Publications by authors named "Jungeun Lee"

141 Publications

Associations between prospective and retrospective measures of child abuse and self-reported adult health at midlife.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jul 16;120:105203. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

University of Southern California Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, United States of America.

Background: The long-term health effects of physical child abuse are well documented in self-report, retrospective studies. However, there have been few longitudinal, multimethod studies on physiological responses to stress and the onset of chronic disease, thereby slowing the advancement of prevention and intervention programs.

Objectives: This study used survey data from an extended longitudinal study to examine prospective and retrospective associations between measures of physical child abuse and adult health in the 40s.

Participants And Setting: Data are from an ongoing longitudinal study of the correlates and consequences of child maltreatment that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 children.

Methods: Bivariate correlations and multiple regression models with covariates were used to assess associations between measures of physical child abuse and outcomes of self-reported health in adulthood.

Results: Physical child abuse, measured retrospectively, was moderately related to reports of overall health, as well as a number of adult health problems and conditions, such as back and chest pain, hypertension, and certain forms of cancer. Associations were also observed for lifetime alcohol problems and past-year doctor and emergency room visits. Fewer associations between prospective parent self-report measures of physical child abuse and adult health were identified, although child welfare (official record) reports performed similarly to retrospective measures.

Conclusions: This study adds important information on the long-term health effects of child physical abuse, as well as measurement differences in the prediction of adult health outcomes. Conclusions drawn from prospective and retrospective studies of abuse are at best inconsistent, and possibly incompatible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105203DOI Listing
July 2021

Patient-specific functional electrical stimulation strategy based on muscle synergy and walking posture analysis for gait rehabilitation of stroke patients.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211016782

Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34965Konkuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To evaluate a novel multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) rehabilitation method based on the evaluation of patient-specific walking dysfunction.

Methods: This study investigated a novel multi-channel FES-based rehabilitation method that analysed the patient's muscle synergy and walking posture. A patient-specific FES profile was produced in the pre-evaluation stage by comparing the muscle synergy and walking posture of the patient with those of healthy control subjects. During the rehabilitation phase, this profile was used to determine an appropriate FES pulse width and amplitude for stimulating the patient's muscles as they walked across a flat surface.

Results: Two stroke patients with hemiplegic symptoms participated in a clinical evaluation of the proposed method involving a 4-week course of rehabilitation. An evaluation of the rehabilitation results based on a comparison of the pre- and post-rehabilitation muscle synergy and walking posture revealed that the rehabilitation enhanced the muscle synergy similarity between the patients and healthy control subjects and their quantitative walking performance, as measured by a 10-m walk test and walking speed, by up to 23.38% and 30.00%, respectively.

Conclusion: These results indicated that the proposed rehabilitation method improved walking ability by improving muscle coordination and adequately supporting weakened muscles in stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211016782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161899PMC
May 2021

Parents' Perceptions of Adolescent Exposure to Marijuana Following Legalization in Washington State.

J Soc Social Work Res 2020 29;11(1):21-38. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

University of Washington.

Objective: Parents in Washington State face new challenges related to the non-medical marijuana legislation that was passed in 2012. We asked parent focus group participants about changes they have observed in their environment, how their children are exposed to marijuana, and how this exposure might affect youth marijuana use.

Method: We conducted 6 focus groups with parents of youth ages 8 to 15 (N = 54). Parents were recruited from the Seattle Social Development Project, a multi-ethnic, longitudinal panel study that originated in Seattle in 1985. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data.

Results: Parents agreed that they did not want their children using marijuana, and were concerned that their children were exposed to marijuana more often and in many different contexts. Parents said they now need to monitor their children's environment more carefully, especially the other adults that spend time around their children. Edible marijuana products were particularly concerning for parents, as they offer a new set of challenges for parents in monitoring their children's exposure to and use of marijuana. Parents were concerned that marijuana exposure would increase risk of marijuana use in adolescents.

Conclusions: Parents' experiences in Washington State provide valuable lessons for social work practitioners, policymakers and those developing preventive interventions. Prevention efforts and public health messaging should begin legalization takes effect to support parents in preparing for changes in their social and physical environments, and should seek to incorporate parenting strategies to monitor and intervene when children are exposed to marijuana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/707642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034260PMC
January 2020

Transfection of Arctic sp. KMR5045 as a Model for Genetic Engineering of Cold-Tolerant Mosses.

Front Plant Sci 2020 8;11:609847. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea.

