Publications by authors named "Jung Min Heo"

31 Publications

Moderate dietary boron supplementation improved growth performance, crude protein digestibility and diarrhea index in weaner pigs regardless to the sanitary condition.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the impact of boron supplementation on nutrient digestibility, inflammatory responses, blood metabolites and diarrhea index, and their relevance to growth performance in weaned pigs housed in good and poor sanitary environments for 14 days after weaning.

Methods: A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] weaned at 21 days of age were used in a randomized complete block design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Pigs were assigned to three boron treatments (0, 5, and 10 mg/kg) under two environments (good and poor sanitary) to give six replicates per treatment (3 pigs per replicate). On 0, 7 and 14 days, one pig per replicate was euthanized to collect, ileum tissue samples, and rectal fecal samples.

Results: Boron supplementation quadratically influenced (p<0.001) feed intake and weight gain in pigs housed in good sanitary conditions from 1 to 14 days post-weaning where pigs offered 5 mg/kg boron optimized weight gain and feed intake. There is a quadratic interaction (p=0.019) on feed intake for 1-14 days post-weaning where 5 mg/kg boron increased feed intake in good sanitary conditions. Pigs housed in the poor sanitary environment decreased (p<0.001) villus height and crypt depth in ileum at days 7 and 14. On day 7 and 14, crude protein digestibility was quadratically influenced (p<0.05) by boron supplementation. Boron supplementation linearly increased (p<0.05) plasma calcium and cholesterol levels whilst linearly (p=0.005) reducing plasma triglyceride concentrations. Diarrhea index was quadratically influenced (p<0.05) by boron supplementations regardless to sanitary conditions where 5 mg/kg boron inclusion achieved the lowest diarrhea index.

Conclusion: Pigs offered 5 mg/kg of boron increased weight gain which may be deduced by improved dry matter, crude protein, and energy digestibility regardless of the sanitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0110DOI Listing
June 2021

Responses in growth performance and nutrient digestibility to a multi-protease supplementation in amino acid-deficient broiler diets.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Nov 30;62(6):840-853. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a multi-protease on production indicators of broiler chickens fed a crude protein and amino acid deficient-diets for 35 days immediately after hatch. A total of 448 one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were allocated in a completely randomized design into one of eight dietary treatments (positive control [PC], negative control [NC: minus 0.5% from PC, and minus 2% of lysine, methionine, threonine and methionine plus cysteine], extreme negative control [ENC: minus 1% from PC, minus 4% of lysine, methionine, threonine and methionine plus cysteine], and plus multi-protease 150 or 300 g per ton [e. g., PC-150]; PC, PC-150, NC, NC-150, NC-300, ENC, ENC-150, ENC-300) to give eight replicates with seven birds in a battery cage. Body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were measured every week. Carcass traits, proximate analysis of breast meat, and ileum digestibility were analyzed on day 21 and 35. Feeding a multi-protease (i.e., more than 150 g/ton) for 35 days immediately after hatching improved feed efficiency and ileum digestibility (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, and energy) compared to their counterparts (i.e., diets without multi-protease: PC, NC, and ENC). In conclusion, our results indicated that broiler chickens fed nutrients deficient-diet (i.e., crude protein and amino acids) supplemented a multi-protease had an ability to compensate and (or) improve their growth performance commensurate with increased ileal digestibility for 35 days immediately after hatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.6.840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721581PMC
November 2020

