffold using a multihead 3D bioprinting system. The hybrid scaffold was composed of PCL, which could improve the mechanical properties of the construct, and alginate, encapsulating progenitor cells that could differentiate into cartilage and bone. To differentiate the bipartite hybrid scaffold into osteochondral tissue, a polydimethylsiloxane coculture system for osteochondral tissue (PCSOT) was designed and developed. Based on evaluation of the biological performance of the novel hybrid scaffold, the PCL/alginate bipartite scaffold was successfully fabricated; importantly, our findings suggest that this PCSOT system may be applicable as an in vitro platform for osteochondral tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12102203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599520PMC
September 2020

A new experimental model to study human drug responses.

Biofabrication 2020 09 25;12(4):045029. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Accurate prediction of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics is critical for drug development. Oral drugs are particularly difficult because they are absorbed by the intestine and metabolized in the liver before systemic metabolism in vivo; this is called the first-pass effect and is a critical factor for predicting oral bioavailability (BA). Here, we fabricated a new networking and circulating cell culture system (NCCS), mimicking the circulatory system and interaction of organs for studying the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of oral drugs in vitro. NCCS consisted of a micro-pump for circulating fluids, two types of multi-insert culture dishes for culturing different cell types, and an orbital shaker for mixing; flow rate and shaking-speed were controlled by weight-sensors and drivers. A first-pass effect test was performed using functionally differentiated HepaRG and Caco-2 cell lines, using a new modified spheroid forming unit (SFU) protocol. To verify the similarity of PK (first-pass effect) data of NCCS with the data from the human body, 15 reference drugs were chosen and their associated data were obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. NCCS generated absorption and metabolism data showed >70% similarity to human data respectively. NCCS can also be used to demonstrate species differences. Animal models are the primary basis for drug discovery, development, and testing. However, the weak correlation between humans and animals, particularly regarding absorption and metabolism, is a substantial limitation for the use of animal models. Here we compare human and mouse acetaminophen (APAP) metabolism using NCCS, and its application can be extended to assess cellular responses, such as efficacy and toxicity, simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/abb652DOI Listing
September 2020

Intact thalamic microstructure in asymptomatic relatives of schizophrenia patients with high genetic loading.

Schizophr Res 2021 04 3;230:111-113. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Disrupted thalamic connectivity system, which encompasses the deficits in the thalamus and thalamocortical connectivity, is regarded to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent reports suggest the possible genetic contribution to the disrupted thalamo-prefrontal connectivity, however, research on elucidating thalamic connectivity system components, specifically the thalamic nuclei, associated with the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia has been limited. Here, we investigated the genetic aspects of thalamic nuclei-specific microstructural integrities in schizophrenia.

Methods: A total of 34 asymptomatic relatives of schizophrenia patients with high genetic loading and 33 healthy control subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging, and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The thalamus was segmented via a connectivity-based segmentation method using the region-of-interest masks. The microstructural integrity of each thalamic nucleus, measured by averages of the diffusion kurtosis values, was then compared between the groups.

Results: The volumetric and mean kurtosis values of the thalamic nuclei were intact in asymptomatic relatives of schizophrenia patients with high genetic loading.

Conclusions: Our results revealed that, in the thalamic connectivity system, the genetics may hold different weights of effects on different components, and that more is given on the thalamo-prefrontal connectivity than on the thalamus. Further, the current results may add further evidence to the current literature that thalamic nuclei microstructural abnormalities present in psychosis may have state marker characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.07.008DOI Listing
April 2021

A Prospective Study for Prediction of Psychotic Relapse Using the Korean Early Signs Scale in Patients With Schizophrenia.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2020 Sep/Oct;40(5):451-456

Medical Affairs, Janssen Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: A psychotic relapse of schizophrenia is commonly preceded by nonpsychotic behavioral symptoms and signs, and detection of these early signs may enable prevention of relapse of schizophrenia. This study aimed to test the predictive validity of a Korean version of Early Signs Scale (K-ESS) for psychotic relapse for detecting the early signs.

