Publications by authors named "Jung-Eun Kim"

489 Publications

Acupuncture for Psychosomatic Symptoms of Hwa-byung, an Anger Syndrome: A Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:651649. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, South Korea.

Emerging studies found the potential effects of acupuncture for treating chronic pain and mental disorders, namely, depressive and anxiety disorders. Acupuncture is widely used for treating culture-related anger syndrome, Hwa-byung. This pilot trial aimed to investigate the feasibility of a clinical trial testing acupuncture for the psychosomatic symptoms of Hwa-byung. A total of 26 patients with Hwa-byung planned to be randomly assigned to the acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups. About 10 treatment sessions were applied over 4 weeks. The 100-mm visual analog scale was used to measure the six major Hwa-byung symptoms: stuffiness in the chest, heat sensations, pushing-up in the chest, feeling a mass in the throat, feelings of unfairness, and hard feelings. The criteria for assessing the success of this pilot trial were defined as improvement in three or more of the six Hwa-byung symptoms after treatment, with an effect size >0.2. A total of 15 patients were finally included and randomly assigned to the acupuncture group ( = 7) or the sham acupuncture group ( = 8). After 10 treatment sessions, the Cohen's effect sizes for acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture were >0.2 for each one of the six major Hwa-byung symptoms, which met our criteria for success. Also, the effect size for the somatic symptoms of "stuffiness in the chest" was 0.81 (95% CI -0.40, 2.20), referring to a large effect size. Our results suggest that acupuncture treatment would be regarded as an acceptable intervention for a full-scale study of psychosomatic symptoms in patients with Hwa-byung. cris.nih.go.kr, identifier: KCT0001732.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.651649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498113PMC
September 2021

Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Altered Biological Processes and Novel Markers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Long-Term Non-Progressors.

Infect Chemother 2021 Sep;53(3):489-502

School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, Korea.

Background: The latent reservoir of Human Immunodificiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) has been a major barrier to the complete eradication of HIV-1 and the development of HIV therapy. Long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) are a rare group of patients with HIV-1 who can spontaneously control HIV-1 replication without antiretroviral therapy. Transcriptome analysis is necessary to predict the pathways involved in the natural control of HIV-1, elucidate the mechanisms involved in LTNPs, and find biomarkers for HIV-1 reservoir therapy.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two LTNP subjects at multiple time points and performed RNA-sequencing analyses.

Results: We found that LTNPs and normal subjects had different transcriptome profiles. Functional annotation analysis identified that differentially expressed genes in LTNPs were enriched in several biological pathways such as cell cycle-related pathways and the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway. However, genes that were downregulated in LTNPs were associated with immune responses such as the interferon response and IL2-STAT5 signaling. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that CD8A, KLRD1, ASGR1, and MLKL, whose gene expression was upregulated in LTNPs, directly interacted with HIV-1 proteins. The network analysis also found that viral proteins potentially regulated host genes that were associated with immune system processes, metabolic processes, and gene expression regulation.

Conclusion: Our longitudinal transcriptome analysis of the LTNPs identified multiple previously undescribed pathways and genes that may be useful in the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2021.0031DOI Listing
September 2021

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Different Intensity of Dietary Counselling on Cardiometabolic Health in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 25;13(9). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Dietary counselling has been identified as one of the nutritional strategies to alleviate cardiometabolic health conditions. Its effectiveness however may vary due to factors such as intensity level and provider while this has not been comprehensively studied. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of dietary counselling on the cardiometabolic health in middle-aged and older adults and the sub-group analyses with dietary counselling intensity and the provider were also assessed. Four databases including PubMed, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Cochrane Library and EMBASE were systematically searched. Data from 22 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were compiled and those from 9 RCTs were utilised for meta-analysis. Dietary counselling lowered total cholesterol (TC) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) but had no impact on triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Sub-group analysis revealed significant lowering effect of high intensity dietary counselling for TG (weighted mean difference (WMD): -0.24 mmol/L, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): -0.40 to -0.09), TC (WMD: -0.31 mmol/L, 95% CIs: -0.49 to -0.13), LDL (WMD: -0.39 mmol/L, 95% CIs: -0.61 to -0.16) and FBS (WMD: -0.69 mmol/L, 95% CIs: -0.99 to -0.40) while medium or low intensity dietary counselling did not show favouring effects. Counselling provider showed differential responses on cardiometabolic health between dietitian and all other groups. The findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that dietary counselling is a beneficial dietary strategy to improve cardiometabolic health in middle-aged and older adults with the emphasis on the counselling intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13092936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469488PMC
August 2021