Mosses number about 13,000 species and are an important resource for the study of the plant evolution that occurred during terrestrial colonization by plants. Recently, the physiological and metabolic characteristics that distinguish mosses from terrestrial plants have received attention. In the Arctic, in particular, mosses developed their own distinct physiological features to adapt to the harsh environment. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Arctic mosses survive in extreme environments due to the lack of basic knowledge and tools such as genome sequences and genetic transfection methods. In this study, we report the axenic cultivation and transfection of Arctic sp. KMR5045, as a model for bioengineering of Arctic mosses. We also found that the inherent low-temperature tolerance of KMR5045 permitted it to maintain slow growth even at 2°C, while the model moss species failed to grow at all, implying that KMR5045 is suitable for studies of cold-tolerance mechanisms. To achieve genetic transfection of KMR5045, some steps of the existing protocol for were modified. First, protoplasts were isolated using 1% driselase solution. Second, the appropriate antibiotic was identified and its concentration was optimized for the selection of transfectants. Third, the cell regeneration period before transfer to selection medium was extended to 9 days. As a result, KMR5045 transfectants were successfully obtained and confirmed transfection by detection of intracellular Citrine fluorescence derived from expression of a transgene construct. This is the first report regarding the establishment of a genetic transfection method for an Arctic moss species belonging to the Bryaceae. The results of this study will contribute to understanding the function of genes involved in environmental adaptation and to application for production of useful metabolites derived from stress-tolerant mosses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.609847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873996PMC
January 2021

Does mindfulness-based intervention improve cognitive function?: A meta-analysis of controlled studies.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 Jan 28;84:101972. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

University of Nevada, Reno, United States of America.

Theoretical accounts and preliminary evidence suggest that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) improve cognitive function, but reviews of empirical studies have provided mixed results. To clarify empirical evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of 25 studies (n = 1439) and examined the effects of MBIs on four cognitive domains: attention, working memory, long-term memory, and executive function. The summary effect sizes indicate that MBIs produce non-significant effects on attention (SMD = 0.07), working memory (SMD = 0.16), and long-term memory (SMD = -0.12), while a small effect was observed for executive function (SMD = 0.29). Given significant heterogeneity across studies, we conducted meta-regression analyses with sample characteristics, age, number of treatment sessions, treatment duration, intervention type, control group type, and study design. We found moderating effects of intervention type on attention and executive function. Although the current study highlights preliminary evidence for improvements in executive function, overall results suggest non-significant findings for attention, working memory, and long-term memory. To draw a firm conclusion, further research is needed to address methodological challenges in meta-analysis and the limitations of existing studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.101972DOI Listing
January 2021

Screening and Genetic Network Analysis of Genes Involved in Freezing and Thawing Resistance in -Expressing Using Gene Expression Profiling.

Genes (Basel) 2021 02 3;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Korea.

The cryoprotection of cell activity is a key determinant in frozen-dough technology. Although several factors that contribute to freezing tolerance have been reported, the mechanism underlying the manner in which yeast cells respond to freezing and thawing (FT) stress is not well established. Therefore, the present study demonstrated the relationship between encoding monodehydroascorbate reductase from Antarctic hairgrass and stress tolerance to repeated FT cycles (FT2) in transgenic yeast . -expressing yeast (DM) cells identified by immunoblotting analysis showed high tolerance to FT stress conditions, thereby causing lower damage for yeast cells than wild-type (WT) cells with empty vector alone. To detect FT2 tolerance-associated genes, 3'-quant RNA sequencing was employed using mRNA isolated from DM and WT cells exposed to FT (FT2) conditions. Approximately 332 genes showed ≥2-fold changes in DM cells and were classified into various groups according to their gene expression. The expressions of the changed genes were further confirmed using western blot analysis and biochemical assay. The upregulated expression of 197 genes was associated with pentose phosphate pathway, NADP metabolic process, metal ion homeostasis, sulfate assimilation, β-alanine metabolism, glycerol synthesis, and integral component of mitochondrial and plasma membrane (PM) in DM cells under FT2 stress, whereas the expression of the remaining 135 genes was partially related to protein processing, selenocompound metabolism, cell cycle arrest, oxidative phosphorylation, and α-glucoside transport under the same condition. With regard to transcription factors in DM cells, and were activated, but and were not. Regarding antioxidant systems and protein kinases in DM cells under FT stress, , , , and were upregulated, whereas , , and were not. Gene activation represented by transcription factors and enzymatic antioxidants appears to be associated with FT2-stress tolerance in transgenic yeast cells. , , and , but not , have been known to be involved in the protein kinase-mediated signalling pathway and glycogen synthesis. Moreover, and encoding hydrophilin in the PM were detected. Therefore, it was concluded that the genetic network via the change of gene expression levels of multiple genes contributing to the stabilization and functionality of the mitochondria and PM, not of a single gene, might be the crucial determinant for FT tolerance in -expressing transgenic yeast. These findings provide a foundation for elucidating the -dependent molecular mechanism of the complex functional resistance in the cellular response to FT stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12020219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913288PMC
February 2021