Partial or complete replacement of fishmeal with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, fecal composition, and meat quality in broilers.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Nov 30;62(6):824-839. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The current study was aimed to examine the effect of partial or complete replacement of fishmeal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on growth performance, fecal composition, and meat quality in broiler chickens. A total number of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments with six replications and ten birds per one pen. Dietary treatments were followed as; 1) Diet incorporated with 4% FM without FSBM (Control), 2) Diet incorporated with 3% FM and 2% FSBM (FSBM2), 3) Diet incorporated with 2% FM and 3% FSBM (FSBM3) and 4) Diet incorporated with 4% FSBM without FM (FSBM4). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly for 35 days of the experimental period. Moreover, fecal samples were collected to evaluate moisture, ash, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus content on day 21 post-hatch. On day 35, two birds were sacrificed from each pen to measure meat quality parameters and visceral organ weights. Results revealed that, no dietary treatment effect ( > 0.05) was observed either in both body weight or average daily gain of broilers within the entire experimental period while broilers fed FSBM2 increased ( < 0.05) average daily feed intake by 10.07% whereas FSBM4 improved ( < 0.05) feed efficiency ratio by 8.45% compared to birds fed other dietary treatments on day 7 post-hatch. Besides, birds fed FSBM3 obtained the improved ( < 0.05) feed conversion ratio over the birds fed control diet by 7.51% from hatch to day 35 post-hatch (1.60 vs. 1.73). Nevertheless, no difference ( > 0.05) was detected on visceral organ weight, proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics of meat while broilers offered FSBM4 obtained the lowest ( < 0.05) calcium and phosphorous in faces (2.27% and 1.21% respectively) over those offered control feed and other FSBM treatments. In conclusion, FSBM would be a better replacement for ousting FM partially or completely in broiler diet as it did not impair the growth performance and meat quality while reducing the calcium and phosphorous excretion in broilers for 35 days post-hatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.6.824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721569PMC
November 2020

Growth and gut performance of young pigs in response to different dietary cellulose concentration and rearing condition.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jan 1. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of insoluble cellulose supplementation to diets on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, the incidence of diarrhea, nutrients digestibility, and inflammatory responses in altering environmental conditions of animals housing.

Methods: A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (cellulose 0, 1, 2%) and two environmental conditions (good sanitary condition vs. poor sanitary condition) to give 6 replicate pens per treatment with three pigs per each pen at 14 days post-weaning.

Results: Pigs were in good sanitary condition had higher average daily gain (p<0.01) and improved feed efficiency (p<0.05) from day 1 to 14 after weaning compared to their counterparts. The interactions were found between environmental conditions and dietary treatments [day 7: crypt depth (p<0.01), villous height to crypt depth (p<0.001); day 14: crypt depth (p<0.001), villous to crypt ratio (p<0.01)] in ileum morphology. Crypt depth was decreased (p<0.05), and villous to crypt ratio was increased (p<0.05) only in poor sanitary conditions. Pigs exposed to the good sanitary condition had higher (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7: gross energy; day 14: dry matter), apparent total tract digestibility (day 14: dry matter and crude protein) compared to pigs housed in the poor sanitary condition. Meanwhile, pigs fed a diet supplemented with 2% cellulose had decreased (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (day 7: dry matter; day 14: crude protein), apparent total tract digestibility (day 7: dry matter; day 14: crude protein, gross energy) compared to pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0 or 1% cellulose.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that a diet supplemented with 1% cellulose increased villous to crypt ratio, however feeding a diet containing cellulose (1 or 2%) impaired nutrient digestibility for 14 day after weaning in both good sanitary and poor sanitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0721DOI Listing
January 2021

Multi-tissue transcriptomic analysis reveals that L-methionine supplementation maintains the physiological homeostasis of broiler chickens than D-methionine under acute heat stress.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(1):e0246063. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with two methionine isoforms, L-methionine (L-Met) or D-methionine (D-Met), on transcriptome expression in broiler chickens under acute heat stress. A total of 240 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: thermo-neutral vs. acute heat-stress and L-Met vs. D-Met supplementation. On day 14, the heat-stressed group was exposed to 32°C for 5 h, while the others remained at 25°C. Six chicks were randomly selected per treatment and total RNA was isolated from whole blood, ileum, and liver tissues. Two RNA samples from each tissue of each treatment group were randomly selected and pooled in equal amounts. A total of 1.87 billion raw reads obtained from 36 samples (four treatments × three tissues × three composited replicates) were mapped to the reference genome build (Gallus_gallus-5.0) and used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using DESeq2. Functional enrichment of DEGs was tested using DAVID. Comparing the two isoforms of supplemented methionine, two, three, and ten genes were differentially expressed (> 1 or < -1 log2 fold change) in whole blood, ileum, and liver, respectively. A total of 38, 71, and 16 genes were differentially expressed in response to the interaction between heat stress and Met isoforms in the blood, ileum, and liver, respectively. Three-tissue-specific DEGs were functionally enriched for regulation of cholesterol homeostasis and metabolism, glucose metabolism, and vascular patterning. Chicks fed with L-Met had lower immune (e.g., IL4I1 and SERPINI1) and intestinal angiogenic responses (e.g., FLT1 and FGD5), and stable glucose and lipid metabolism (e.g., PCK1 and LDLR) under heat stress conditions. In conclusion, unlike D-Met, L-Met supplementation seems to help maintain physiological homeostasis and enhances cellular defense systems against external stresses like high environmental temperature.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246063PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840013PMC
June 2021