Development of a versatile copper-responsive gene expression system in the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Nov 13;22(11):1427-1435. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Fusarium graminearum is an important plant-pathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight on wheat and barley, and ear rot on maize worldwide. This fungus has been widely used as a model organism to study various biological processes of plant-pathogenic fungi because of its amenability to genetic manipulation and well-established outcross system. Gene deletion and overexpression/constitutive expression of target genes are tools widely used to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying fungal development, virulence, and secondary metabolite production. However, for fine-tuning gene expression and studying essential genes, a conditional gene expression system is necessary that enables repression or induction of gene expression by modifying external conditions. Until now, only a few conditional expression systems have been developed in plant-pathogenic fungi. This study proposes a new and versatile conditional gene expression system in F. graminearum using the promoter of a copper-responsive gene, designated F. graminearum copper-responsive 1 (FCR1). Transcript levels of FCR1 were found to be greatly affected by copper availability conditions. Moreover, the promoter (P ), 1 kb upstream of the FCR1 open reading frame, was sufficient to confer copper-dependent gene expression. Replacement of a green fluorescent protein gene and FgENA5 promoter with a P promoter clearly showed that P could be used for fine-tuning gene expression in this fungus. We also demonstrated the applicability of this conditional gene expression system to an essential gene study by replacing the promoter of FgIRE1, an essential gene of F. graminearum. This enabled the generation of FgIRE1 suppression mutants, which allowed functional characterization of the gene. This study reported the first conditional gene expression system in F. graminearum using both repression and induction. This system would be a convenient way to precisely control gene expression and will be used to determine the biological functions of various genes, including essential ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13118DOI Listing
November 2021

Overcoming Chemoimmunotherapy-Induced Immunosuppression by Assemblable and Depot Forming Immune Modulating Nanosuspension.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 7;8(19):e2102043. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Nano Engineering and School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 16419, Republic of Korea.

The deficiency of antigen-specific T cells and the induction of various treatment-induced immunosuppressions still limits the clinical benefit of cancer immunotherapy. Although the chemo-immunotherapy adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist (TLR 7/8a) induces immunogenic cell death (ICD) and in situ vaccination effect, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is also significantly increased in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN), which offsets the activated antitumor immunity. To address the treatment-induced immunosuppression, an assemblable immune modulating suspension (AIMS) containing ICD inducer (paclitaxel) and supra-adjuvant (immune booster; R848 as a TLR 7/8a, immunosuppression reliever; epacadostat as an IDO inhibitor) is suggested and shows that it increases cytotoxic T lymphocytes and relieves the IDO-related immunosuppression (TGF-β, IL-10, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells) in both TME and TDLN, by the formation of in situ depot in tumor bed as well as by the efficient migration into TDLN. Local administration of AIMS increases T cell infiltration in both local and distant tumors and significantly inhibits the metastasis of tumors to the lung. Reverting treatment-induced secondary immunosuppression and reshaping "cold tumor" into "hot tumor" by AIMS also increases the response rate of immune checkpoint blockade therapy, which promises a new nanotheranostic strategy in cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498862PMC
October 2021

Protective Effect of Ciclopirox against Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Mice by Suppressing Osteoclast Formation and Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 2;22(15). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Oral Pathology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Dentistry, Institute for Hard Tissue and Bio-tooth Regeneration (IHBR), Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41940, Korea.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is closely associated with excessive osteoclast formation and function, resulting in the loss of bone mass. Osteoclast-targeting agents have been developed to manage this disease. We examined the effects of ciclopirox on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Ciclopirox significantly inhibited osteoclast formation from primary murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and the expression of genes associated with osteoclastogenesis and function was decreased. The formation of actin rings and resorption pits was suppressed by ciclopirox. Analysis of RANKL-mediated early signaling events in BMMs revealed that ciclopirox attenuates IκBα phosphorylation without affecting mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Furthermore, the administration of ciclopirox suppressed osteoclast formation and bone loss in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice and reduced serum levels of osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen C-terminus. These results indicate that ciclopirox exhibits antiosteoclastogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo and represents a new candidate compound for protection against osteoporosis and other osteoclast-related bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348120PMC
August 2021

Amino Acids Supplementation for the Milk and Milk Protein Production of Dairy Cows.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sanghuh College of Life Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

As the preference of consumers for casein products has increased, the protein content of milk from dairy cows is drawing more attention. Protein synthesis in the milk of dairy cows requires a proper supply of dietary protein. High protein supplementation may help to produce more milk protein, but residues in feces and urine cause environmental pollution and increase production costs. As such, previous studies have focused on protein supplements and amino acid (AA) supply. This review concerns AA nutrition for enhancing milk protein in dairy cows, and mainly focuses on three AAs: methionine, lysine, and histidine. AA supplementation for promoting protein synthesis is related to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex and its downstream pathways. Each AA has different stimulating effects on the mTOR translation initiation pathway, and thus manifests different milk protein yields. This review will expand our understanding of AA nutrition and the involved pathways in relation to the synthesis of milk protein in dairy cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11072118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300144PMC
July 2021

Association of Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis with Neurodegeneration: Can Gut Microbe-Modifying Diet Prevent or Alleviate the Symptoms of Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Life (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138667, Singapore.