Violence, HIV Risks, and Polysubstance Use Among HIV-Positive People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jul 1;25(7):2120-2130. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Violence experience has been consistently associated with HIV risks and substance use behaviors. Although many studies have focused on intimate partner violence (IPV), the role of violence at a structural level (i.e., police abuse) remains relevant for people who inject drugs. This study evaluated the association of IPV and police-perpetrated violence experiences with HIV risk behaviors and substance use in a cohort of HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Ukraine. We also evaluated possible moderation effects of gender and socioeconomic status in the links between violence exposure and HIV risk and polysubstance use behaviors. Data came from the Providence/Boston-CFAR-Ukraine Study involving 191 HIV-positive people who inject drugs conducted at seven addiction treatment facilities in Ukraine. Results from logistic regressions suggest that people who inject drugs and experienced IPV had higher odds of polysubstance use than those who did not experience IPV. Verbal violence and sexual violence perpetrated by police were associated with increased odds of inconsistent condom use. The odds of engaging in polysubstance use were lower for women in relation to police physical abuse. We found no evidence supporting socioeconomic status moderations. Violence experiences were associated with substance use and sexual HIV risk behaviors in this cohort of HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Ukraine. Trauma-informed prevention approaches that consider both individual and structural violence could improve this population's HIV risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-03142-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Violence, HIV Risks, and Polysubstance Use Among HIV-Positive People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jul 1;25(7):2120-2130. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Violence experience has been consistently associated with HIV risks and substance use behaviors. Although many studies have focused on intimate partner violence (IPV), the role of violence at a structural level (i.e., police abuse) remains relevant for people who inject drugs. This study evaluated the association of IPV and police-perpetrated violence experiences with HIV risk behaviors and substance use in a cohort of HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Ukraine. We also evaluated possible moderation effects of gender and socioeconomic status in the links between violence exposure and HIV risk and polysubstance use behaviors. Data came from the Providence/Boston-CFAR-Ukraine Study involving 191 HIV-positive people who inject drugs conducted at seven addiction treatment facilities in Ukraine. Results from logistic regressions suggest that people who inject drugs and experienced IPV had higher odds of polysubstance use than those who did not experience IPV. Verbal violence and sexual violence perpetrated by police were associated with increased odds of inconsistent condom use. The odds of engaging in polysubstance use were lower for women in relation to police physical abuse. We found no evidence supporting socioeconomic status moderations. Violence experiences were associated with substance use and sexual HIV risk behaviors in this cohort of HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Ukraine. Trauma-informed prevention approaches that consider both individual and structural violence could improve this population's HIV risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-03142-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Unmet Healthcare Needs of Children in Vulnerable Families in South Korea: Finding from the Community Child Center Child Panel Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 7;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 7.

College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.

Presented in this paper is a study that examined the status of unmet healthcare needs of children in vulnerable families and identified factors affecting such unmet needs. The Community Child Center (CCC) Child Panel Survey data in Korea were used. A multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to examine factors influencing unmet healthcare needs of children. Influencing factors comprised predisposing, enabling, and need factors based on the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization. A total of 340 sixth-graders from vulnerable families participated, and 96 (28.2%) children had unmet healthcare needs. Factors included absence of an after-school caregiver (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.16, 3.27]), perceived physical symptoms (OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.02, 1.73]), parental indifference (OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.002, 1.77]), duration of daily stay at CCCs (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.01, 1.71]), and satisfaction with CCC teachers (OR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.49, 0.85]). The relationship with parents and CCC teachers had the strongest influence on unmet healthcare needs of children. In order to reduce the unmet healthcare needs of children in vulnerable families, existing support structures should be expanded to offer financial and administrative support for children's parents and CCC teachers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664643PMC
November 2020

Denisovan ancestry and population history of early East Asians.

Science 2020 10;370(6516):579-583

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

We present analyses of the genome of a ~34,000-year-old hominin skull cap discovered in the Salkhit Valley in northeastern Mongolia. We show that this individual was a female member of a modern human population that, following the split between East and West Eurasians, experienced substantial gene flow from West Eurasians. Both she and a 40,000-year-old individual from Tianyuan outside Beijing carried genomic segments of Denisovan ancestry. These segments derive from the same Denisovan admixture event(s) that contributed to present-day mainland Asians but are distinct from the Denisovan DNA segments in present-day Papuans and Aboriginal Australians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abc1166DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and Exposure Level to Indoor PM2.5 in Asthmatic Children, Using Data from the Escort Intervention Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 21;17(20). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 22332, Korea.

Various studies have indicated that particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) could cause adverse health effects on pulmonary functions in susceptible groups, especially asthmatic children. Although the impact of ambient PM2.5 on children's lower respiratory health has been well-established, information regarding the associations between indoor PM2.5 levels and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children is relatively limited. This randomized, crossover intervention study was conducted among 26 asthmatic children's homes located in Incheon metropolitan city, Korea. We aimed to evaluate the effects of indoor PM2.5 on children's peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), with a daily intervention of air purifiers with filter on, compared with those groups with filter off. Children aged between 6-12 years diagnosed with asthma were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups. During a crossover intervention period of seven weeks, we observed that, in the filter-on group, indoor PM2.5 levels significantly decreased by up to 43%. ( < 0.001). We also found that the daily or weekly unit (1 μg/m) increase in indoor PM2.5 levels could significantly decrease PEFR by 0.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1 to 0.5) or PEFR by 1.2% (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.7) in asthmatic children, respectively. The use of in-home air filtration could be considered as an intervention strategy for indoor air quality control in asthmatic children's homes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589683PMC
October 2020

On the fly: Adapting quickly to emergency remote instruction in a family literacy programme.