Materials And Methods: In this multicenter noninterventional 52-week prospective study, outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia within 5 years were recruited. The K-ESS and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale were administered monthly until the end of the study or the relapse. The primary objective was to determine an optimal cutoff point of K-ESS score for prediction of psychotic relapse. The secondary objective was to assess the concurrent validity of the K-ESS using CGI-S scale.

Results: Among the 162 included patients, 14 (8.6%) relapsed during the 52-week study period. The optimal cutoff score of K-ESS was 15 with a sensitivity of 71.43% and a specificity of 52.70%, indicating poor predictive accuracy of K-ESS. A lower cutoff K-ESS score of 3 and a higher cutoff score of 28 were found in the subgroups with milder (CGI-S = 1-2) and severer (CGI-S = 3-4) symptom severity, respectively, with fair to good predictive accuracy. The K-ESS showed acceptable concurrent validity with CGI-S and concordance rate between self-rated and informant-rated scores.

Discussion: The predictive accuracy of K-ESS was limited by evaluation interval of a month. At least fortnightly follow-up would be needed for detection of early signs to prevent a psychotic relapse in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001263DOI Listing
June 2021

Rectal perforations caused by cleansing enemas in chronically constipated patients: Two case reports.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 8;8:2050313X20938251. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Gunpo, Korea.

Constipation is a common disease that is frequently treated with cleansing enemas. Enemas are considered as effective and in some cases may cause serious adverse events. Iatrogenic perforations due to enemas lead to adverse outcomes in elderly patients with a poor general condition. Perforation remains an infrequent and rarely reported complication. In this work, we describe the cases of two patients with rectal perforation caused by a cleansing enema. The first patient had rectal perforation that led to a para-rectal abscess and the second patient had generalized peritonitis caused by rectal perforation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20938251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346698PMC
July 2020

Laparoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors located at the duodenojejunal junction.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 2;8:2050313X20934688. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Gunpo, Korea.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are commonly detected in the stomach followed by the small intestine. Surgery for gastrointestinal stromal tumors affecting the duodenojejunal junction is technically challenging because of the anatomical complexity of this area. A 56-year-old woman visited the outpatient clinic with the chief complaint of melena associated with dizziness from 5 days ago. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an enhancing small bowel mass measuring 4 cm × 5 cm in the left upper abdomen abutting the duodenojejunal junction. She underwent successful laparoscopic small bowel segmental resection of the duodenojejunal junction area. Laparoscopic segmental resection with side-to-side duodenojejunostomy for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor at the duodenojejunal junction is an advanced and challenging procedure requiring experience and a good surgical technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20934688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333481PMC
July 2020

Study Protocol for a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study to Identify Proteomic Predictors of Pluripotent Risk for Mental Illness: The Seoul Pluripotent Risk for Mental Illness Study.

Front Psychiatry 2020 21;11:340. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The Seoul Pluripotent Risk for Mental Illness (SPRIM) study was designed to identify predictors leading to mental illness in help-seeking individuals by securing sufficient statistical power through transdiagnostic approaches. The SPRIM study aims to examine the clinical characteristics of high-risk individuals for mental illness and to identify proteomic biomarkers that can predict the onset of mental illness.

Methods: This paper describes the study protocol of the SPRIM study. We aim to recruit 150 participants who meet the criteria for high risk for major mental illness, 150 patients with major psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder), and 50 matched healthy control subjects for 2 years. Clinical evaluations, self-report measures, and proteomic analyses will be implemented. The assessment points are at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months.

Conclusions: In the present study, we introduced the study protocol of the SPRIM study, which is the first prospective cohort study of transdiagnostic high-risk concepts using proteomic biomarkers. This study has a paradigm that encompasses various diseases without aiming at predicting and preventing the development of a specific mental illness in help-seeking individuals. The transdiagnostic high-risk concept could be extended to provide a perspective for people with various psychopathological tendencies below a threshold, such that they do not meet the existing diagnostic criteria of mental illnesses, to determine what may lead them to a specific disease and help identify appropriate preventative interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186772PMC
April 2020

Comparison of serum protein profiles between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 04 3;20(1):145. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorders that are difficult to distinguish, as their diagnosis is based on behavioural observations and subjective symptoms. Quantitative protein profile analysis might help to objectively distinguish between these disorders and increase our understanding of their pathophysiology. Thus, this study was conducted to compare the peripheral protein profiles between the two disorders.