The central nervous system was classically perceived as anatomically and functionally independent from the other visceral organs. But in recent decades, compelling evidence has led the scientific community to place a greater emphasis on the role of gut microbes on the brain. Pathological observations and early gastrointestinal symptoms highlighted that gut dysbiosis likely precedes the onset of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The delicate balance in the number and functions of pathogenic microbes and alternative probiotic populations is critical in the modulation of systemic inflammation and neuronal health. However, there is limited success in restoring healthy microbial biodiversity in AD and PD patients with general probiotics interventions and fecal microbial therapies. Fortunately, the gut microflora is susceptible to long-term extrinsic influences such as lifestyle and dietary choices, providing opportunities for treatment through comparatively individual-specific control of human behavior. In this review, we examine the impact of restrictive diets on the gut microbiome populations associated with AD and PD. The overall evidence presented supports that gut dysbiosis is a plausible prelude to disease onset, and early dietary interventions are likely beneficial for the prevention and treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11070698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305650PMC
July 2021

(Chamomile) Ameliorates Muscle Atrophy in Mice by Targeting Protein Catalytic Pathways, Myogenesis, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

Am J Chin Med 2021 10;49(6):1493-1514. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Biocosmetics, Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea.

Muscle atrophy, or loss of skeletal muscle, is caused by aging, malnutrition, immobility through injury, or diseases such as cancer. Chamomile ( L.) contains various active components, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, polyacetylenes, and coumarins, and is used in various herbal medicines in the European Pharmacopoeia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of chamomile [Formula: see text](MC) on muscle wasting and its mechanism of action. Mice with dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy were orally administered MC (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that MC (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly recovered DEX-induced loss of muscle volume, density, and weight and MC-treated DEX-induced mice also showed increased moving distance and grip strength. MC suppressed the mRNA level of muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) while increasing the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), MyoD, and Myogenin-1. We found 25 peaks in MC samples through HPLC analysis and identified 6 peaks by comparison with a profile of standard compounds: chlorogenic acid (CGA), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (L7G), patulitrin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside (A7G), herniarin, and (E)-tonghaosu. Of these components, the gene expression of MyoD was significantly augmented by patulitrin, herniarin, CGA, and L7G in C2C12 cells, while Myogenin-1 gene expression was increased by A7G, patulitrin, herniarin, CGA, and L7G. Moreover, TFAM gene expression and phosphorylation of AKT were increased by all six ingredients. Based on our results, we suggest MC for use as a supplement or remedy for muscle wasting, including cachexia and sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500701DOI Listing
July 2021

Tetrahydrocurcumin Ameliorates Skin Inflammation by Modulating Autophagy in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Biomed Res Int 2021 14;2021:6621027. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 07441, Republic of Korea.

Obesity can induce chronic low-grade inflammation via oxidative stress. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is a major curcumin metabolite with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, but little is known about its effects on the skin of obese individuals. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative stress, and autophagy in the skin of mice with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular diet, HFD (60% of total calories from fat), or HFD supplemented with THC (100 mg/kg/day orally) for 12 weeks. We measured their body weights during the experimental period. After 12-week treatments, we performed western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses on skin samples to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers, and autophagy markers. We observed higher tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), Nox4, and phosphorylated p65 levels; lower nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression; and higher light chain 3 (LC3), autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), and Beclin 1 expression in the skin of HFD mice compared to the corresponding levels in the skin of mice fed with regular diet. THC administration decreased TNF-, Nox2, Nox4, and phosphorylated p65 levels and activated the Nrf2 pathway. Interestingly, THC administration suppressed the expression of the autophagy markers LC3, Atg5, and Beclin 1. Overall, HFD-fed mice exhibited an elevation in inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in their skin. THC ameliorated obesity-related skin pathology, and therefore, it is a potential therapeutic agent for obesity-related inflammatory skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6621027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219437PMC
June 2021

Association between Skin Cancer and Systemic and Ocular Comorbidities in South Korea.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 1;10(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Bucheon, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, 170 Jomaru-ro, Bucheon 14584, Korea.

Background: In this study, we investigated the associations between various systemic and ocular comorbidities and skin cancer, in a nationwide cohort of South Koreans.

Method: We reviewed the data of 1,103,302 individuals in the South Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database from 2002 to 2015. Of these, 1202 individuals diagnosed with skin cancer from 2004 were included in the study group. The control group was matched in a 1:5 ratio based on propensity scores.

Results: The prevalence rates of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer increased from 2004 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, among the various systemic conditions, hypertension was significantly associated with skin cancer, while among ocular comorbidities, macular degeneration showed a significant association with skin cancer.

Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate associations between skin cancer and various systemic and ocular comorbidities. The results suggest that hypertension and macular degeneration may increase the risk of skin cancer development, or vice versa. Further studies are needed to evaluate the causal relationships between these conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198495PMC
June 2021

S100 Calcium-Binding Protein P Secreted from Megakaryocytes Promotes Osteoclast Maturation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 7;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

Megakaryocytes (MKs) differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells and produce platelets at the final stage of differentiation. MKs directly interact with bone cells during bone remodeling. However, whether MKs are involved in regulating bone metabolism through indirect regulatory effects on bone cells is unclear. Here, we observed increased osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) cultured in MK-cultured conditioned medium (MK CM), suggesting that this medium contains factors secreted from MKs that affect osteoclastogenesis. To identify the MK-secreted factor, DNA microarray analysis of the human leukemia cell line K562 and MKs was performed, and S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) was selected as a candidate gene affecting osteoclast differentiation. S100P was more highly expressed in MKs than in K562 cells, and showed higher levels in MK CM than in K562-cultured conditioned medium. In BMMs cultured in the presence of recombinant human S100P protein, osteoclast differentiation was promoted and marker gene expression was increased. The resorption area was significantly larger in S100P protein-treated osteoclasts, demonstrating enhanced resorption activity. Overall, S100P secreted from MKs promotes osteoclast differentiation and resorption activity, suggesting that MKs indirectly regulate osteoclast differentiation and activity through the paracrine action of S100P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201154PMC
June 2021

Multicenter survey of symptoms, work life, economic status, and quality of life of complex regional pain syndrome patients.