Int Rev Educ 2020 Oct 14:1-23. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Goodling Institute for Research in Family Literacy, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extraordinary changes in family literacy instruction, forcing face-to-face programmes to shift rapidly (or "on the fly") to online, remote instruction. This study is one of the few on online teaching and learning in family literacy and, to the knowledge of the authors, the first on emergency remote instruction in a family literacy programme during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article examines how the Goodling Institute for Research in Family Literacy at The Pennsylvania State University in the United States has responded to the pandemic by converting its face-to-face family literacy classes into emergency remote instruction using online platforms. Serving eight immigrant families in 2019-2020 who live in the State College area in central Pennsylvania, the programme includes adult education, parent education and interactive parent-child literacy activities. The article discusses how teachers created online learning opportunities for parents and children to learn together, the strategies and resources instructors used to teach remotely, how challenges such as discomfort with technology were addressed, and what has been learned from the experience. Although COVID-19 presents unprecedented challenges for educators and learners in family literacy programmes more broadly, it has also compelled instructors in this particular programme to use remote instruction creatively and has revealed the critical importance of family literacy programmes as an educational support system for low-income and immigrant families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-020-09861-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554294PMC
October 2020

Electrically Elicited Force Response Characteristics of Forearm Extensor Muscles for Electrical Muscle Stimulation-Based Haptic Rendering.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Oct 4;20(19). Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

A haptic interface based on electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has huge potential in terms of usability and applicability compared with conventional haptic interfaces. This study analyzed the force response characteristics of forearm extensor muscles for EMS-based haptic rendering. We introduced a simplified mathematical model of the force response, which has been developed in the field of rehabilitation, and experimentally validated its feasibility for haptic applications. Two important features of the force response, namely the peak force and response time, with respect to the frequency and amplitude of the electrical stimulation were identified by investigating the experimental force response of the forearm extensor muscles. An exponential function was proposed to estimate the peak force with respect to the frequency and amplitude, and it was verified by comparing with the measured peak force. The response time characteristics were also examined with respect to the frequency and amplitude. A frequency-dependent tendency, i.e., an increase in response time with increasing frequency, was observed, whereas there was no correlation with the amplitude. The analysis of the force response characteristics with the application of the proposed force response model may help enhance the fidelity of EMS-based haptic rendering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20195669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582372PMC
October 2020

The effectiveness of a monetary reimbursement model for weight reduction via a smartphone application: a preliminary retrospective study.

Sci Rep 2020 09 24;10(1):15714. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Social Work and Counseling, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan, 46252, Korea.

Weight loss for obese populations has been a challenging subject. There are numerous mobile applications to address weight loss, but the low retention rate is a barrier for the intervention. This is a retrospective study, aiming to investigate the effectiveness of financial incentives to achieve weight loss via a monetary reimbursement model on a smartphone application. Participants voluntarily purchased a 16-week mobile weight loss application program, and those who logged food intake three times a day received monetary reimbursement up to the full amount they initially paid. We analyzed health-related information and logged in-app activities from participants (N = 2,803) including age, sex, weight, food intake, and physical activity on their mobile healthcare application called Noom from January 2017 to April 2019. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare differences between groups who succeeded and failed at food logging, controlling for baseline BMI. The ANCOVA found that participants who completed the food logging successfully for 16 weeks (N = 1,565) lost significantly more weight than those who failed food logging (N = 1,238, F = 56.0, p < 0.001). In addition, participants who were able to log their food intake successfully exercised more (F = 41.5, p < 0.001), read more in-app articles (F = 120.7, p < 0.001), and consumed more quantity of healthy foods (F = 12.8, p < 0.001). Monetary reimbursement is an effective tool for weight reduction by encouraging participants to monitor their health-related behaviors regularly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72908-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519092PMC
September 2020

Psychological Intimate Partner Violence, Insecure Attachment, and Parental Psychological Control from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Sep 15:886260520957974. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

We examine if psychological intimate partner violence (pIPV) is predicted by parental psychological control (PPC) via insecure attachment. Our results analyzing longitudinal data from the Child Development Project show that PPC perceived at age 16 predicts insecure attachment at age 18, which then predicts pIPV at age 24. Moreover, the paths with attachment anxiety are consistently significant while ones with attachment avoidance are not. Further, all the paths are significant regardless of the gender of the adolescents and parents, which indicates that PPC is detrimental regardless of the gender of the adolescents or parents. Lastly, PPC perceived at age 16 does not directly predict pIPV at age 24, which suggests that social learning theory of aggression (Bandura, 1978) may not explain the association from PPC to pIPV. Our results suggest that research and practice would benefit by considering PPC as an antecedent of pIPV via insecure attachment from adolescence to emerging adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520957974DOI Listing
September 2020

Frailty in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Risk of Exacerbations and Hospitalizations.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 11;15:1967-1976. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Health Services Research and Development, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome associated with vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. While frailty is thought to be common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relationship between frailty and COPD-related outcomes such as risk of acute exacerbations of COPD (AE-COPD) and hospitalizations is unclear.

