Publications by authors named "Jung-Woo Choi"

96 Publications

Endothelial Cells Differentiated from Porcine Epiblast Stem Cells.

Cell Reprogram 2021 Apr;23(2):89-98

Division of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the ability of self-renewal that can retain the characteristics of the mother cell, and of pluripotency that can differentiate into several body types. PSCs typically include embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo, and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) derived from the epiblast of postimplantation embryo. Although PSCs are able to be used by differentiation into endothelial cells as a potential treatment for vascular diseases, human ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs) are followed by ethical and safety issues. Pigs are anatomically and physiologically similar to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to establish an efficient protocol that differentiates porcine EpiSCs (pEpiSCs) into the endothelial cells for applying the treatment of human vascular diseases. As a result, alkaline phosphatase (AP)-negative (-) pEpiSCs cultured in endothelial cell growth basal medium-2 (EBM-2) differentiation medium in association with 50 ng/mL of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for 8 days were changed morphologically like the feature of endothelial cells, and expression of pluripotency-associated markers (OCT-3/4, NANOG, SOX2, and C-MYC) in porcine differentiated cells was significantly decreased ( < 0.05). Additionally, when pEpiSCs were cultured in EBM-2 + 50 ng/mL of VEGF, porcine differentiated cells represented a common endothelial cell marker positive (CD31+) but monocytes and lymphocytes marker negative (CD45-). Therefore, these results indicated that pEpiSCs cultured in EBM-2 + 50 ng/mL of VEGF culture condition were efficiently differentiated into endothelial cells for the treatment of blood vessel diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2020.0088DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk Factors for Persistent Pain Requiring Surgical Treatment in Adult Symptomatic Accessory Navicular.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Identifying the risk factors for persistent pain despite proper conservative treatment in adult symptomatic accessory navicular may reduce the need for surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to identify any such risk factors.

Design: Cohort study.

Setting: University hospital foot and ankle clinic.

Patients: A retrospective review of 313 patients who presented with adult symptomatic accessory navicular was performed.

Assessment Of Risk Factors: Potential risk factors were identified via medical records and foot radiographs. The possible risk factors included age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, occurrence/cause of symptoms, occupation, type of accessory navicular, and radiographic foot parameters.

Main Outcome Measures: Predictors that relate to persistent pain requiring surgical treatment in adult accessory navicular were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.

Results: Of the 313 patients included, 30 (9.6%) underwent surgical treatment due to failure of conservative treatment. The odds of needing surgical treatment decreased by 0.96 per year of age at symptom onset (P = 0.030), but those odds were 8.52 times higher in patients who had a type IIB accessory navicular (P = 0.001). Other variables did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: Younger age at symptom onset and type IIB were the risk factors for persistent pain requiring surgical treatment in adult symptomatic accessory navicular.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000901DOI Listing
March 2021

Investigation of the Effect of Bone Mineral Density on the Postoperative Outcome of Ankle Fractures in Elderly Patients.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 Mar 10:1071100721996262. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, Guro-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The association between ankle fractures in elderly patients and low bone mineral density (BMD) has recently been recognized, but the effect of BMD on the postoperative outcome of these fractures is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMD on the postoperative outcome of ankle fractures in elderly patients to evaluate the need for BMD screening.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients aged 65 years or older who had ankle fractures and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess BMD after surgical treatment of the fracture. Postoperative outcomes were assessed using the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) grading scale score, and quality of fracture reduction. The correlation between the BMD and the outcome measures at 12 months after surgery was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results: The mean absolute value of BMD was 0.6 ± 0.1 g/cm (T-score, -1.5 ± 1.2) at the femoral neck and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/cm (T-score, -1.2 ± 1.5) at the lumbar spine. Osteoporosis was present in 33% of female patients and in 11% of male patients. At 12 months after surgery, the OMAS was 70 ± 17 and the VAS score for pain was 18 ± 17. Of the patients, 20, 21, 5, 1, and 1 had K&L grades of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. None of the clinical and radiographic outcome measures were correlated with the BMD values of the patients.

Conclusion: The postoperative outcome of the ankle fractures in elderly patients at 12 months after surgery showed no correlation with femoral neck or lumbar spine BMD at the time of fracture.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100721996262DOI Listing
March 2021

Bone Defects After Surgery for Displaced Intraarticular Calcaneal Fractures Spontaneously Improve Without Bone Grafting.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Jan 8;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Y. H. Park, H. W. Cho, J. W. Choi, H. J. Kim, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Most intraarticular displaced calcaneal fractures are accompanied by bone defects after surgical treatment, but the concern about negative effects of bone defects has not been resolved yet owing to the few studies on this issue. Therefore, studies on volumetric changes in bone defects over time and the correlation between postoperative outcomes and residual bone defects will be helpful to address the controversy on the necessity of bone grafting in bone defects of calcaneal fractures.

Questions/purposes: (1) Do bone defects change in size in the first year after surgical treatment of displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures? (2) Does the size of residual bone defects correlate with postoperative radiographic or clinical outcomes?