Chemically Robust Indium Tin Oxide/Graphene Anode for Efficient Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 25;13(7):9074-9080. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Graphene is an optimal material to be employed as an ionic diffusion barrier because of its outstanding impermeability and chemical robustness. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is often used in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), and it can release indium easily upon exposure to the acidic hole-injection layer so that luminescence can be quenched significantly. Here, we exploit the outstanding impermeability of graphene and use it as a chemical barrier to block the etching that can occur in ITO exposed to an acidic hole-injection layer in PeLEDs. This barrier reduced the luminescence quenching that these metallic species can cause, so the photoluminescence lifetime of perovskite film was substantially higher in devices with ITO and graphene layer (87.9 ns) than in devices that had only an ITO anode (22.1 ns). Luminous current efficiency was also higher in PeLEDs with a graphene barrier (16.4 cd/A) than in those without graphene (9.02 cd/A). Our work demonstrates that graphene can be used as a barrier to reduce the degradation of transparent electrodes by chemical etching in optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c12939DOI Listing
February 2021

Physiological Effects of a Tallow-Incorporated Diet Supplemented With an Emulsifier and Microbial Lipases on Broiler Chickens.

Front Vet Sci 2020 22;7:583998. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary emulsifiers and lipase supplementation on growth performance, blood metabolites, intestinal organ weight, gut morphology, nutrient digestibility, carcass measurements, and meat quality in broiler chickens. A total of 384, 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to one of eight dietary treatments arranged in a completely randomized design with 6 replications per treatment and 8 birds per cage. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and formulated to meet the nutritional requirements for Ross 308 specifications. Beef tallow used as the fat source in all diets. Dietary treatments were as follows, (1) positive control (PC; energy sufficient diet); (2) negative control (NC; energy deficient,-100 ME, kcal/kg); (3) NC+POL (0.1%, Polysorbate-20); (4) NC+CET (0.1%, Ceteth-20); (5) NC+POL+TLL (0.1%, lipase); (6) NC+POL+CRL (0.1%, lipases); (7) NC+CET+CRL and (8) NC+LL (0.05%, Lysolecithin). Growth performances were measured weekly. One bird per pen was selected and sacrificed to collect blood, ileal digesta, jejunum sample, viscera organ weight, and meat samples on day 21 and 35. Results revealed that birds fed NC+POL+CRL diet had higher ( < 0.05) body weight, weight gain, and the improved ( < 0.05) feed efficiency compared to birds fed other low energy diets, and the effect was more prominent at the grower phase from day 21 to 35. Similarly, higher ( < 0.05) villi height and lower ( < 0.05) crypt depth commensurate with higher ( < 0.05) V:C ratio were observed with the broiler chickens fed NC+POL+CRL diet compared to broiler chickens fed NC diet on day 21 and 35. Moreover, broiler chickens fed NC+POL+CRL diet showed improved fat and energy digestibility compared NC diet counterpart on day 35. This study, therefore indicated that Polysorbate-20 together with lipases had promising ability to improve growth performance of broiler chickens fed with low energy diet and curtail the growth depression without affecting blood metabolites, carcass, and visceral organs weights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.583998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536262PMC
September 2020

Stimbiotic supplementation improved performance and reduced inflammatory response via stimulating fiber fermenting microbiome in weaner pigs housed in a poor sanitary environment and fed an antibiotic-free low zinc oxide diet.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(11):e0240264. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