Purpose: To examine the association between physical frailty and risk of acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality in patients with COPD.

Methods: A longitudinal analysis of data from a cohort of 280 participants was performed. Baseline frailty measures included exhaustion, weakness, low activity, slowness, and undernutrition. Outcome measures included AE-COPD, hospitalizations, and mortality over 2 years. Negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used.

Results: Sixty-two percent of the study population met criteria for pre-frail and 23% were frail. In adjusted analyses, the frailty syndrome was not associated with COPD exacerbations. However, among the individual components of the frailty syndrome, weakness measured by handgrip strength was associated with increased risk of COPD exacerbations (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.97). The frailty phenotype was not associated with all-cause hospitalizations but was associated with increased risk of non-COPD-related hospitalizations.

Conclusion: This longitudinal cohort study shows that a high proportion of patients with COPD are pre-frail or frail. The frailty phenotype was associated with an increased risk of non-COPD hospitalizations but not with all-cause hospitalizations or COPD exacerbations. Among the individual frailty components, low handgrip strength was associated with increased risk of COPD exacerbations over a 2-year period. Measuring handgrip strength may identify COPD patients who could benefit from programs to reduce COPD exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S245505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429100PMC
June 2021

Frailty in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Risk of Exacerbations and Hospitalizations.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 11;15:1967-1976. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Health Services Research and Development, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome associated with vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. While frailty is thought to be common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relationship between frailty and COPD-related outcomes such as risk of acute exacerbations of COPD (AE-COPD) and hospitalizations is unclear.

Purpose: To examine the association between physical frailty and risk of acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality in patients with COPD.

Methods: A longitudinal analysis of data from a cohort of 280 participants was performed. Baseline frailty measures included exhaustion, weakness, low activity, slowness, and undernutrition. Outcome measures included AE-COPD, hospitalizations, and mortality over 2 years. Negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used.

Results: Sixty-two percent of the study population met criteria for pre-frail and 23% were frail. In adjusted analyses, the frailty syndrome was not associated with COPD exacerbations. However, among the individual components of the frailty syndrome, weakness measured by handgrip strength was associated with increased risk of COPD exacerbations (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.97). The frailty phenotype was not associated with all-cause hospitalizations but was associated with increased risk of non-COPD-related hospitalizations.

Conclusion: This longitudinal cohort study shows that a high proportion of patients with COPD are pre-frail or frail. The frailty phenotype was associated with an increased risk of non-COPD hospitalizations but not with all-cause hospitalizations or COPD exacerbations. Among the individual frailty components, low handgrip strength was associated with increased risk of COPD exacerbations over a 2-year period. Measuring handgrip strength may identify COPD patients who could benefit from programs to reduce COPD exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S245505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429100PMC
June 2021

Electrochemical Descaling of Metal Oxides from Stainless Steel Using an Ionic Liquid-Acid Solution.

ACS Omega 2020 Jun 19;5(25):15709-15714. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Chemistry, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Republic of Korea.

Oxide scales often formed on the surface of stainless steel, and it is of high interest to descale the surface oxide effectively and environment-friendly during steel smelting and engineering processing. It is generally done by treating the oxide layer under strong and harsh mixed acid (HNO + HF) conditions or in a strong molten salt (NaOH + NaNO) environment at high temperatures, while the generation of very harmful and environmentally hazardous gases, such as NO , is inevitable. A novel, simple, fast, and environment-friendly electrochemical method at ambient temperature is proposed in this research to remove the oxide scale from the stainless steel surface using an ionic liquid with a small amount of HCl. It was found that the optimized electrochemical anodization treatment in an ionic liquid environment could significantly improve the descaling efficiency at least 50 times faster than the simple passive and slow dissolution in a mixture of an ionic liquid and a concentrated acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331208PMC
June 2020

Determination of Serotonin Concentration in Single Human Platelets through Single-Entity Electrochemistry.

ACS Sens 2020 07 19;5(7):1943-1948. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Chemistry, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Republic of Korea.

This research introduces a method to directly detect serotonin in a single platelet through single-entity electrochemistry. Platelets isolated from human blood were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and current-time measurements. When a single platelet collides with an ultramicroelectrode, serotonin inside the platelet is oxidized at the electrode surface, and an anodic current peak is consequently observed during measurement. The concentration of serotonin can be determined by integrating this peak current. In addition, this method can be used to determine the platelet concentration. Analysis of the collision frequency of platelets can provide information about the platelet concentration in the blood. As a result, platelet levels and serotonin concentrations in single platelets can be measured quickly and easily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.0c00267DOI Listing
July 2020

Direct Visualization of Perm-Selective Ion Transportation.