Methods: Between 2015 and 2019, 99 patients with displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures visited the investigators' institution, of whom 95 received surgical treatment. Of the patients treated with surgery, 25% (24 of 95) did not undergo open reduction and internal fixation via an extensile lateral approach, and 19% (18 of 95) had multiple fractures, bilateral fractures, open fractures, or a history of previous surgery on the calcaneus; all of these patients were excluded. During the study period, CT was routinely performed for calcaneal fractures immediately after and 12 months after the surgery, but 6% (6 of 95) of the patients had insufficient CT data due to loss to follow-up before 12 months or other reasons, leaving 47 patients for evaluation in this retrospective study. Fractures were fixed with plate and screws, and bone grafting was not performed in all patients. To answer our first question, which was on the changes in bone defects over time, volumetric measurements of the bone defect were performed using CT via the ITK-SNAP software. The percentage of volumetric change was calculated as a fraction of the volumetric change over 12 months from the initial volume. The percentage of the residual bone defect was calculated as a fraction of the volume of the residual bone defect relative to the volume of the entire calcaneus. To answer our second question, which was on the correlation between residual bone defects and postoperative outcomes, we assessed the Böhler angle, Gissane angle, calcaneal height, Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), and VAS score for pain and compared these parameters with the size of the residual bone defect using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The OMAS and VAS scores for pain were evaluated and recorded during patient visits, and we obtained the scores through a chart review. All volumetric measurements and radiographic evaluations were performed by two orthopaedic surgeons, and the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results: The mean volume of the bone defect measured using CT was 4 ± 3 cm3 immediately after surgery and 1 ± 1 cm3 12 months after surgery. During the first 12 months after surgery, the mean volume of the bone defect was reduced by 77% (95% confidence interval 73% to 80%). The mean residual bone defect in the entire calcaneus was 2% (95% CI 1% to 2%), and none of the postoperative outcomes were correlated with the residual bone defect.

Conclusion: As bone defects substantially resolve without treatment, surgeons do not need to use bone graft for the surgical treatment of displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Future studies that include patients who underwent bone grafting for the treatment of calcaneal fractures are needed to confirm our findings and to further investigate whether bone grafting has additional benefits for the recovery of bone defects.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001634DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of the intraoperative efficacy of the powered rasp and conventional burr in arthroscopic resection of anterior ankle osteophytes.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul, 08308, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The efficacy of the powered rasp, a new reciprocating motion device for arthroscopic resection of osteophytes, has not been verified. The aim of this study was to compare the intraoperative efficacy of the powered rasp in arthroscopic resection of anterior ankle osteophytes to that of the conventional burr.

Methods: A total of 49 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic resection of anterior ankle osteophytes (26 patients with the conventional burr and 23 patients with the powered rasp) were retrospectively reviewed. The preoperative volume of each osteophyte was measured using computerized tomography scan and three-dimensional software. The resection time was measured by review of the individual arthroscopy video, and the estimated resection rate was calculated as the volume of osteophytes/resection time.

Results: The preoperative volume of osteophytes was not different between the two groups (847.8 ± 685.3 mm in the conventional burr and 913.3 ± 605.8 mm in the powered rasp, p = 0.726). The resection time was 442.4 ± 216.6 s (seconds) in the conventional burr and 386.4 ± 186.3 s in the powered rasp, and the estimated resection rate was 1.8 ± 1.0 mm/s with the conventional burr and 2.4 ± 1.3 mm/s with the powered rasp. These measurements were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.340 and 0.083, respectively).

Conclusion: The intraoperative efficacy of the powered rasp did not show superiority to that of the conventional burr in arthroscopic resection of anterior ankle osteophytes.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2020.12.009DOI Listing
December 2020

How accurately can surgeons perform angle manipulation? Quantitative assessment of the accuracy of manual angle manipulation of orthopedic surgery: a cadaver study.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Guro Hospital, Korea University, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul, 08308, Korea.

Introduction: To date, only few studies have been performed on the accuracy of manual angle manipulation during orthopedic surgery. This cadaver study was aimed at quantitatively assessing the accuracy of manual angle manipulation performed by orthopedic surgeons according to their surgical experience and comparing it with manipulation performed with the assistance of a digital goniometer.

Materials And Methods: Six lower-leg specimens of fresh-frozen human cadavers were subjected to angle manipulation performed via Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion. K-wires were inserted manually and with the assistance of a digital goniometer at target angles of 0°, 30°, and 60° by three operators who had different levels of experience in orthopedic surgery. The accuracy of the insertion angles at the target angles was evaluated using computed tomography.

Results: The mean angle error in the manual angle manipulation was 8.8° (standard deviation [SD] 6.0). When the target angles were set to 0°, 30°, and 60°, the identified angle errors were 6.1° (SD 4.3), 8.8° (SD 6.6), and 11.7° (SD 5.6), respectively, and each value did not show any significant difference among the operators. With the assistance of a digital goniometer, the mean (SD) angle error was significantly improved to 2.1° (1.1°) (p < 0.001). The amount of improvement in accuracy significantly increased as the target angle increased (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: This cadaver study quantified the inaccuracy of manual angle manipulation in orthopedic surgery and showed that these inaccuracies ​​can be improved using an assistive device. These results support the need to develop a device that can compensate manual angle manipulation in orthopedic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03702-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Personal audio system for neckband headset with low computational complexity.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 12;148(6):3913

School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, South Korea.