Methods: Serum samples were collected from 18 subjects with major depressive disorder and 15 subjects with bipolar disorder. After depleting abundant proteins, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and label-free quantification were performed. Data-dependent acquisition data were statistically analysed from the samples of 15 subjects with major depressive disorder and 10 subjects with bipolar disorder who were psychotropic drug-free. Two-sided t-tests were performed for pairwise comparisons of proteomes to detect differentially-expressed proteins (DEPs). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of canonical pathways, disease and functions, and protein networks based on these DEPs was further conducted.

Results: Fourteen DEPs were significant between subjects with major depressive disorder and those with bipolar disorder. Ras-related protein Rab-7a (t = 5.975, p = 4.3 × 10) and Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (t = 4.782, p = 8.0 × 10) were significantly overexpressed in subjects with major depressive disorder and Exportin-7 (t = -4.520, p = 1.5 × 10) was significantly overexpressed in subjects with bipolar disorder after considering multiple comparisons. Bioinformatics analysis showed that cellular functions and inflammation/immune pathways were significantly different.

Conclusions: Ras-related protein Rab-7a, Rho-associated protein kinase 2, and Exportin-7 were identified as potential peripheral protein candidates to distinguish major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Further large sample studies with longitudinal designs and validation processes are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02540-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118970PMC
April 2020

Determining the Most Appropriate Assistive Walking Device Using the Inertial Measurement Unit-Based Gait Analysis System in Disabled Patients.

Ann Rehabil Med 2020 Feb 29;44(1):48-57. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the gait pattern of patients with gait disturbances without consideration of defilades due to assistive devices. This study focuses on gait analysis using the inertial measurement unit (IMU) system, which can also be used to determine the most appropriate assistive device for patients with gait disturbances.

Methods: Records of 18 disabled patients who visited the Department of Rehabilitation from May 2018 to June 2018 were selected. Patients' gait patterns were analyzed using the IMU system with different assistive devices to determine the most appropriate device depending on the patient's condition. Evaluation was performed using two or more devices, and the appropriate device was selected by comparing the 14 parameters of gait evaluation. The device showing measurements nearer or the nearest to the normative value was selected for rehabilitation.

Results: The result of the gait evaluation in all 18 patients was analyzed using the IMU system. According to the records, the patients were evaluated using various assistive devices without consideration of defilades. Moreover, this gait analysis was effective in determining the most appropriate device for each patient. Increased gait cycle time and swing phase and decreased stance phase were observed in devices requiring significant assistance.

Conclusion: The IMU-based gait analysis system is beneficial in evaluating gait in clinical fields. Specifically, it is useful in evaluating patients with gait disturbances who require assistive devices. Furthermore, it allows the establishment of an evidence-based decision for the most appropriate assistive walking devices for patients with gait disturbances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.2020.44.1.48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056323PMC
February 2020

Distinct neural networks associated with obsession and delusion: a connectome-wide association study.

Psychol Med 2020 Jan 30:1-9. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Obsession and delusion are theoretically distinct from each other in terms of reality testing. Despite such phenomenological distinction, no extant studies have examined the identification of common and distinct neural correlates of obsession and delusion by employing biologically grounded methods. Here, we investigated dimensional effects of obsession and delusion spanning across the traditional diagnostic boundaries reflected upon the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using connectome-wide association studies (CWAS).

Methods: Our study sample comprised of 96 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 75 patients with schizophrenia, and 65 healthy controls. A connectome-wide analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between obsession and delusion severity and RFSC using multivariate distance-based matrix regression.