AB Vista, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

This study investigated whether the inclusion of a stimbiotic (STB) can improve performance, influence intestinal microbiota and fermentation activity, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines in piglets fed a low zinc oxide diet without antimicrobial growth promotors compared to fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) when housed either in good sanitary (GS) or poor sanitary (PS) environments. One hundred forty-four male pigs (28-day-old) were sorted by initial body weight (BW) and allocated to one of six experimental treatments: 1) GS environment without any additive (GS-CTR); 2) GS environment with 0.01% stimbiotic (GS-STB); 3) PS environment (without cleaning and disinfection of a previously populated room) without any additive (PS-CTR); 4) PS environment with 0.01% STB (PS-STB); 5) PS environment with 0.1% MOS (PS-MOS); and 6) PS environment with 0.2% FOS (PS-FOS). Each treatment had six replicates, with four animals each. Three feeding phases, based on corn, wheat, and soybean meal were available ad libitum for the 42-days of the study. Housing piglets under PS conditions negatively influenced performance, increased plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), affected the fecal microbial populations and increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared to GS. Stimbiotic improved 42-d-BW under PS conditions (P < 0.05) whereas MOS or FOS had no effect. On d35, plasma TNF-α was reduced with STB in PS (P < 0.05). The ratio between VFA:BCFA increased (P < 0.05) with STB, MOS or FOS in PS, and under GS condition, STB also increased the ratio. Stimbiotic increased the proportion of Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis and Clostridiaceae, while MOS and FOS increased Selenomonadaceae, Catabacteriaceae and Fibrobacteraceae. These results indicate that STB shifted the intestinal microbiome to favor fiber fermentation which likely contributed to reduced inflammatory response and improved performance, particularly in piglets reared in PS conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240264PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654836PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of crude protein levels in White Pekin duck diet for 21 days after hatching.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Sep 30;62(5):628-637. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

In poultry diets, a requirement of crude protein is one of the most important factors in poultry productivity. Besides, the Pekin duck requirement of crude protein is still not clear. This experiment was conducted to determine the crude protein requirement of Pekin duck on diet formulation by investigation of growth performance, carcass trait, and analysis of blood parameter for a hatch to 21-day (d) of age. A total of 432 male White Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to six levels of crude protein (i.e., 15%, 17%, 19%, 21%, 23%, and 25%) to give six replicate pens per treatment with 12 ducklings per each pen. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly by calculating feed conversion ratio and protein intake. Two ducklings each pen was euthanized via cervical dislocation for analysis of carcass trait and plasma blood on 21-d of age. Data were applied on both prediction linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models by estimation of the crude protein requirements. Data were applied on both prediction linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models by estimation of the crude protein requirements. The level of crude protein requirements of Pekin ducks for 21 days after the hatch was estimated to be 20.63% and 23.25% diet for maximum daily gain, and minimum feed conversion ratio, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.5.628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553845PMC
September 2020

Estimating total lysine requirement for optimised egg production of broiler breeder hens during the early-laying period.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Jul 31;62(4):521-532. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The production performance of broiler breeder hens in response to different levels of total lysine during the early laying period was investigated. A total of 126 Ross 308 parent stock hens were offered one of seven dietary treatments formulating elevated contents of total lysine ranging from 0.55% to 0.79% (0.04 scale; 133 g of feed) from 23 to 29 weeks of age. Each treatment had six replicates with three birds per pen. Body weight was recorded triweekly and eggs were collected and weighted at 9:00 am daily. One hen from each pen was euthanized to collect blood samples and visceral organs were harvested and weighed. Egg production, egg weight and egg mass were lower ( < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.55% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing higher total lysine. Hens offered a diet containing 0.71%, 0.75%, and 0.79% total lysine had greater ( = 0.008) egg production rate compared to those offered a diet containing lysine less than 0.71%. The number of total eggs produced tended to be greater ( = 0.083) in hens offered a diet containing 0.71 and 0.75% total lysine compared to the other treatments. The number of settable egg production was higher ( < 0.001) in hens offered a diet contacting 0.79% total lysine compared to those fed the diet containing lower levels of total lysine. The relative weights of oviduct and ovary were lower ( < 0.05) in hens offered a diet containing 0.59% total lysine compared to the other treatments. No difference found in body weight, the number of total eggs, double-yolk eggs and abnormal shell eggs among the treatments. The urea nitrogen, estradiol-17 beta and progesterone in plasma were not affected by treatments. Based on linear- and quadratic-plateau models, total lysine requirements for egg production, settable egg production and egg mass at the early laying period were to be 0.73%, 0.77%, and 0.71%, respectively. Modern broiler breeder hens likely require higher total lysine than NRC recommendation in a diet for enhancing productivity during the early-laying period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.4.521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416165PMC
July 2020