Personal audio systems have been developed based on various approaches with the goal of synthesizing an isolated sound zone that avoids disturbing others in different locations. In this work, a near-field solution for a neckband headset using three loudspeakers positioned close to each ear is proposed. In particular, it is an attempt to derive a simple multichannel filter for reducing the computational cost in mobile devices. Unlike super-directive beamforming techniques, the controlled radiation pattern is not highly directional but can boost the near-field sound, thereby providing an extra sound level difference between the listener's ear locations and far-field surrounding areas. For this purpose, a multichannel filter is designed using a conventional pressure matching technique for reproducing a target signal at the ear location while suppressing sound radiation to a far-field. It is shown that the optimal filter weights can be successfully approximated in the form of a simple broadside differential array pattern. The simplified filter structure can be realized using only two second-order infinite impulse response filters for driving the middle and two side loudspeakers. Through various simulations and experiments, it is demonstrated that the proposed solution can effectively realize a personal audio system with a minimal loss of sound isolation performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0002941DOI Listing
December 2020

Genome-wide investigation of a Korean synthetic breed, Woori-Heukdon using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K BeadChip.

Genes Genomics 2020 12 3;42(12):1443-1453. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, 331-801, Republic of Korea.

Background: Woori-Heukdon (KWH) is a Korean synthetic pig breed generated using Chookjin-Duroc (KCD), Chookjin-Chamdon (KCC), and their crossbreds. Currently, there is a severe lack of studies investigating the Korean breed populations including wild boars (KWB) throughout the genome.

Objective: This study was performed to investigate the genetic characteristics of Korean pig populations at the genome-wide level.

Methods: Using the SNP dataset derived from genotyped and downloaded datasets using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K BeadChip, we compared the genomes of 532 individuals derived from 23 pig breeds to assess the genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficient, genetic differentiation, and population structure.

Results: KWB showed the lowest average expected heterozygosity (H = 0.1904), while KWH showed the highest genetic diversity (H = 0.02859) among Korean populations. We verified that the genetic composition of KWH, showing USD of 74.8% and KCC of 25.2% in ADMIXTURE analysis. In population structure analyses, KCC was consistently shown to be separated from other pig populations. In addition, we observed gene flow from Western pigs to a part of Chinese populations.

Conclusion: This study showed that Korean native pigs, KCC have genetic differences in comparison with Chinese and Western pigs; despite some historical records and recent genetic studies, we could not find any clear evidence that KCC was significantly influenced by Chinese or Western breeds in this study. We also verified the theoretical genomic composition of KWH at the molecular level in structure analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first genomic study to investigate the genomic characteristics of KWH and KCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-01008-5DOI Listing
December 2020

Author Correction: Comprehensive genome and transcriptome analyses reveal genetic relationship, selection signature, and transcriptome landscape of small-sized Korean native Jeju horse.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 21;10(1):18383. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, 55365, Republic of Korea.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74979-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577969PMC
October 2020

Effects of Zinc Oxide and Arginine on the Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Status of Weaned Pigs Subjected to High Ambient Temperature.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 31;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of the l-arginine (Arg) inclusion and different doses of ZnO on the growth performance, intestinal microbiota and integrity, and immune status of weaned pigs. A total of 180 pigs (28-day-old) were randomly allotted to six treatments with six replicate pens in each treatment and five pigs per pen. The dietary treatments were Con (1.1% Arg); P-Zn (1.1% Arg + 2500 mg Zn as ZnO/kg diet); ARG (1.6% Arg); ZnArg1 (500 mg of Zn as ZnO/kg diet + 1.6% Arg); ZnArg2 (1000 mg of Zn as ZnO/kg diet + 1.6% Arg); ZnArg3 (2500 mg of Zn as ZnO/kg diet + 1.6% Arg). The overall result showed that the inclusion of ZnArg3 significantly improved the average daily gain of pigs compared with the Con treatment. There was a reduction in feed intake in pigs fed the Con diet compared with pigs fed the ZnArg3 diet at phase 1 and overall. At phase 1, pigs fed the ZnArg3 diet and P-Zn diet showed a decreased population of spp. in the ileum compared with those of the Con treatment. In addition, a lower ileal spp. population was detected in pigs fed the ZnArg2 diet compared with pigs fed the Con diet. The pigs fed ZnArg1 and ZnArg3 diets showed a greater villus height of duodenum compared with the Con and P-Zn treatments. The pigs in the Con treatment showed increased mRNA expression of heat shock protein-27 in the liver compared with the P-Zn, ZnArg1, ZnArg2, and ZnArg3 treatments. When fed the basal diet, mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 were increased in the muscle compared with the ZnArg3 treatment. Dietary supplementation with ZnArg2 decreased the mRNA expressions of interferon-γ in the muscle compared with the Con treatment. Supplementation with P-Zn, ZnArg1, ZnArg2, and ZnArg3 decreased mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with the Con treatment. The mRNA gene expressions of interleukin-4 were decreased in the jejunum of pigs fed P-Zn, ARG, ZnArg1, ZnArg2, and ZnArg3 diets compared with pigs fed the Con diet. The jejunum gene expression of toll-like receptor-4 was upregulated in the Con and ARG treatments compared with the ZnArg1 and ZnArg3. The ZnArg1, ZnArg2, and ZnArg3 treatments showed lower mRNA expression of TNF-α compared with the Con treatment. In conclusion, there was no difference in growth performance, intestinal microbiota, gene expression of interleukins between ZnArg1 and ZnArg3 treatments. Therefore, the low level of ZnO (500 mg/kg) plus 1.6% dietary Arg may be recommended for pigs during the weaning stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10091537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552118PMC
August 2020