Results: Obsession was associated with the supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule, while delusion was associated with the precuneus. Follow-up seed-based RSFC and modularity analyses revealed that obsession was related to aberrant inter-network connectivity strength. Additional inter-network analyses demonstrated the association between obsession severity and inter-network connectivity between the frontoparietal control network and the dorsal attention network.

Conclusions: Our CWAS study based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides novel evidence for the circuit-level functional dysconnectivity associated with obsession and delusion severity across diagnostic boundaries. Further refinement and accumulation of biomarkers from studies embedded within the RDoC framework would provide useful information in treating individuals who have some obsession or delusion symptoms but cannot be identified by the category of clinical symptoms alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720000057DOI Listing
January 2020

Prediction of individual responses to electroconvulsive therapy in patients with schizophrenia: Machine learning analysis of resting-state electroencephalography.

Schizophr Res 2020 02 26;216:147-153. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has strong efficacy in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia. However, access to ECT has been limited by high costs, professional labor, treatment duration, and significant adverse effects. To provide support for the decision to perform ECT, we aimed to predict individual responses to ECT among patients with schizophrenia using machine learning analysis of resting-state electroencephalography (EEG).

Methods: Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with EEG recordings before the course of ECT were treated at Seoul National University Hospital. Among these patients, 29 were responders who showed scores of 3 or less on the Clinical Global Impression Severity scale after the course of ECT. Transfer entropy (TE), which represents information flow, was extracted from baseline EEG data and used as a feature. Feature selection was performed with four methods, including Random Subset Feature Selection (RSFS). The random forest classifier was used to predict individual ECT responses.

Results: The averaged TE, especially in frontal regions, was higher in ECT responders than in nonresponders. A predictive model using the RSFS method classified ECT responders and nonresponders with 85.3% balanced accuracy, 85.2% accuracy, 88.7% sensitivity, and 81.8% specificity. The positive predictive value was 82.6%, and the negative predictive value was 88.2%.

Conclusions: The results of the current study suggest that higher effective connectivity in frontal areas may be associated with a favorable ECT response. Furthermore, personalized decisions to perform ECT in clinical practice could be augmented by resting-state EEG biomarkers of the ECT response in schizophrenia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.12.012DOI Listing
February 2020

Neural bases of the clinical and neurocognitive differences between earlyand late-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020 07;45(4):234-242

From the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea (T. Kim, Kwak, Kwon); Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (Hur); Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea (J. Lee, T.Y. Lee, M. Kim, Kwon); Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, SNU-MRC, Seoul, Republic of Korea (Shin, T.Y. Lee, Kwon); and Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Republic of Korea (M. Kim).

Background: Using biological evidence to define subtypes within the heterogeneous population with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is important for improving treatment response. Based on age at onset, OCD can be clustered into 2 groups, each of which is more homogeneous with respect to clinical and cognitive phenotype. However, the neural bases for these phenotypic differences need to be established to construct evidence-based homogeneous groups.

Methods: We compared brain volumes, clinical symptoms, and neurocognitive function for 49 people with early-onset OCD and 52 with late-onset OCD (participants in both groups were unmedicated or drug-naïve), and 103 healthy controls. We performed regression analyses to examine group × volume interaction effects on clinical outcomes or neurocognitive function in people with OCD.

Results: We observed larger volumes in the precentral, orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri in people with early-onset OCD compared to those with late-onset OCD. Poorer visuospatial construction in early-onset OCD was correlated with a larger left middle frontal gyrus volume. Impaired visuospatial memory in people with early-onset OCD and cognitive inflexibility in people with late-onset OCD were correlated with increased and decreased volume in the left middle frontal gyrus, respectively. We found group × volume interactions for obsessive–compulsive symptom scores in the left middle temporal gyrus of people with OCD.

Limitations: Although we divided the subtypes using the commonly adopted criterion of age at onset, this criterion is still somewhat controversial.