Korean J Pain 2021 Jul;34(3):288-303

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an intractable pain disease with various symptoms. Here, we investigated the disease status, work life, sleep problems, medical insurance, economic status, psychological problems, and quality of life (QOL) of CRPS patients.

Methods: CRPS patients from 37 university hospitals in South Korea were surveyed. The survey questionnaire consisted of 24 questions on the following aspects of CRPS patients: sex, age, occupation, cause of injury, activities of daily living (ADL), pain severity, sleep disturbance, level of education, economic status, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation. Additionally, the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, consisting of 26 questions, was used to identify the status of QOL.

Results: A total of 251 patients completed the questionnaire. According to the survey, 54.2% patients could not perform ADL on their own. Over the previous week, the mean pain score was 7.15 ± 1.78 (out of a total of 10 points); 92.1% of patients had sleep disorders and 80.5% had suicidal ideation, with most patients suffering from psychological problems. The average for each domain of WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: 21.74 ± 14.77 for physical, 25.22 ± 17.66 for psychological, 32.02 ± 22.36 for social relationship, and 30.69 ± 15.83 for environmental (out of a total of 100 points each). Occupation, ADL, sleep time, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation were statistically correlated with multiple domains.

Conclusions: Most patients had moderate to severe pain, economic problems, limitations of their ADL, sleep problems, psychological problems, and a low QOL score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.3.288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255153PMC
July 2021

Correlation between craniofacial changes and respiratory improvement after nasomaxillary skeletal expansion in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea patients.

Sleep Breath 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Orthodontics, Kyung Hee University School of Dentistry, 23 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, South Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the changes in respiratory function and dimensions of the nasomaxillary complex (NMC) and upper airway (UA) compartments after nasomaxillary skeletal expansion (NMSE) treatment for pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Methods: Nonobese OSA patients (mean age, 13.6 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index, 18.1 ± 3.0 kg/m); mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, 7.0 ± 5.4 events/h) presenting with transverse nasomaxillary constriction were evaluated before and after NMSE using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), home sleep test, and modified pediatric sleep questionnaire (m-PSQ). Paired t tests were performed to examine the treatment-related changes in all the parameters, and a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns was conducted to determine the dimensional parameters to affect the functional improvement.

Results: Among 26 patients, NMSE treatment significantly increased NMC dimensions at all tested levels and all UA compartments in CBCT, except glossopharyngeal airway. Concurrently, AHI, oxygen desaturation index, the lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO), flow limitation (FL), snoring, and m-PSQ were significantly improved. AHI reduction was correlated with UA enlargement with no correlation with NMC expansion, whereas FL reduction was affected by NMC expansion. The minimal cross-sectional area was the most predictive of functional improvement, presenting correlations with AHI, LSaO, and m-PSQ.

Conclusion: NMSE can be a good treatment for pediatric OSA patients when applied to enhance the nasal and pharyngeal airway patencies beyond the NMC, ultimately to improve pharyngeal collapsibility as well as nasal airflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-021-02426-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Therapeutic efficacy of cancer vaccine adjuvanted with nanoemulsion loaded with TLR7/8 agonist in lung cancer model.

Nanomedicine 2021 10 24;37:102415. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Health Science and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved clinical outcomes in various malignant cancers, only a small proportion of patients reap benefits, likely due to the low number of T cells and high number of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of patients with advanced disease. We developed a cancer vaccine adjuvanted with nanoemulsion (NE) loaded with TLR7/8 agonist (R848) and analyzed its therapeutic effect alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, on antitumor immune responses and the reprogramming of suppressive immune cells in the TME. NE (R848) demonstrated robust local and systemic antitumor immune responses in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse lung cancer models, inducing tumor-specific T cell activation and mitigating T cell exhaustion. Combination with anti-PD-1 antibodies showed synergistic effects with respect to therapeutic efficacy and survival rate. Thus, NE (R848)-based cancer vaccines could prevent tumor recurrence and prolong survival by activating antitumor immunity and reprogramming immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2021.102415DOI Listing
October 2021

The influence of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in predicting fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation.