Increased HOXC6 mRNA expression is a novel biomarker of gastric cancer.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(8):e0236811. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Pathology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular biomarkers that are pivotal for the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). We analyzed clinical specimens using RNA sequencing to identify the target genes. We found that the expression of HOXC6 mRNA was upregulated with the progression of cancer, which was validated by quantitative real time PCR and RNA in-situ hybridization. To compare the protein expression of HOXC6, we evaluated GC and normal gastric tissue samples using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We detected significantly higher levels of HOXC6 in the GC tissues than in the normal controls at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression levels of HOXC6 mRNA in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) were significantly higher than those in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that high expression of HOXC6 mRNA is significantly associated with poor clinical prognosis. Our findings suggest that HOXC6 mRNA may be a novel biomarker and can be potentially valuable in predicting the prognosis of GC patients. Especially, HOXC6 mRNA in-situ hybridization may be a diagnostic tool for predicting prognosis of individual GC patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236811PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398522PMC
October 2020

The effects of breed and gender on meat quality of Duroc, Pietrain, and their crossbred.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 May 31;62(3):409-419. Epub 2020 May 31.

Swine Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea.

This study evaluated the effects of breed and gender in Duroc (D), Pietrain (P), and crossbred (DP) pigs. Loin samples were collected from D (n = 79), P (n = 42), and DP (n = 45) pigs. Intramuscular fat content was significantly lower in P ( < 0.001), and pH was lowest in DP pigs ( < 0.001). Gilts had higher intramuscular fat (IMF) and pH values than did castrated males ( < 0.05). Water-holding capacity was lower in DP pigs than that in D and P pigs ( < 0.001). Shear force in DP pigs was higher than that in D and P pigs ( < 0.001). Lightness and yellowness of meat in DP pigs was increased compared with coloring of P pig meat ( < 0.01). Meat from DP pigs was redder compared with meat from in D and P pigs, and it was higher in gilts than in castrates ( < 0.001). The C16:0 content was lower in P and DP pigs than in D pigs ( < 0.01). C18:2 content was higher in P and DP pigs than in D pigs ( < 0.001). Unsaturated and saturated fatty acids increased in P pigs compared with levels in D pigs ( < 0.05). Our results suggest that meat quality can be controlled by crossbreeding to increase or reduce selected properties. This study provides the basic data on the meat characteristics of F1 DP pigs. Thus, further study should be conducted to estimate the meat quality of various crossbreeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.3.409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288231PMC
May 2020

Protein expression profiles and prognostic value of E2F family members in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Apr 13;216(4):152880. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The derangement of the cell cycle facilitates uncontrolled cell proliferation and acquisition of genetic alterations favorable for malignancy. However, the protein expression profiles of E2 F family cell cycle regulators in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not yet been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the protein expression profiles and prognostic value of E2 F1, E2 F3, and E2 F4 in ccRCC cases. The immunohistochemical expression of E2 F1, E2 F3, and E2 F4 was quantitatively scored in 180 ccRCC tumor tissues and 79 normal kidney tissues. The prognostic implications of these E2 F members were determined. We found that ccRCC tumor cells showed higher nuclear expression of E2 F1, E2 F3 and E2 F4 than normal kidney samples. High E2 F1 and E2 F3 expression in tumor cells was associated with poor prognostic factors of ccRCC, whereas high E2 F4 correlated with beneficial prognostic factors. High expression of E2 F1 and E2 F3 in tumor cells was correlated with a poor overall and recurrence-free survival, while high E2 F4 expression did not. In conclusion, E2 F1, E2 F3 and E2 F4 may function as oncogenes during tumorigenesis of ccRCC, although they contribute to the progression of ccRCC in different ways. Additional studies are required to clarify the conflicting role of E2 F4 in the tumor evolution of ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2020.152880DOI Listing
April 2020

Whole-genome resequencing analysis of 20 Micro-pigs.

Genes Genomics 2020 03 12;42(3):263-272. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Division of Swine Science, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan, 31000, Republic of Korea.

Background: Miniature pigs have been increasingly used as mammalian model animals for biomedical research because of their similarity to human beings in terms of their metabolic features and proportional organ sizes. However, despite their importance, there is a severe lack of genome-wide studies on miniature pigs.

Objective: In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Micro-pigs obtained from Medi Kinetics to elucidate their genomic characteristics.

Results: Approximately 595 gigabase pairs (Gb) of sequence reads were generated to be mapped to the swine reference genome assembly (Sus scrofa 10.2); on average, the sequence reads covered 99.15% of the reference genome at an average of 9.6-fold coverage. We detected a total of 19,518,548 SNPs, of which 8.7% were found to be novel. With further annotation of all of the SNPs, we retrieved 144,507 nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs); of these, 5968 were found in all 20 individuals used in this study. SIFT prediction for these SNPs identified that 812 nsSNPs in 402 genes were deleterious. Among these 402 genes, we identified some genes that could potentially affect traits of interest in Micro-pigs, such as RHEB and FRAS1. Furthermore, we performed runs of homozygosity analysis to locate potential selection signatures in the genome, detecting several loci that might be involved in phenotypic characteristics in Micro-pigs, such as MSTN, GDF5, and GDF11.

Conclusion: In this study, we identified numerous nsSNPs that could be used as candidate genetic markers with involvement in traits of interest. Furthermore, we detected putative selection footprints that might be associated with recent selection applied to miniature pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-019-00891-xDOI Listing
March 2020

Comprehensive genome and transcriptome analyses reveal genetic relationship, selection signature, and transcriptome landscape of small-sized Korean native Jeju horse.