Sci Rep 2020 06 1;10(1):8898. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Perm-selective ion transportation in a nanoscale structure such as nanochannel, nanoporous membrane or nanojunction has been extensively studied with aids of nanofabrication technology for a decade. While theoretical and experimental advances pushed the phenomenon to seminal innovative applications, its basic observation has relied only on an indirect analysis such as current-voltage relation or fluorescent imaging adjacent to the nanostructures. Here we experimentally, for the first time, demonstrated a direct visualization of perm-selective ion transportation through the nanoscale space using an ionic plasma generation. A micro/nanofluidic device was employed for a micro bubble formation, plasma negation and penetration of the plasma along the nanojunction. The direct observation provided a keen evidence of perm-selectivity, i.e. allowing cationic species and rejecting anionic species. Furthermore, we can capture the plasma of lithium, which has lower mobility than sodium in aqueous state, passed the nanojunction faster than sodium due to the absence of hydrated shells around lithium. This simple, but essential visualization technique would be effective means not only for advancing the fundamental nanoscale electrokinetic study as well as interfacial ion transportation between liquid and plasma but also for providing the insight of new innovative engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65433-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264198PMC
June 2020

Externalizing Behavior Problems in Offspring of Teen Mothers: A Meta-Analysis.

J Youth Adolesc 2020 Jun 13;49(6):1146-1161. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Young maternal age at birth has been consistently recognized as a factor contributing to externalizing behavior. However, estimates of the magnitude of this association across existing studies are inconsistent. Such inconsistencies cloud the interpretation of the literature and highlight the need for a systematic synthesis of existing empirical evidence. Further, the roles of possible moderators in the association remain to be revealed. Moderation analyses will enhance the field's capacity to evaluate needs and locate a subgroup of children born to teen mothers with particularly heightened vulnerabilities. To address these gaps, the present study had two primary aims. First, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the magnitude of the association between being born to young mothers and children's externalizing behavior across existing studies. Second, moderation meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate whether the influence of being born to teen mothers on children's externalizing behavior is stronger during specific developmental periods, for a specific gender, for a specific race, or across contexts with varying teen pregnancy rates at a societal level. The current study followed the PRISMA guidelines. The search utilized multiple electronic databases including Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE through July 2019. Standardized mean difference, Cohen's d, was used as a summary estimate of effect size. A random-effects model was conducted. Moderating effects were evaluated. Twenty-one effect sizes from 18 independent samples (n = 133,585) were included in the meta-analysis. The main meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis suggested a small yet robust association between teenage motherhood and children's externalizing behavior problems. The relevant moderation analyses detected no statistically significant moderating effect for a specific gender, for racial and ethnic minority groups, during a specific developmental period, or across varying contexts. The current meta-analysis findings suggest that the impact of young maternal age on children's externalizing behavior is small, yet independent. Further, such impacts of young maternal age were similar for girls and boys, in different racial and ethnic groups, across developmental periods, and across different contexts with varying teen pregnancy rates. Prevention efforts seeking to curb the emergence of youth's externalizing behavior should focus on parenting teens, regardless of their child's gender, race, age, or contexts. Further, the current findings suggest that prevention strategies for this specific group may benefit from a hybrid approach that combines universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01232-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242132PMC
June 2020

Discovery of orally active indirubin-3'-oxime derivatives as potent type 1 FLT3 inhibitors for acute myeloid leukemia.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Jun 6;195:112205. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Biomedical Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Republic of Korea; School of Life Sciences and Center for AI-applied High Efficiency Drug Discovery, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) is expressed on acute leukemia cells and is implicated in the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Despite recent achievements in the development of FLT3-targeted small-molecule drugs, there are still unmet medical needs related to kinase selectivity and the progression of some mutant forms of FLT3. Herein, we describe the discovery of novel orally available type 1 FLT3 inhibitors from structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies for the optimization of indirubin derivatives with biological and pharmacokinetic profiles as potential therapeutic agents for AML. The SAR exploration provided important structural insights into the key substituents for potent inhibitory activities of FLT3 and in MV4-11 cells. The profile of the most optimized inhibitor (36) showed IC values of 0.87 and 0.32 nM against FLT3 and FLT3/D835Y, respectively, along with potent inhibition against MV4-11 and FLT3/D835Y expressed MOLM14 cells with a GI value of 1.0 and 1.87 nM, respectively. With the high oral bioavailability of 42.6%, compound 36 displayed significant in vivo antitumor activity by oral administration of 20 mg/kg once daily dosing schedule for 21 days in a mouse xenograft model. The molecular docking study of 36 in the homology model of the DFG-in conformation of FLT3 resulted in a reasonable binding mode in type 1 kinases similar to the reported type 1 FLT3 inhibitors Crenolanib and Gilteritinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112205DOI Listing
June 2020

Cumulative Violence Exposure and Alcohol Use Among College Students: Adverse Childhood Experiences and Dating Violence.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Apr 6:886260520913212. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.