Int J Med Sci 2021 29;18(12):2589-2598. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, University of Hallym College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Dynamic preload parameters such as pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) have widely been used as accurate predictors for fluid responsiveness in patients under mechanical ventilation. To circumvent the limitation of decreased cyclic change of intrathoracic pressure, we performed an intermittent PEEP challenge test to evaluate whether PPV or SVV can predict fluid responsiveness during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Forty patients undergoing OLV were analyzed. Baseline hemodynamic variables including PPV and SVV and respiratory variables were recorded after chest opening in lateral position under OLV (T1). Five minutes after application of PEEP 10 cmHO, the parameters were recorded (T2). Thereafter, PEEP was withdrawn to 0 cmHO for 5 minutes (T3), and fluid loading was performed with balanced crystalloid solution 6 mL/kg of ideal body weight for 5 minutes. Five minutes after completion of fluid loading, all variables were recorded (T4). The patient was classified as fluid responder if SV increased ≥10% after fluid loading and as non-responder if SV increased <10%. Prediction of fluid responsiveness was evaluated with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Change in stroke volume variation (ΔSVV) showed AUC of 0.9 (P < 0.001), 95% CI = 0.82-0.99, sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 82% for discrimination of fluid responsiveness. Change in pulse pressure variation (ΔPPV) showed AUC of 0.88 (P < 0.001), 95% CI = 0.78-0.97, sensitivity = 83%, specificity = 72% in predictability of fluid responsiveness. Cardiac index and stroke volume were well maintained after PEEP challenge in non-responders while they increased in responders. ΔPPV and ΔSVV induced by PEEP challenge are reliable parameters to predict fluid responsiveness as well as very good predictors of fluid unresponsiveness during OLV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.59653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176162PMC
April 2021

Acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care for recovery after traumatic multiple rib fractures: a prospective feasibility cohort study.

Acupunct Med 2021 May 28:9645284211009539. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Nursing, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, South Korea.

Introduction: Acute pain significantly delays early physiological recovery and results in chronic functional disability in patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures (MRFs). This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the feasibility of acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care during recovery in patients with traumatic MRFs.

Methods: Twenty patients with traumatic MRFs who were admitted to a regional trauma centre in South Korea were enrolled. A combination of acupuncture and multidisciplinary inpatient ward management was provided at the trauma ward. Patients were permitted to continue acupuncture treatments at outpatient clinics for 3 months after the traumatic events. Clinical outcomes, including pain, acute physiological recovery, quality of life, patient satisfaction with the care provided, respiratory function and use of opioids, were evaluated up to 6 months after trauma.

Results: Seventeen (85%) participants completed the 6-month follow-up. One patient withdrew consent during admission due to discomfort after three sessions of acupuncture. The proportion of patients with above-moderate level of pain decreased from 95% at baseline to 41% at 6 months. Quality of life appeared to deteriorate consistently throughout the study period. Around 80% of respondents expressed satisfaction with the acupuncture treatments and stated that they found acupuncture to be acceptable. Over 94% of respondents reported slight or considerable improvement.

Conclusion: The provision of acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care for recovery in patients with traumatic MRFs was feasible in a regional trauma centre in South Korea. Randomised trials are needed to investigate the role of acupuncture combined with multidisciplinary care in the future.

Trial Registration Number: KCT0002911 (Clinical Research Information Service).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09645284211009539DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhancing the cardiovascular protective effects of a healthy dietary pattern with wolfberry (Lycium barbarum): A randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 07;114(1):80-89

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The consumption of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), a rich source of carotenoids and bioactive polysaccharides, may serve as a potential dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management although limited studies examined its effects as whole fruits.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of wolfberry consumption as part of a healthy dietary pattern on vascular health-related outcomes and classical CVD risk factors in middle-aged and older adults in Singapore.

Methods: This is a 16-week, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. All participants (n = 40) received dietary counselling to follow healthy dietary pattern recommendations with the wolfberry group given additional instructions to cook and consume 15 g/d whole, dried wolfberry with their main meals. Biomarkers of vascular function (flow-mediated dilation, plasma total nitrate/nitrite, endothelin-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1), vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness) and vascular regeneration (endothelial progenitor cell count, plasma angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2), were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Serum lipid-lipoproteins and blood pressure were evaluated every 4 weeks.

Results: All participants showed an improved compliance toward the healthy dietary pattern. This was coupled with marked rises in total nitrate/nitrite concentrations (mean change wolfberry: 3.92 ± 1.73 nmol/mL; control: 5.01 ± 2.55 nmol/L) and reductions in endothelin-1 concentrations (wolfberry: -0.19 ± 0.06 pg/mL; control: -0.15 ± 0.08 pg/mL). Compared with the control which depicted no changes from baseline, the wolfberry group had a significantly higher HDL cholesterol (0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L), as well as lower Framingham predicted long-term CVD risk (-0.8 ± 0.5%) and vascular age (-1.9 ± 1.0 y) postintervention. No differences were observed in the other vascular health-related outcomes.

Conclusions: In middle-aged and older adults, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern improves vascular tone. Incorporating wolfberry to the diet further improves blood lipid-lipoprotein profile and may lower long-term CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicatrials.gov as NCT03535844.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab062DOI Listing
July 2021

Sequence Length of HIV-1 Subtype B Increases over Time: Analysis of a Cohort of Patients with Hemophilia over 30 Years.

Viruses 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

HIV Databases, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA.