Conclusion: We provided the neural bases for clinical and neurocognitive differences to demonstrate that biological evidence underlies the distinctions between early- and late-onset OCD. This study suggests that different treatment options should be considered for the OCD subtypes, because their neurobiology differs and is related to distinct phenotypic profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/jpn.190028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828929PMC
July 2020

Atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment toward high-quality solution-processed aluminum oxide gate dielectric films in thin-film transistors.

Nanotechnology 2019 Dec 2;30(49):495702. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Samsung Display Company, Ltd, 181 Samsung-ro, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungcheongnam-Do, Republic of Korea.

We present an atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) treatment technique to improve the electrical performance of solution-processed dielectric films. This technique can successfully reduce leakage current and frequency dependence of solution-processed dielectric films. The APP treatment contributes to the conversion of metal hydroxide to metal oxide, and in the case of a solution-treated AlO dielectric thin film, it effectively ascribes to the formation of high-quality AlO dielectric thin films. The capacitance of the untreated AlO dielectric thin film varies up to 9.9% with frequency change, but the capacitance of the APP treated AlO dielectric thin film varies within 1.5%. When the solution-processed InO thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using these dielectric films, the field-effect mobility of TFTs with the APP-treated AlO dielectric film was increased significantly from 9.77 to 26.79 cm V s in comparison to that of TFTs with the untreated AlO dielectric film. We also have confirmed that these results are similar to the properties of the sample prepared at high annealing temperature including electrical performance, conduction mechanism and chemical structure. The APP treatment technique provides a new opportunity to effectively improve the electrical performance of solution-processed dielectrics in the atmosphere at low temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab4073DOI Listing
December 2019

Global and Specific Profiles of Executive Functioning in Prodromal and Early Psychosis.

Front Psychiatry 2019 21;10:356. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Numerous reports on neurocognitive functioning deficits in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients suggest particular deficits in executive functioning (EF). However, to date, most of the studies have administered a single or a few EF tests to participants, and few investigations have examined the different components of EF to identify specific subdomains of relative strength and weakness. Forty CHR subjects, 85 FEP patients, and 85 healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with a neuropsychological battery to elucidate the profiles of EF in the subdomains of shift, attention, fluency, and planning. In the subdomains of shift, attention, and fluency, CHR individuals and FEP patients showed deficits compared to HC. The analysis revealed that CHR individuals had comparable attention shifting and phonemic fluency compared to FEP. CHR showed intermediate deficits between FEP and HCs in spatial working memory and semantic fluency, and the largest effect size was observed in semantic fluency both for CHR and FEP. Overall, the findings of this study, in addition to providing detailed profiles of EF in prodromal and early psychosis patients, highlight the informative value of the specific subdomains of semantic fluency and spatial working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537881PMC
May 2019

Inhibitory effects of Cheongsangbangpoong-tang on both inflammatory acne lesion and facial heat in patients with acne vulgaris: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Jun 28;44:110-115. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology and Dermatology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Korean Medicine Clinical Trial Center, Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital, 23 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the inhibitory effects of an herbal formulation of Cheongsangbangpoong-tang (CBT) on inflammatory acne lesions as the control of the 'Heat' pattern.

Design: A single center study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double-blind trial SETTING: Fifty-six subjects, who had more than 10 acne inflammatory lesions each, were randomly allocated into the CBT or placebo groups and took 5 g CBT extract (CBT group) or 5 g placebo extract (control group), respectively, three times a day for 8 weeks. Pattern identification, change of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, temperature of the facial points, serum cortisol level, serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate level, number rating scale, investigator global assessment (IGA), and severity score on the Korean acne grading system were measured.

Main Outcome Measure: mean change of the inflammatory acne lesions.

Results: After CBT/placebo administration, the percentage count of inflammatory lesions in subjects was significantly reduced in the CBT group when compared with the control group. The other outcomes showed no significant difference between the two groups. On pattern identification, subjects with the Wind-Heat pattern (, WHP) and Disharmony of the thoroughfare and conception vessels pattern (, DTCVP) tended show better effect than those with other patterns.

Conclusions: CBT is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris, linked to inhibition of inflammatory lesions and facial heat.