Proton-transfer-induced 3D/2D hybrid perovskites suppress ion migration and reduce luminance overshoot.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 6;11(1):3378. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) based on three-dimensional (3D) polycrystalline perovskites suffer from ion migration, which causes overshoot of luminance over time during operation and reduces its operational lifetime. Here, we demonstrate 3D/2D hybrid PeLEDs with extremely reduced luminance overshoot and 21 times longer operational lifetime than 3D PeLEDs. The luminance overshoot ratio of 3D/2D hybrid PeLED is only 7.4% which is greatly lower than that of 3D PeLED (150.4%). The 3D/2D hybrid perovskite is obtained by adding a small amount of neutral benzylamine to methylammonium lead bromide, which induces a proton transfer from methylammonium to benzylamine and enables crystallization of 2D perovskite without destroying the 3D phase. Benzylammonium in the perovskite lattice suppresses formation of deep-trap states and ion migration, thereby enhances both operating stability and luminous efficiency based on its retardation effect in reorientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17072-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338442PMC
July 2020

Effects of Adding Phytase from to a Low Phosphorus Diet on Growth Performance, Tibia Characteristics, Phosphorus Excretion, and Meat Quality of Broilers 35 days after hatching.

J Poult Sci 2020 Jan;57(1):28-36

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.

This study was designed to determine the effect of phytase extracted from (Natuphos E) on growth performance, bone mineralization, phosphorous excretion, and meat quality parameters in broilers fed available phosphorous (aP)-deficient diet. In total, 810 one-day-old Indian River broilers were randomly allotted into one of three dietary treatments, with six replicates per treatment. The three dietary treatments were 1) control group (CON: basal diet with sufficient aP), 2) low phytase (LPY: available phosphorus-deficient diet supplemented with 0.01% phytase), and 3) high phytase (HPY: available phosphorus-deficient diet supplemented with 0.02% phytase). Average daily gain and, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were measured for 35 days. Excreta were collected from each pen on day 35. One broiler from each cage was euthanized to collect visceral organs and tibia samples. Broiler chickens fed LPY and HPY showed improved (<0.05) growth performance compared to broilers fed CON on day 35. The tibia length of HPY-fed broilers was more than those of broilers fed other diets on day 35 (<0.05). However, tibia calcium and phosphorous contents in LPY-fed broilers was higher (<0.05) than in CON and HPY-fed broilers. Tibia length and calcium and phosphorous content showed a positive correlation (<0.05) with the weight gain of broilers on day 35. Phosphorous level in the excreta of LPY- and HPY-fed broilers was lesser than those of CON broilers on day 35 (<0.05). Furthermore, HPY-fed broilers showed lower (<0.05) phosphorous content in the excreta than LPY-fed broilers. LPY- and HPY-fed broilers showed higher (<0.05) liver weight than the CON broilers. In conclusion, broilers fed aP-deficient diet supplemented with phytase from excreted less phosphorus, which enhanced growth performance and tibia development from time of hatching to day 35 post-hatching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0180143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063074PMC
January 2020

Bioaccumulation and Toxicity Studies of Lead and Mercury in Laying Hens: Effects on Laying Performance, Blood Metabolites, Egg Quality and Organ Parameters.

J Poult Sci 2019 Oct;56(4):277-284

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.

This study investigated bioaccumulation and toxicity derived from heavy metals in laying hens. The 160 52-week old laying hens were divided into 5 treatments with 8 replicates of 4 birds per pen. The treatments consisted of the control diet (without heavy metals), control diet with half the available dosage (AD, 5 ppm lead and 0.2 ppm mercury), AD (10 ppm lead and 0.4 ppm mercury), 2-fold AD (20 ppm lead and 0.8 ppm mercury), and 3-fold AD (30 ppm lead and 1.2 ppm mercury), and were provided to the laying hens for 8 weeks. Food and water were provided on an basis at all times. Body weight and food intake were recorded once every two weeks, and eggs were collected and recorded daily. Two birds from each pen were euthanized to collect blood and organ samples on week 4 and 8. The 3-fold AD diet reduced food intake compared to that of the control and AD diets (<0.05). Hens fed the half AD diet had darker yolk compared to those fed the control and AD diet on week 4 (<0.05). Hens fed the 2- and 3-fold AD diets had increased relative liver weight, blood glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels (<0.05), while F1 follicle weights decreased on week 4 and 8. No difference was found in egg production rate, egg quality, ovarian follicle, blood metabolites including protein, globulin, albumin, and urea nitrogen throughout the study (>0.05). Heavy metal concentrations in the liver, eggs, and feathers were not detected at both week 4 and 8. Our results indicate that in-feed heavy metals for layer diets up to 30 ppm of lead and 1.2 ppm of mercury brought on hepatic dysfunction increasing blood metabolites that are associated with liver inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0180118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005395PMC
October 2019