We aimed to investigate whether the sequence length of HIV-1 increases over time. We performed a longitudinal analysis of full-length coding region sequences (FLs) during an HIV-1 outbreak among patients with hemophilia and local controls infected with the Korean subclade B of HIV-1 (KSB). Genes were amplified by overlapping RT-PCR or nested PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Overall, 141 FLs were sequentially determined over 30 years in 62 KSB-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that within KSB, two FLs from plasma donors O and P comprised two clusters, together with 8 and 12 patients with hemophilia, respectively. Signature pattern analysis of the KSB of HIV-1 revealed 91 signature nucleotide residues (1.1%). In total, 48 and 43 signature nucleotides originated from clusters O and P, respectively. Six positions contained 100% specific nucleotide(s) in clusters O and . In-depth FL analysis for over 30 years indicated that the KSB FL significantly increased over time before combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and decreased with cART. This increase occurred due to the significant increase in and genes, originating in the variable regions of both genes. The increase in sequence length of HIV-1 over time suggests an evolutionary direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13050806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145643PMC
April 2021

The impact of tryptophan supplementation on sleep quality: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression.

Nutr Rev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

C.N. Sutanto, W.W. Loh, and J.E. Kim are with Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Context: L-tryptophan (Trp) has been documented to aid sleep, but a systematic compilation of its effect on sleep quality is still limited.

Objective: We assessed the effect of Trp supplementation on sleep quality via meta-analysis and meta-regression. The effects of daily Trp dose (<1 g and ≥1 g) were also assessed.

Data Sources: A database search was done in PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane and a total of 18 articles were collected.

Data Extraction: Extracted data from 4 articles were also analyzed using random-effect meta-analysis and meta-regression. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was used in meta-analysis.

Data Analysis: Results from the study suggested that Trp supplementation can shorten wake after sleep onset (-81.03 min/g, P = 0.017; SMD, -1.08 min [95%CI, -1.89 to -0.28]). In addition, the group receiving ≥1 g Trp supplementation had a shorter wake after sleep onset than the group with Trp < 1g supplementation (Trp <1 g vs Trp ≥1 g: 56.55 vs 28.91 min; P = 0.001). However, Trp supplementation did not affect other sleep components.

Conclusion: Trp supplementation, especially at ≥1 g can help improve sleep quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuab027DOI Listing
May 2021

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Autophagy-Related Protein Microtubule-Associated Protein Light Chain 3 Expression in Psoriasis.

Ann Dermatol 2021 Apr 8;33(2):138-146. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Dermatology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and autophagy are both important to maintain skin homeostasis. However, they are also involved in skin disorders. So far, their roles in psoriasis pathogenesis are unknown.

Objective: We studied the immunohistochemical and gene expression of AHR, CYP1A1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) in lesional skin of psoriasis patients to determine correlations among them.

Methods: We included 24 psoriasis patients and ten healthy volunteers. Skin biopsies were collected. AHR, CYP1A1, and LC3 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. , , , , and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression were higher in psoriasis lesional skin than in normal skin. LC3 protein expression was lower in psoriasis lesions than in normal controls. AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression in psoriasis lesions showed significant positive correlations with mean epidermal thickness and inflammatory cell density. Significant negative correlations were noted between LC3 protein expression in psoriasis lesions and the mean epidermal thickness or inflammatory cell density. A significant negative correlation was found between AHR and LC3 expression in psoriatic skin. AHR, CYP1A1 and Nrf2 mRNA expression were upregulated while LC3, ATG5, and BECN1 mRNA were down-regulated, in psoriatic lesional skin compared with normal controls.

Conclusion: AHR and autophagy could play a role in psoriasis pathogenesis by modifying epidermal hyperproliferation and inflammation. AHR and autophagy regulation are potential therapeutic targets in chronic inflammatory skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2021.33.2.138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082009PMC
April 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Antagonize IFN-Induced Proinflammatory Changes and Growth Inhibition Effects via Wnt/β-Catenin and JAK/STAT Pathway in Human Outer Root Sheath Cells and Hair Follicles.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Dermatology, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 03312, Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy (MSCT) has been shown to be a new therapeutic option for treating alopecia areata (AA). Outer root sheath cells (ORSCs) play key roles in maintaining the hair follicle structure and supporting the bulge area. In human ORSCs (hORSCs), the mechanism for this process has not been extensively studied. In this study, we aimed to examine the influence of human hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (hHMSCs) in the hORSCs in vitro model of AA and determine the mechanisms controlling efficacy. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) pretreatment was used to induce an in vitro model of AA in hORSCs. The effect of MSCT on the viability and migration of hORSCs was examined using co-cultures, the MTT assay, and migration assays. We investigated the expression of molecules related to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, JAK/STAT pathway, and growth factors in hHMSC-treated hORSCs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses. hHMSCs increased hORSC viability and migration when they were co-cultured. hHMSCs reverted IFN-γ-induced expression-including NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, CXCL-9 through 11, IL-1β, and IL-15-and upregulated several growth factors and hair stem cell markers. hHMSCs activated several molecules in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, such as in the Wnt families, β-catenin, phosphorylated GSK-3β and cyclin D1, and suppressed the expression of DKK1 induced by IFN-γ in hORSCs. hHMSCs suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK1 to 3, STAT1, and STAT3 compared to the controls and IFN-γ-pretreated hORSCs. These results demonstrate that hHMSCs increased hORSC viability and migration in the in vitro AA model. Additionally, MSCT definitely stimulated anagen survival and hair growth in an HF organ culture model. MSCT appeared to be associated with the Wnt/β-catenin and JAK/STAT pathways in hORSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123883PMC
April 2021