Trial Registration: CRiS (Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea), KCT0001468. Registered 06 May 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.03.018DOI Listing
June 2019

Effect of tDCS on Aberrant Functional Network Connectivity in Refractory Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

Psychiatry Investig 2019 Mar 7;16(3):244-248. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We aim to investigate the effect of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the interactions among functional networks and its association with psychotic symptoms. In this pilot study, we will determine possible candidate functional networks and an adequate sample size for future research. Seven schizophrenia patients with treatment-refractory auditory hallucinations underwent tDCS twice daily for 5 days. Resting-state fMRI data and measures of the severity of psychotic symptoms were acquired at baseline and after completion of the tDCS sessions. At baseline, decreased functional network interaction was negatively correlated with increased hallucinatory behavior. After tDCS, the previously reduced functional network connectivity significantly increased. Our results showed that fronto-temporal tDCS could possibly remediate aberrant hallucination-related functional network interactions in patients with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2018.11.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444100PMC
March 2019

Experimental Tracheal Replacement Using 3-dimensional Bioprinted Artificial Trachea with Autologous Epithelial Cells and Chondrocytes.

Sci Rep 2019 02 14;9(1):2103. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Sedaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Various treatment methods for tracheal defects have been attempted, such as artificial implants, allografts, autogenous grafts, and tissue engineering; however, no perfect method has been established. We attempted to create an effective artificial trachea via a tissue engineering method using 3D bio-printing. A multi-layered scaffold was fabricated using a 3D printer. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydrogel were used with nasal epithelial and auricular cartilage cells in the printing process. An artificial trachea was transplanted into 15 rabbits and a PCL scaffold without the addition of cells was transplanted into 6 rabbits (controls). All animals were followed up with radiography, CT, and endoscopy at 3, 6, and 12 months. In the control group, 3 out of 6 rabbits died from respiratory symptoms. Surviving rabbits in control group had narrowed tracheas due to the formation of granulation tissue and absence of epithelium regeneration. In the experimental group, 13 of 15 animals survived, and the histologic examination confirmed the regeneration of epithelial cells. Neonatal cartilage was also confirmed at 6 and 12 months. Our artificial trachea was effective in the regeneration of respiratory epithelium, but not in cartilage regeneration. Additional studies are needed to promote cartilage regeneration and improve implant stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38565-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375946PMC
February 2019

Disturbed thalamocortical connectivity in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients with a high genetic loading.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2019 09 6;53(9):889-895. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

1 Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Alterations in thalamocortical anatomical connectivity, specifically the connection between the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus, have been frequently reported in schizophrenia and are suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The connectivity of the thalamocortical white matter in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients was compared to that of healthy controls.

Methods: The unaffected relative group was defined as asymptomatic family members who had at least one first-degree relative with schizophrenia and one or more other affected first- to third-degree relatives. A total of 35 unaffected relatives and 34 healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to examine the white matter connectivity between the thalamus and orbitofrontal cortex using probabilistic tractography.

Results: After controlling for age and sex, the unaffected relatives exhibited significantly reduced fractional anisotropy values for the left thalamo-orbitofrontal tract compared to that of healthy controls, (1, 65) = 6.93,  = 0.011, effect size partial η = 0.10. However, there was no association between the Genetic Liability Score and fractional anisotropy in the left thalamo-orbitofrontal tracts.

Conclusion: Our findings in the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, which are in line with the alterations reported in schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis and clinical high risk for psychosis, highlight a possible genetic contribution to the proposed biomarker of altered thalamocortical connectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867418824020DOI Listing
September 2019

Arctiin is a pharmacological inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 residue and potentiates bortezomib-induced apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects in human multiple myeloma cells.

Phytomedicine 2019 Mar 11;55:282-292. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 24 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Arctiin is a main component from the fruits of Arctium lappa L., that can be prescribed for cold or flu in East Asian countries; it has also been found to exert chemopreventive actions against various tumor cells.