Differential Effects of Dietary Methionine Isomers on Broilers Challenged with Acute Heat Stress.

J Poult Sci 2019 Jul;56(3):195-203

CJ Cheil Jedang Corporation, 330, Dongho-ro, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-400, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we investigated the effect of methionine isomers (D- and L-methionine) on growth performance, blood metabolite levels, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and foot pad dermatitis in broilers challenged with acute heat stress. In total, 240 broilers were randomly allocated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement consisting of two dietary treatments (D- vs. L-methionine) and two thermal environmental conditions (thermo-neutral vs. acute heat stress). Methionine isomers were added to the diet as an ingredient according to the diet formulation. The broilers were exposed to acute heat stress at 33°C for 5 h on day 14. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed L-methionine were higher than those fed D-methionine (<0.05) from the time of hatching till 21 days. Induced acute heat stress impaired (<0.05) the daily gain and feed intake of the broilers on day 21. Furthermore, the blood urea nitrogen levels of birds subjected to acute heat stress on days 14 and 21 were higher (<0.05) than those of their counterparts. Longer villi (<0.05) were observed in broilers fed L-methionine-supplemented diet than in those fed D-methionine-supplemented diet on day 14, irrespective of thermal environmental conditions. Heat stress reduced (<0.01) nutrient digestibility of the broilers on days 14 and 21. Higher incidence and severity of foot pad dermatitis were observed (<0.05) in broilers fed diet containing D-methionine than in those fed L-methionine-supplemented diet. In conclusion, L-methionine-supplemented diet improved growth performance, overcame growth depression, and reduced the incidence of foot pad dermatitis when broilers were exposed to acute heat stress in the starter period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0180072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005384PMC
July 2019

Effect of calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and lipase supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Jun 12;33(6):981-991. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate (CSL) performance as an exogenous emulsifier together with lipase for broiler diets.

Methods: In total, 252 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 6 replications per treatment with 7 birds in each cage. There were six dietary treatments representing a 2×3 factorial arrangement consisted of two energy levels (standard energy [positive control, PC] and -100 kcal/kg of the requirement level [negative control, NC]) and three dietary treatments (without additives [CON], CON+CSL [CSL], and CON+CSL+lipase [CSL-Lipase]). Corn and soybean meal-based experimental diets containing vegetable oil were formulated. Growth performance, blood parameters, visceral organ weights, ileal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and cytokine gene expression were measured.

Results: Birds fed a diet including CSL increased (p<0.05) lipase level in blood compared to birds fed a diet including CSL-Lipase on day 21. Similarly, higher (p<0.05) liver weight was observed in birds fed a diet including either CSL or CSL-Lipase on day 21. Birds fed NC diet with CSL improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet on day 21. However, birds fed a diet supplemented with CSL or CSL-Lipase did not affect (p>0.05) the weight gain, feed efficiency, ileal morphology, and cytokine concentrations during the experiment period, regardless of dietary energy levels.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that CSL has a role in improving nutrient digestibility in young birds when supplemented to a corn-soybean meal based broiler diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206371PMC
June 2020

Broilers fed a low protein diet supplemented with synthetic amino acids maintained growth performance and retained intestinal integrity while reducing nitrogen excretion when raised under poor sanitary conditions.