Vaccination Prioritization Strategies for COVID-19 in Korea: A Mathematical Modeling Approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 16;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919, Korea.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has recently started worldwide. As the vaccine supply will be limited for a considerable period of time in many countries, it is important to devise the effective vaccination strategies that reduce the number of deaths and incidence of infection. One of the characteristics of COVID-19 is that the symptom, severity, and mortality of the disease differ by age. Thus, when the vaccination supply is limited, age-dependent vaccination priority strategy should be implemented to minimize the incidences and mortalities. In this study, we developed an age-structured model for describing the transmission dynamics of COVID-19, including vaccination. Using the model and actual epidemiological data in Korea, we estimated the infection probability for each age group under different levels of social distancing implemented in Korea and investigated the effective age-dependent vaccination strategies to reduce the confirmed cases and fatalities of COVID-19. We found that, in a lower level of social distancing, vaccination priority for the age groups with the highest transmission rates will reduce the incidence mostly, but, in higher levels of social distancing, prioritizing vaccination for the elderly age group reduces the infection incidences more effectively. To reduce mortalities, vaccination priority for the elderly age group is the best strategy in all scenarios of levels of social distancing. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of vaccine supply and efficacy on the reduction in incidence and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073596PMC
April 2021

Wolfberry () Consumption with a Healthy Dietary Pattern Lowers Oxidative Stress in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Incorporating zeaxanthin-rich wolfberry () into a healthy dietary pattern may augment its antioxidant potential. The present 16-week, parallel design randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the impact of adhering to a healthy dietary pattern, either with or without whole dried wolfberry (15 g/d) on oxidative stress status (plasma malondialdehyde and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α) in middle-aged and older adults. Changes to carotenoids status (plasma and skin carotenoids) and body composition were further evaluated to explore potential mechanisms which underlie the antioxidant properties of wolfberry. Plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, plasma zeaxanthin and skin carotenoids status were significantly raised in the wolfberry consuming group ( = 22; < 0.05) compared to the control group which showed no changes ( = 18). Likewise in the wolfberry group only, inverse association was observed between the change values of plasma zeaxanthin and plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (-0.21 (-0.43, 0.00) ng/µmol, regression coefficient (95% CI); = 0.05). Wolfberry consumption with a healthy dietary pattern may serve as a dietary strategy to attenuate lipid peroxidation among middle-aged and older adults who are at a heightened risk of oxidative stress induced age-related disorders. The antioxidant properties of wolfberry may be attributed to its rich zeaxanthin content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067708PMC
April 2021

Uncovering the dosage-dependent roles of Arid1a in gastric tumorigenesis for combinatorial drug therapy.

J Exp Med 2021 06;218(6)

Program in Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common deadly cancers in the world. Although patient genomic data have identified AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A), a key chromatin remodeling complex subunit, as the second most frequently mutated gene after TP53, its in vivo role and relationship to TP53 in gastric tumorigenesis remains unclear. Establishing a novel mouse model that reflects the ARID1A heterozygous mutations found in the majority of human GC cases, we demonstrated that Arid1a heterozygosity facilitates tumor progression through a global loss of enhancers and subsequent suppression of the p53 and apoptosis pathways. Moreover, mouse genetic and single-cell analyses demonstrated that the homozygous deletion of Arid1a confers a competitive disadvantage through the activation of the p53 pathway, highlighting its distinct dosage-dependent roles. Using this unique vulnerability of Arid1a mutated GC cells, our combined treatment with the epigenetic inhibitor, TP064, and the p53 agonist, Nutlin-3, inhibited growth of Arid1a heterozygous tumor organoids, providing a novel therapeutic option for GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034383PMC
June 2021

Supplementing with L-Tryptophan Increases Medium Protein and Alters Expression of Genes and Proteins Involved in Milk Protein Synthesis and Energy Metabolism in Bovine Mammary Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 9;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing with L-tryptophan (L-Trp) on milk protein synthesis using an immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cell line. Cells were treated with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 mM of supplemental L-Trp, and the most efficient time for protein synthesis was determined by measuring cell, medium, and total protein at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Time and dose tests showed that the 48 h incubation time and a 0.9 mM dose of L-Trp were the optimal values. The mechanism of milk protein synthesis was elucidated through proteomic analysis to identify the metabolic pathway involved. When L-Trp was supplemented, extracellular protein (medium protein) reached its peak at 48 h, whereas intracellular cell protein reached its peak at 96 h with all L-Trp doses. β-casein mRNA gene expression and genes related to milk protein synthesis, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein 6 (RPS6) genes, were also stimulated ( < 0.05). Overall, there were 51 upregulated and 59 downregulated proteins, many of which are involved in protein synthesis. The results of protein pathway analysis showed that L-Trp stimulated glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and ATP synthesis, which are pathways involved in energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate that L-Trp supplementation, particularly at 0.9 mM, is an effective stimulus in β-casein synthesis by stimulating genes, proteins, and pathways related to protein and energy metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963161PMC
March 2021

Postdural Puncture Headache Related to Procedure: Incidence and Risk Factors After Neuraxial Anesthesia and Spinal Procedures.