Sci Rep 2019 11 13;9(1):16672. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, 55365, Republic of Korea.

The Jeju horse, indigenous to the Jeju Island in Korea may have originated from Mongolian horses. Adaptations to the local harsh environment have conferred Jeju horse with unique traits such as small-sized body, stocky head, and shorter limbs. These characteristics have not been studied previously at the genomic level. Therefore, we sequenced and compared the genome of 41 horses belonging to 6 breeds. We identified numerous breed-specific non-synonymous SNPs and loss-of-function mutants. Demographic and admixture analyses showed that, though Jeju horse is genetically the closest to the Mongolian breeds, its genetic ancestry is independent of that of the Mongolian breeds. Genome wide selection signature analysis revealed that genes such as LCORL, MSTN, HMGA2, ZFAT, LASP1, PDK4, and ACTN2, were positively selected in the Jeju horse. RNAseq analysis showed that several of these genes were also differentially expressed in Jeju horse compared to Thoroughbred horse. Comparative muscle fiber analysis showed that, the type I muscle fibre content was substantially higher in Jeju horse compared to Thoroughbred horse. Our results provide insights about the selection of complex phenotypic traits in the small-sized Jeju horse and the novel SNPs identified will aid in designing high-density SNP chip for studying other native horse breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53102-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853925PMC
November 2019

High Membranous Expression of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 4 Is Associated with Tumorigenesis and Tumor Progression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Dis Markers 2019 4;2019:5702026. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Republic of Korea.

The increased requirement of fatty acids forces cancer cells to enhance uptake of fatty acids from the extracellular milieu, in addition to lipogenesis. Coexpression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) with fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) or long-chain acyl CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) synergistically activated fatty acid uptake in experimental models. In this study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CD36, FATP4, and ACSL1 in 180 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in comparison with 80 specimens of the normal kidney. We also examined the clinical implication of these three fatty acid transporters in RCC, which was validated by an open-access The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis. Both CD36 and FATP4 revealed higher membranous expressions in RCC tumor cells than in normal cells. In contrast, ACSL1 expression was remarkably reduced in RCC tumor cells compared to normal cells. CD36, FATP4, and ACSL1 showed high expressions in 74 (41.1%), 85 (47.2%), and 72 (40.0%) out of 180 RCC cases, respectively. Clinically, high FATP4 in tumor cells was associated with female gender ( = 0.05), high TNM stage ( = 0.039), tumor necrosis ( = 0.009), and tumor recurrence ( = 0.037), while high ACSL1 was only related to female gender ( = 0.023). CD36 expression revealed no correlation with the clinicopathologic parameters of RCC. Increased FATP4 expression displayed an association with short recurrence-free survival ( = 0.003). In conclusion, the high FATP4 expression was clinically associated with poor prognostic factors of RCC. Overexpression of membranous FATP4 and CD36 combined with reduced cytoplasmic expression of ACSL1 might be a tumor-specific feature of RCC, contributing to the tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5702026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476224PMC
August 2019

Whole genome sequencing analysis of horse populations inhabiting the Korean Peninsula and Przewalski's horse.

Genes Genomics 2019 06 2;41(6):621-628. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea.

Background: The Jeju horse is an indigenous horse breed in Korea. However, there is a severe lack of genomic studies on Korean horse breeds.

Objective: The objective of this study was to report genomic characteristics of domestic horse populations that inhabit South Korea (Jeju, Jeju crossbred, and Thoroughbred) and a wild horse breed (Przewalski's horse).

Results: Using the equine reference genome assembly (EquCab 2.0), more than ~ 6.5 billion sequence reads were successfully mapped, which generated an average of 40.87-fold coverage throughout the genome. Using these data, we detected a total of 12.88 million SNPs, of which 73.7% were found to be novel. All the detected SNPs were deeply annotated to retrieve SNPs in gene regions using the RefSeq and Ensemble gene sets. Approximately 27% of the total SNPs were located within genes, whereas the remaining 73% were found in intergenic regions. Using 129,776 coding SNPs, we retrieved a total of 49,171 nonsynonymous SNPs in 12,351 genes. Furthermore, we identified a total of 10,770 deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs which are predicted to affect protein structure or function.

Conclusion: We showed numerous genomic variants from domestic and wild horse breeds. These results provide a valuable resource for further studies on functions of SNP-containing genes, and can aid in determining the molecular basis underlying variation in economically important traits of horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-019-00795-wDOI Listing
June 2019

Parametric direction-of-arrival estimation with three recurrence relations of spherical harmonics.

J Acoust Soc Am 2019 Jan;145(1):480

School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, South Korea.