Multiple types of childhood adversities are risk factors for dating violence among college-age youth and in turn, dating violence is associated with alcohol use. This work quantitatively examines associations of childhood adversity and dating violence with alcohol use among college students using a cumulative stress approach. Multi-campus surveys were collected from March to December 2016 in four universities across the United States and Canada ( = 3,710). Latent class analysis identified patterns of childhood adversity and dating violence. Regression analyses investigated the associations of latent class patterns with past year number of drinks, alcohol use frequency, and problematic drinking. Latent class analysis produced seven classes: "low violence exposure" (18.5%), "predominantly peer violence" (28.9%), "peer violence and psychological child abuse" (10.8%), "peer and parental domestic violence" (9.9%), "peer and psychological dating violence" (17%), "peer and dating violence" (6.6%), and "childhood adversity and psychological dating violence" (8.3%). Compared to the "low violence exposure" group, "peer and psychological dating violence" ( = .114, < .05), "peer and dating violence" ( = .143, < .05), and "childhood adversity and psychological dating violence" ( = .183, < .001) groups were significantly associated with problematic drinking. Results highlight how childhood adversity and dating violence contribute to problematic alcohol use, suggesting interventions that address both childhood adversity and dating violence may be most effective at reducing alcohol misuse among college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520913212DOI Listing
April 2020

Current research on single-entity electrochemistry for soft nanoparticle detection: Introduction to detection methods and applications.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Mar 27;151:111999. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Chemistry, The Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 04310, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In recent years, rapid progress in the field of single-entity electrochemistry (SEE) has opened a novel exploratory area in the field of analytical and electrochemistry. SEE is a method of studying the behavior of particles at the single particle level, which yields important information on the diffusion coefficient, individual particle size, size distribution, catalytic activity, collision frequency, and internal substances of the particles. Various types of particles have been studied through SEE. Among them, this review focuses on the results of analyzing soft particles (cells, proteins, viruses, liposomes, enzymes, vesicles, emulsion droplets, micelles, carbonaceous nanomaterials, and others). We introduce the various electrochemical techniques used in SEE and discuss important concepts and equations that must be known to apply SEE. We also introduce the results of recent research on several important soft particles. Finally, the potential applications in areas such as sensors, materials, catalysts, energy, and biomedicine, as well as the trends of related works are described. In the future, research on soft particle analysis using SEE is expected to increase rapidly, and this review is expected to be a valuable reference for researchers in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.111999DOI Listing
March 2020

Sex and substance use behaviors among children of teen mothers: A systematic review.

J Adolesc 2020 02 24;79:208-220. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

University of Southern California, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, 669 W. 34th Street, MRF 325, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adolescent birth is a known correlate of many challenging behavioral health consequences for offspring. This systematic review seeks to understanding the sex and substance use behaviors of children born to teen mothers extending the body of literature on the long-term outcomes of being born to a teen mother.

Methods: A systematic approach, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, was used to review and identify eligible studies in the following electronic databases: Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE. Study inclusion: (a) maternal age (>20) was the key predictor or group variable and (b) children's risky sexual or substance use behaviors were outcome variables. All articles meeting inclusion criteria were next screened using the quality assessment tool created by the Effective Public Health Practice Project.

Results: Seventeen articles reporting on risky sexual behaviors and 12 articles on substance use behaviors met inclusion criteria. We found a consistent association between being born to a teen mother and risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut and transitioning into motherhood during adolescence/young adulthood. The link between being born to a teen mother and substance use behaviors was inconsistent and only found in large population-based studies.

Conclusion: Teen mothers and their children have unique individual, family, and structural needs. Evidence highlights that while there is no clear need to adapt substance use prevention interventions for these children, investing in targeted adaptations of abstinence and safer sex interventions to meet the unique experiences of children of teen mothers and their children is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050959PMC
February 2020

Study of Ecophysiological Responses of the Antarctic Fruticose Lichen Using the PAM Fluorescence System under Natural and Laboratory Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jan 9;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Unit of Research for Practical Application, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Korea.

Antarctic lichens have been used as indicators of climate change for decades, but only a few species have been studied. We assessed the photosynthetic performance of the fruticose lichen under natural and laboratory conditions using the PAM fluorescence system. Compared to that of sun-adapted Usnea sp., the photosynthetic performance of exhibits shade-adapted lichen features, and its chlorophyll fluorescence does not occur during dry days without rain. To understand its desiccation-rehydration responses, we measured changes in the PSII photochemistry in under the average light intensity of dawn light and daylight and the desiccating conditions of its natural microclimate. Interestingly, samples under daylight and rapid-desiccation conditions showed a delayed reduction in Fv'/Fm' and rETRmax, and an increase in Y(II) and Y(NPQ) levels. These results suggest that the photoprotective mechanism of C. borealis depends on sunlight and becomes more efficient with improved desiccation tolerance. Amplicon sequencing revealed that the major photobiont of was , which has not been reported in Antarctica before. Collectively, these results from both field and laboratory could provide a better understanding of specific ecophysiological responses of shade-adapted lichens in the Antarctic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9010085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020452PMC
January 2020

Resin and Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Free Radical Probes for Glycan Capture, Isolation, and Structural Characterization.

Anal Chem 2019 12 25;91(24):15387-15396. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Quantitative Obesity Research , Montclair State University , Montclair , New Jersey 07043 , United States.