Hypothesis: In view of this evidence, we examined arctiin for its ability to trigger apoptosis and inhibit the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells.

Methods: We evaluated the effect of arctiin on STAT3 signaling cascades and its regulated functional responses in MM cells.

Results: Arctiin effectively blocked the constitutive activation of STAT3 phosphorylation in the residue of tyrosine 705. Arctiin also abrogated the constitutive activation of Src phosphorylation and Janus-activated kinases (JAKs) 1/2. Furthermore, it was found that arctiin treatment clearly enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase ε (PTPε), and the silencing of PTPε caused a reversal of the arctiin-induced PTPε expression and the blockadge of STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, arctiin could not repress IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in serum-starved U266 cells and when arctiin was incubated with a complete culture medium in RPMI 8226 and MM.1S cells. Arctiin suppressed cell proliferation, accumulated cells in the G2/M cell-cycle phase, and induced apoptosis within U266 cells, although the knockdown of PTPε prevented PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation induced by the arctiin. In addition, arctiin exerted cytotoxicity in MM cells, but did not do so in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arctiin down-modulated diverse oncogenic gene products regulated by STAT3, although the induction of apoptosis by arctiin was abrogated upon transfection with pMXs-STAT3C in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Arctiin also potentiated bortezomib-induced antitumor effects in U266 cells.

Conclusion: On the whole, our results indicate that arctiin is a potentially new inhibitor of constitutive STAT3 activation through the induction of PTPε in MM, cells and therefore has great value in treating various tumors sheltering constitutively activated STAT3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.06.038DOI Listing
March 2019

Development of in vitro three-dimensional co-culture system for metabolic syndrome therapeutic agents.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2019 05 18;21(5):1146-1157. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Therapeutics and Biotechnology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Aims: There are many obstacles to overcome in the development of new drugs for metabolic diseases, including efficacy and toxicity problems in later stages of drug development. To overcome these problems and predict efficacy and toxicity in early stages, we constructed a new model of insulin resistance in terms of communication between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages by three-dimensional (3D) culture.

Results: In this study, results focused on the functional resemblance between 3D co-culture of adipocytes and macrophages and adipose tissue in diabetic mice. The 3D mono-culture preadipocytes showed good cell viability and induced cell differentiation to adipocytes, without cell confluence or cell-cell contact and interaction. The 3D co-cultured preadipocytes with RAW264.7 macrophages induced greater insulin resistance than two-dimensional and 3D mono-cultured adipocytes. Additionally, we demonstrated that 3D co-culture model had functional metabolic similarity to adipose tissue in diabetic mice. We utilized this 3D co-culture system to screen PPARγ antagonists that might have potential as therapeutic agents for diabetes as demonstrated by an in vivo assay.

Conclusion: This in vitro 3D co-culture system could serve as a next-generation platform to accelerate the development of therapeutics for metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.13628DOI Listing
May 2019

Solution-Grown Homojunction Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jan 16;11(4):4103-4110. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology , Seoul National University , 1 Gwanak-ro , Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 , Republic of Korea.

Growing attention has been given to low temperature, solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors because they can be applied in the emerging sector of flexible and large-scale electronics. However, major obstacles of solution-grown devices, such as their relatively low field-effect mobility and the difficulty of controlling carrier concentration, limit the further advancement of the electronics. Here, we overcome these constraints through a newly renovated structure, called a "homojunction", consisting of double-stacked semiconductors with same material. The homojunction oxide thin-film transistor has remarkable electrical performance with controllability, for example, tunable turn-on voltage (-80 V to -8 V) and high average field-effect mobility (∼50 cm/V·s) are obtained via a low annealing temperature process (250 °C). Furthermore, notable achievements associated with stability, reliability, and uniformity are verified. These results are attributed to the unique phenomena of solution-grown thin films: the change of both chemical and physical properties of thin films. Our findings highlight that the thin films of high quality can be yielded through the solution process at low annealing temperatures, and thus solution-grown transistors hold great promise for widespread industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b18422DOI Listing
January 2019
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