The eigenbeam estimation of signal parameters via the rotational invariance technique (EB-ESPRIT) is a well-known subspace-based beamforming algorithm for a spherical microphone array. EB-ESPRIT uses a recurrence relation to directly estimate directional parameters expressing directions-of-arrival (DOAs) of sound sources without an exhaustive grid-search. In the conventional EB-ESPRIT, the directional parameter along the elevational direction is given by a tangent function, which inevitably produces two shortcomings. First, the tangent function becomes singular for sources near the equator in spherical coordinates. Furthermore, two sources lying in exactly opposite directions in the spherical coordinates are indistinguishable and a strong ambiguity problem arises. In this work, an EB-ESPRIT technique based on generalized eigenvalue decomposition (GEVD) is proposed to resolve the singularity and ambiguity problems. The proposed technique uses three independent recurrence relations for spherical harmonics, thus the singularity problem due to the tangent function can be completely avoided. A common transformation matrix for extracting DOAs from recurrence relations are found from the GEVD, and the use of cosine and sine functions makes it possible to find DOAs without ambiguity and without extra transforms or angle-pairing processes. It is demonstrated that the proposed method not only overcomes the singularity and ambiguity problems, but also outperforms conventional techniques in terms of DOA accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.5087698DOI Listing
January 2019

A Rho-Associated Coiled-Coil Containing Kinase Inhibitor, Y-27632, Improves Viability of Dissociated Single Cells, Efficiency of Colony Formation, and Cryopreservation in Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Cell Reprogram 2019 02 8;21(1):37-50. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

1 Department of Animal Bioscience, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

The establishment of porcine epiblast stem cells (pEpiSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) derived from diametrical derivations is of great importance in developing biomedical models. However, pEpiSCs and piPSCs have been technically much harder to culture than mouse embryonic stem cells, showing problematic properties such as spontaneous differentiation and apoptosis after cryopreservation. Therefore, we demonstrated that Y-27632 as a Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase inhibitor could prevent dissociated pEpiSCs and piPSCs from undesirable differentiation and apoptosis in cryopreservation protocols. pEpiSC 2, 8 lines, Sendai virus-induced pluripotent stem cells (Sev-iPSCs), and lentivirus-induced pluripotent stem cells were cultured with 10 μM Y-27632 before collecting dissociated cells retrieved from colonies using various enzymes. Dissociated single cells were transferred into freezing mediums (open pulled straw vitrification, STEM-CELLBANKER (SCB), 10% dimethylsulfoxide in serum) for cryopreservation. The rates of viability and colony formation obtained from dissociated porcine stem cells after freezing/thawing were examined in the presence of Y-27632. The characteristics of pluripotency and in vitro differentiation were also examined in these stem cells treated with Y-27632 after cryopreservation. As a result, the viability and efficiency of colony formation of dissociated pEpiSCs (2, 8 lines) and Sev-iPSCs treated with 10 μM Y-27632 using the SCB cryopreservation protocol were significantly increased when compared with those of nontreated Y-27632 (p < 0.05). Pluripotency genes (OCT-3/4, NANOG, and SOX2) were positively expressed in Y-27632-treated porcine pluripotent stem cells. Also, in vitro differentiation of these stem cells was successfully induced in the presence of 10 μM Y-27632. These results indicated that treatment of Y-27632 for single-cell dissociation and the SCB cryopreservation protocol could facilitate handling porcine pluripotent stem cells and provide the widespread use of these stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2018.0020DOI Listing
February 2019

Prognostic Characteristics of MACC1 Expression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2018 1;2018:9207153. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Republic of Korea.

Recent studies have shown that overexpression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) is significantly associated with adverse prognoses of patients with different kinds of cancer. However, the exact survival effect of MACC1 on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients has not yet been established. Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the prognostic role of MACC1 mRNA in EOC by using Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter and ONCOMINE database. Our results indicated that MACC1 mRNA high expression was significantly associated with unfavorable overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21 - 1.88), = 0.00025) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.53 (95% CI: 1.24 - 1.89), = 5.8e-05) in EOC patients. We also found that the expression of MACC1 mRNA in EOC was 2.5 times higher than that in normal surface ovarian epithelium, which was statistically significant ( = 2.86e-7). Our results suggest that MACC1 expression might be a biomarker for poor prognosis in individual EOC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9207153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236659PMC
March 2019

Spindle assembly checkpoint MAD2 and CDC20 overexpressions and cell-in-cell formation in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions.

Hum Pathol 2019 03 15;85:174-183. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, 15355 Republic of Korea; Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Seoul, 02841 Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Overexpression of mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) and/or cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) in the spindle assembly checkpoint leads to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Cell-in-cell (CIC) structures are formed by the process where cancer or immune cells are internalized into adjacent host cancer cells. Here, we investigated the clinicopathological significances of spindle assembly checkpoint protein overexpression and CIC structures in 829 cases of normal, premalignant, and gastric cancer (GC) lesions. MAD2 and CDC20 expressions were significantly increased in intestinal metaplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and early GC than normal mucosa, and their expression levels were the highest in HGD. Interestingly, CDC20 immunohistochemistry specifically stained the outer cells of CIC structures, which were the most frequently observed in early GC. In univariate analyses, MAD2 and CDC20 overexpressions and CIC formation were associated with older age, intestinal histology, lower tumor-node-metastasis stage, and longer recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival of GC patients. In multivariate survival analyses, MAD2 and CDC20 overexpressions were associated with better recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.61; P = .012) and cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio, 0.63; P = .043), respectively. In conclusion, MAD2 and CDC20 are the most expressed in HGD, suggesting their roles in the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis, whereas their overexpressions in GC are associated with intestinal histology and favorable clinicopathological parameters, which may be useful for immunohistochemical classification of chromosomal instability-type GC. Moreover, CDC20 is a novel immunohistochemical marker for highlighting CIC structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2018.10.029DOI Listing
March 2019

Liquid biopsy prediction of axillary lymph node metastasis, cancer recurrence, and patient survival in breast cancer: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Oct;97(42):e12862

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Liquid biopsies using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have been developed for early cancer detection and patient monitoring. To investigate the clinical usefulness of ctDNA aberrations and cfDNA levels in patients with breast cancer (BC), we conducted a meta-analysis of 69 published studies on 5736 patients with BC.