By combining the merits of solid supports and free radical activated glycan sequencing (FRAGS) reagents, we develop a multifunctional solid-supported free radical probe (SS-FRAGS) that enables glycan enrichment and characterization. SS-FRAGS comprises a solid support, free radical precursor, disulfide bond, pyridyl, and hydrazine moieties. Thio-activated resin and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are chosen as the solid support to selectively capture free glycans via the hydrazine moiety, allowing for their enrichment and isolation. The disulfide bond acts as a temporary covalent linkage between the solid support and the captured glycan, allowing the release of glycans via the cleavage of the disulfide bond by dithiothreitol. The basic pyridyl functional group provides a site for the formation of a fixed charge, enabling detection by mass spectrometry and avoiding glycan rearrangement during collisional activation. The free radical precursor generates a nascent free radical upon collisional activation and thus simultaneously induces systematic and predictable fragmentation for glycan structure elucidation. A radical-driven glycan deconstruction diagram (R-DECON) is developed to visually summarize the MS results and thus allow for the assembly of the glycan skeleton, making the differentiation of isobaric glycan isomers unambiguous. For application to a real-world sample, we demonstrate the efficacy of the SS-FRAGS by analyzing glycan structures enzymatically cleaved from RNase-B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b01303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537365PMC
December 2019

The complete mitogenome of the Arctic moss (Wahlenb.) Schwaegr.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Oct 9;4(2):3446-3447. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Unit of Research for Practical Application, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea.

The Arctic moss (Wahlenb.) Schwaegr. is distributed widely above the Arctic Circle and can regenerate successfully after 400 years of ice entombment. Here, we report the complete mitogenome sequence of . (103,937 bp). The genome contains 3 ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs, and 40 protein-encoding genes. In a phylogenetic tree generated using the combined amino acid sequences of 32 mitochondrial genes from . , 25 Bryophyta, and three Marchantiophyta, the phylogenetic position of . (Rhizogoniales) is close to that of the Hypnales and Ptychomniales, forming a monophyletic clade with perfect supporting values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1674204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707293PMC
October 2019

Time-varying effects of family smoking and family management on adolescent daily smoking: The moderating roles of behavioral disinhibition and anxiety.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 11 21;204:107572. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Social Development Research Group School of Social Work, University of Washington, 9725 3rd Avenue NE, Suite 401, Seattle, WA, 98115, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Family smoking environment and family management are associated with risk of teen smoking behaviors. However, less is known about whether these associations increase or decrease in strength across adolescence, and whether there are person-environment interactions. The current study examined 1) the age-varying main effects of family smoking and family management on adolescent daily smoking from ages 12-18 and tested 2) whether behavioral disinhibition and anxiety moderated these relationships.

Methods: Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP; N = 808), a longitudinal study examining prosocial and antisocial behavior. Analyses used time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), which tested the stability of the relationship between family smoking and family management and youth daily smoking across adolescence.

Results: Greater family smoking increased the likelihood of adolescent daily smoking, whereas greater family management reduced the likelihood of daily smoking. Significant interactions between family management and youth behavioral disinhibition and anxiety during early and mid-adolescence indicated that family management was more protective for adolescents with low (compared to high) behavioral disinhibition and anxiety. The effect of family smoking was not moderated by behavioral disinhibition or anxiety.

Conclusions: Family smoking and family management are key risk and protective factors that may be targeted for adolescent smoking prevention. Our interaction results for individual differences in behavioral disinhibition and anxiety suggest that certain types of youth may respond differently to family management practices. Findings also show periods during adolescence where family-centered preventive interventions could be optimally timed to prevent or reduce persistent adolescent smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953267PMC
November 2019

Poaceae Type II Galactinol Synthase 2 from Antarctic Flowering Plant Deschampsia antarctica and Rice Improves Cold and Drought Tolerance by Accumulation of Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Rice Plants.

Plant Cell Physiol 2020 Jan;61(1):88-104

Division of Life Science, Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Deschampsia antarctica is a Poaceae grass that has adapted to and colonized Antarctica. When D. antarctica plants were subjected to cold and dehydration stress both in the Antarctic field and in laboratory experiments, galactinol, a precursor of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and raffinose were highly accumulated, which was accompanied by upregulation of galactinol synthase (GolS). The Poaceae monocots have a small family of GolS genes, which are divided into two distinct groups called types I and II. Type II GolSs are highly expanded in cold-adapted monocot plants. Transgenic rice plants, in which type II D. antarctica GolS2 (DaGolS2) and rice GolS2 (OsGolS2) were constitutively expressed, were markedly tolerant to cold and drought stress as compared to the wild-type rice plants. The RFO contents and GolS enzyme activities were higher in the DaGolS2- and OsGolS2-overexpressing progeny than in the wild-type plants under both normal and stress conditions. DaGolS2 and OsGolS2 overexpressors contained reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relative to the wild-type plants after cold and drought treatments. Overall, these results suggest that Poaceae type II GolS2s play a conserved role in D. antarctica and rice in response to drought and cold stress by inducing the accumulation of RFO and decreasing ROS levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcz180DOI Listing
January 2020
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