Pain Med 2021 06;22(6):1420-1425

Konkuk University School of Medicine.

Objective: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a potential complication of certain neuraxial anesthesia and spinal procedures, and some risk factors for PDPH have been identified. However, there have been no detailed analyses of rates and risk factors of PDPH after various spinal and neuraxial anesthesia procedures.

Methods: Patient data from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients underwent dural puncture procedures (spinal anesthesia, lumbar puncture [spinal tap], lumbar cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] drainage) or nondural puncture procedures (transforaminal epidural injection, interlaminar epidural injection, epidural catheterization with patient-controlled analgesia for delivery). PDPH incidence and risk factors were evaluated.

Results: For dural puncture procedures, PDPH incidence was 2.96%, and risk factors were younger age, female sex, and lumbar puncture. Larger needle gauge was a risk factor according to Student t-test but not during logistic regression analysis. PDPH incidence was higher after lumbar puncture using a 22 G Tuohy needle (4.63%) than after lumbar CSF drainage using an 18 G Tuohy needle (3.05%). For nondural puncture procedures, PDPH incidence was 0.53% and did not differ between procedure types; no risk factors were identified.

Conclusions: PDPH incidence and risk factors depended on the type of neuraxial anesthesia and spinal procedures. PDPH incidence after lumbar puncture using a 22 G Tuohy needle was higher than that after lumbar CSF drainage using an 18 G Tuohy needle, suggesting that catheter insertion may reduce PDPH risk. In non-dural puncture procedures, PDPH risk did not differ according to type of procedure, and no risk factors were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnaa437DOI Listing
June 2021

Animal Protein versus Plant Protein in Supporting Lean Mass and Muscle Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 18;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Food Science & Technology, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Although animal protein is usually considered to be a more potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis than plant protein, the effect of protein source on lean mass and muscle strength needs to be systematically reviewed. This study aimed to examine potential differences in the effect of animal vs. plant protein on lean mass and muscle strength, and the possible influence of resistance exercise training (RET) and age. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and 3081 articles were screened. A total of 18 articles were selected for systematic review, of which, 16 were used for meta-analysis. Total protein intakes were generally above the recommended dietary allowance at the baseline and end of intervention. Results from the meta-analyses demonstrated that protein source did not affect changes in absolute lean mass or muscle strength. However, there was a favoring effect of animal protein on percent lean mass. RET had no influence on the results, while younger adults (<50 years) were found to gain absolute and percent lean mass with animal protein intake (weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.41 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.74; WMD 0.50%; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.01). Collectively, animal protein tends to be more beneficial for lean mass than plant protein, especially in younger adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926405PMC
February 2021

Real-world prevalence and burden of genital eczema in atopic dermatitis: A multicenter questionnaire-based study.

J Dermatol 2021 May 5;48(5):625-632. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Dermatology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Korea.

The involvement of genital lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is poorly understood. Moreover, clinical characteristics, potentially related factors, and impact on the quality of life (QOL) of genital eczema in patients with AD are also largely unknown. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and burden of genital eczema in patients with AD. A prospective cross-sectional study recruited a total of 220 patients diagnosed with AD. The participants were asked to complete the self-administrated questionnaire asking sociodemographic characteristics, details about their AD, and individual experiences of their genital eczema. Among 220 responders, 99 patients (45.00%) reported that they had experienced genital eczema at some time during the course of AD. Longer disease duration (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.62; p = 0.02), marital status (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21-0.89; p = 0.003), involvement of the trunk (OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.81-6.52; p = 0.001), and involvement of the nipple (OR, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.39-27.63; p = 0.017) were the significant associated factors for the presence of genital eczema among patients with AD. Of note, the severe impairment of genital eczema-specific QOL was observed in 28.29% of AD patients with genital eczema. Especially, female sex (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 0.84-5.82; p = 0.04) was more associated with severe impairment of genital eczema-specific QOL. Many patients with AD suffer from the genital presentation of the disease. Moreover, genital involvement of the disease has a significant impact on the QOL of patients with AD. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the genital presentation of the disease to increase QOL and provide further delicate treatment of patients with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15817DOI Listing
May 2021

Cerebellar 5HT-2A receptor mediates stress-induced onset of dystonia.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 3;7(10). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

Stress is a key risk factor for dystonia, a debilitating motor disorder characterized by cocontractions of muscles leading to abnormal body posture. While the serotonin (5HT) system is known to control emotional responses to stress, its role in dystonia remains unclear. Here, we reveal that 5HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) send projections to the fastigial deep cerebellar nuclei (fDCN) and that photostimulation of 5HT-fDCN induces dystonia in wild-type mice. Moreover, we report that photoinhibition of 5HT-fDCN reduces dystonia in a1A mice, a genetic model of stress-induced dystonia, and administration of a 5HT-2A receptor inverse agonist (MDL100907; 0.1 to 1 mg/kg) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of the gene in fDCN can notably reduce the onset of dystonia in a1A mice. These results support the serotonin theory of dystonia and suggest strategies for alleviating symptoms in human patients by blocking 5HT-2A receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb5735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929497PMC
March 2021
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