Methods: The relevant publications were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. The effect sizes of outcome parameters were pooled using a random-effects model.

Results: The ctDNA mutation rates of TP53, PIK3CA, and ESR1 were approximately 38%, 27%, and 32%, respectively. High levels of cfDNA were associated with BCs rather than with healthy controls. However, these detection rates were not satisfactory for BC screening. Although the precise mechanisms have been unknown, high cfDNA levels were significantly associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.148, P = .030). The ctDNA mutations were significantly associated with cancer recurrence (OR = 3.793, P < .001), short disease-free survival (univariate hazard ratio [HR] = 5.180, P = .026; multivariate HR = 3.605, P = .001), and progression-free survival (HR = 1.311, P = .013) rates, and poor overall survival outcomes (HR = 2.425, P = .007).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that ctDNA mutation status predicts disease recurrence and unfavorable survival outcomes, while cfDNA levels can be predictive of axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211877PMC
October 2018

Genome-wide analysis of Hanwoo and Chikso populations using the BovineSNP50 genotyping array.

Genes Genomics 2018 12 30;40(12):1373-1382. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea.

Hanwoo and Chikso are classified as Korean native cattle breeds that are currently registered with the Food and Agriculture Organization. However, there is still a lack of genomic studies to compare Hanwoo to Chikso populations. The objective of this study was to perform genome-wide analysis of Hanwoo and Chikso populations, investigating the genetic relationships between these two populations. We genotyped a total of 319 cattle including 214 Hanwoo and 105 Chikso sampled from Gangwon Province Livestock Technology Research Institute, using the Illumina Bovine SNP50K Beadchip. After performing quality control on the initially generated datasets, we assessed linkage disequilibrium patterns for all the possible SNP pairs within 1 Mb apart. Overall, average r values in Hanwoo (0.048) were lower than Chikso (0.074) population. The genetic relationship between the populations was further assured by the principal component analysis, exhibiting clear clusters in each of the Hanwoo and Chikso populations, respectively. Overall heterozygosity for Hanwoo (0.359) was slightly higher than Chikso (0.345) and inbreeding coefficient was also a bit higher in Hanwoo (- 0.015) than Chikso (- 0.035). The average F value was 0.036 between Hanwoo and Chikso, indicating little genetic differentiation between those two breeds. Furthermore, we found potential selection signatures including LRP1B and NTRK2 genes that might be implicated with meat and reproductive traits in cattle. In this study, the results showed that both Hanwoo and Chikso populations were not under severe level of inbreeding. Although the principal component analysis exhibited clear clusters in each of the populations, we did not see any clear evidence that those two populations are highly differentiated each other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-018-0733-xDOI Listing
December 2018

Genome-wide analyses of the Jeju, Thoroughbred, and Jeju crossbred horse populations using the high density SNP array.

Genes Genomics 2018 11 11;40(11):1249-1258. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea.

The Jeju horse is an indigenous Korean horse breed that is currently registered with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, there is severe lack of genomic studies on Jeju horse. This study was conducted to investigate genetic characteristics of horses including Jeju horse, Thoroughbred and Jeju crossbred (Jeju × Thoroughbred) populations. We compared the genomes of three horse populations using the Equine SNP70 Beadchip array. Short-range Linkage disequilibrium was the highest in Thoroughbred, whereas r values were lowest in Jeju horse. Expected heterozygosity was the highest in Jeju crossbred (0.351), followed by the Thoroughbred (0.337) and Jeju horse (0.311). The level of inbreeding was slightly higher in Thoroughbred (- 0.009) than in Jeju crossbred (- 0.035) and Jeju horse (- 0.038). F value was the highest between Jeju horse and Thoroughbred (0.113), whereas Jeju crossbred and Thoroughbred showed the lowest value (0.031). The genetic relationship was further assessed by principal component analysis, suggesting that Jeju crossbred is more genetically similar to Thoroughbred than Jeju horse population. Additionally, we detected potential selection signatures, for example, in loci located on LCORL/NCAPG and PROP1 genes that are known to influence body. Genome-wide analyses of the three horse populations showed that all the breeds had somewhat a low level of inbreeding within each population. In the population structure analysis, we found that Jeju crossbred was genetically closer to Thoroughbred than Jeju horse. Furthermore, we identified several signatures of selection which might be associated with traits of interest. To our current knowledge, this study is the first genomic research, analyzing genetic relationships of Jeju horse, Thoroughbred and Jeju crossbred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-018-0722-0DOI Listing
November 2018

Direction of arrival estimation using nonsingular spherical ESPRIT.

J Acoust Soc Am 2018 03;143(3):EL181

School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea

The eigenbeam-ESPRIT (EB-ESPRIT) is a parametric method that estimates the direction of arrival of source signals using a recurrence relation of spherical harmonics. In EB-ESPRIT, the sound-source elevation angle is estimated from an arctangent function, which diverges near the equator in the spherical coordinate system and inevitably induces an ill-conditioning problem. Here, a nonsingular spherical ESPRIT technique based on sine-based recurrence relations is proposed, in which the elevation angles are estimated from an arcsine function. It is shown that the proposed technique can estimate more sources than the conventional EB-ESPRIT technique while also avoiding ill-conditioning problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.5026122DOI Listing
March 2018

IFNγ induces PD-L1 overexpression by JAK2/STAT1/IRF-1 signaling in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2017 12 19;7(1):17810. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Pathology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) acts as an immune checkpoint inhibitor in various cancers. PD-L1 is known to be more frequently expressed in EBV (+) gastric cancer (GC). However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PD-L1 expression in EBV (+) GC remain unclear. We investigated the basal and inducible PD-L1 expressions in GC cells. PD-L1 expression was upregulated upon treatment with IFNγ in both EBV (-) and EBV (+) GC cells. Upon stimulation with the same concentration of IFNγ for 24 h, EBV (+) SNU-719 cells showed dramatically higher PD-L1 expression levels by activating JAK2/STAT1/IRF-1 signaling than those of EBV (-) AGS cells. PD-L1 promoter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that IFNγ-inducible PD-L1 overexpression is primarily mediated by the putative IRF-1α site of the PD-L1 promoter in EBV (+) SNU-719 cells. Moreover, EBNA1 knockdown reduced both constitutive and IFNγ-inducible PD-L1 promoter activity by decreasing the transcript and protein levels of JAK2 and subsequently STAT1/IRF-1/PD-L1 signaling. EBNA1 is suggested to be moderately enhance both constitutive and IFNγ-inducible PD-L1 expression in EBV (+) GC cells. Thus, the signaling proteins and EBNA1 that regulate PD-L1 expression are potential therapeutic targets in EBV (+) GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18132-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736657PMC
December 2017

A Case of Wooden Foreign-Body Ingestion.

J Emerg Med 2018 Jan 26;54(1):121-123. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.09.008DOI Listing
January 2018

Unique characteristics of mutation and protein level in gastric and colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2017 Sep-Oct;23(5):268-274

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Jeokgeum-ro, Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background/aim: Recently, AT-rich interactive domain-containing 1A protein (ARID1A) has been identified as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the clinicopathologic value of ARID1A mutation or protein level in GC and CRC patients is controversial. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between ARID1A aberrations and clinicopathologic parameters in GC and CRC.

Materials And Methods: Relevant published studies were selected from PubMed and EMBASE. The effect sizes of ARID1A mutation or level on the patient's clinicopathologic parameters were calculated by prevalence rate or odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR), respectively. The effect sizes were combined using a random-effects model.

Results: The frequency of ARID1A mutation and loss of ARID1A protein expression in GC patients was 17% and 27%, respectively. The loss of ARID1A protein expression of GC patients was significantly associated with advanced tumor depth (OR = 1.8, P = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (OR = 1.4, P = 0.001), and unfavorable adjusted overall survival (HR = 1.5, P < 0.001). ARID1A mutation of GC was significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) (OR = 24.5, P < 0.001) and EBV infection (OR = 2.6, P = 0.001). The frequency of ARID1A mutation and ARID1A protein expression loss in CRC patients was approximately 12-13%. Interestingly, the loss of ARID1A protein expression in CRC patients was significantly associated with poorly differentiated grade (OR = 4.0, P < 0.001) and advanced tumor depth (OR = 1.8, P = 0.012).

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis revealed that ARID1A alterations may be involved in the carcinogenesis of GC by EBV infection and MSI. The loss of ARID1A protein expression may be a marker of poor prognosis in GC and CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjg.SJG_184_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625362PMC
May 2018

An intracortical chondromyxoid fibroma in the diaphysis of the metatarsal.

Skeletal Radiol 2017 Dec 15;46(12):1757-1762. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan-si, Republic of Korea.

Chondromyxoid fibromas (CMFs) are rare, benign, primary tumors of bones, and occur in the metaphyses of the medullary canals of the long bones. The occurrence of intracortical CMFs is extremely rare. Very few cases of intracortical CMFs located in the long tubular bones have been reported to date. Moreover, even though the feet are the second most common site for CMF (after the knees), intracortical metatarsal CMF has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. We report an intracortical CMF occurring in the diaphysis of the metatarsal in a 17-year-old man. It showed the same imaging findings as usual intramedullary CMFs, except for its cortical location. The development and serial increase in this tumor over time are also demonstrated in this report. Additionally, we present a review of current literature on intracortical CMFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-017-2743-1DOI Listing
December 2017

Multidimensional Anodized Titanium Foam Photoelectrode for Efficient Utilization of Photons in Mesoscopic Solar Cells.

Small 2017 09 19;13(34). Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Mesoscopic solar cells based on nanostructured oxide semiconductors are considered as a promising candidates to replace conventional photovoltaics employing costly materials. However, their overall performances are below the sufficient level required for practical usages. Herein, this study proposes an anodized Ti foam (ATF) with multidimensional and hierarchical architecture as a highly efficient photoelectrode for the generation of a large photocurrent. ATF photoelectrodes prepared by electrochemical anodization of freeze-cast Ti foams have three favorable characteristics: (i) large surface area for enhanced light harvesting, (ii) 1D semiconductor structure for facilitated charge collection, and (iii) 3D highly conductive metallic current collector that enables exclusion of transparent conducting oxide substrate. Based on these advantages, when ATF is utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells, short-circuit photocurrent density up to 22.0 mA cm is achieved in the conventional N719 dye-I /I redox electrolyte system even with an intrinsically inferior quasi-solid electrolyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201701458DOI Listing
September 2017