Poult Sci 2020 Feb 6;99(2):949-958. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the effects of supplementing a low protein (LP) diet supplemented with key essential amino acids (AA) to broilers on growth performance, intestinal tract function, blood metabolites, and nitrogen excretion when the animals were maintained under various sanitary conditions for 35 D after hatching. Three hundred eighty-four one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to groups that received one of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 2 environmental conditions and 3 dietary treatments) to give 8 replicates per treatment. Broilers were challenged with 2 environmental conditions (sanitary vs. poor sanitary). The dietary treatments were (1) high protein (HP) diet, (2) LP diet, and (3) LP diet with synthetic key essential AA (LPA): the LP diet was supplemented with synthetic AA up to the required levels for broilers. On day 14, birds consumed the LP diet impaired growth performance compared with those fed the HP diet, while the average daily weight gain-to-feed conversion ratio of birds fed the LPA diet improved to the level of birds fed the HP diet under poor sanitary conditions (P < 0.05). Broilers raised under poor sanitary conditions and fed the LP diet displayed higher (P < 0.05) zonula occludens (ZO-1) expression on day 14 than broilers fed either the HP or LPA diet. Under sanitary conditions, birds fed HP and LPA diets showed higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those of broilers fed the LP diet on day 35. Moreover, broilers raised in the poor sanitary environment had higher (P < 0.05) serum endotoxins than those raised in the sanitary environment. Broilers fed the LPA diet showed reduced (P < 0.05) nitrogen excretion on days 14 and 35 compared with those fed the LP and HP diets independent of the environment. In conclusion, the LPA diet did not impair growth performance under poor sanitary conditions for 14 D after hatch while resulting in lower nitrogen excretion in any environment conditions throughout the experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587901PMC
February 2020

Physiological impact on layer chickens fed corn distiller's dried grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Feb 1;33(2):313-322. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the response of laying hens fed corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that are naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON).

Methods: One hundred and sixty 52-week-old Lohmann Brown Lite hens were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were formulated to provide a range of corn DDGS contaminated with DON from 0% to 20% (i.e., 5% scale of increment). All laying hens were subjected to the same management practices in a controlled environment. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured biweekly for the entire 8-week experiment. The egg quality was measured biweekly for 8 weeks. On weeks 4 and 8, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology, and blood cytokine concentrations were measured.

Results: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet did not alter (p> 0.05) the body weight, feed intake, hen-day egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency of the laying hens. No difference was found (p>0.05) in the egg quality of hens that were fed the dietary treatments. Furthermore, hens that were fed a diet containing corn DDGS contaminated with DON showed no change (p>0.05) in the visceral organ weights, the blood metabolites, and the cytokine concentrations. The crypt depth increased (p<0.05) as the amount of corn DDGS contaminated with DON increased. Proportionately, the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the laying hens decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet.

Conclusion: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON up to 20% in layer diets did not cause changes in egg production performance and egg quality, which indicates that DON is less toxic at the concentration of 1.00 mg DON/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946975PMC
February 2020

High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

Adv Mater 2017 Aug 13;29(31). Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

This paper reports highly bright and efficient CsPbBr perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) fabricated by simple one-step spin-coating of uniform CsPbBr polycrystalline layers on a self-organized buffer hole injection layer and stoichiometry-controlled CsPbBr precursor solutions with an optimized concentration. The PeLEDs have maximum current efficiency of 5.39 cd A and maximum luminance of 13752 cd m . This paper also investigates the origin of current hysteresis, which can be ascribed to migration of Br anions. Temperature dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum is measured and the origins of decreased spectrum area, spectral blue-shift, and linewidth broadening are analyzed systematically with the activation energies, and are related with Br anion migration, thermal dissociation of excitons, thermal expansion, and electron-phonon interaction. This work provides simple ways to improve the efficiency and brightness of all-inorganic polycrystalline PeLEDs and improves understanding of temperature-dependent ion migration and EL properties in inorganic PeLEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201700579DOI Listing
August 2017

Evaluation of dietary methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks for 3 weeks post-hatching.

Anim Sci J 2017 Oct 18;88(10):1595-1600. Epub 2017 May 18.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

A total of 336 1-day-old male Korean native ducks (KND) were used in a completely randomized design with seven dietary methionine levels (0.30-0.90% with 0.1% increment) to determine the methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks for 3 weeks after hatching. Each dietary treatment had six replicates with eight ducklings per pen. One duckling from each pen (n = 6) was sacrificed to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the end of the experiment. Final body weight and weight gain of 3 weeks old KND were increased with increasing dietary methionine levels up to 0.4%, and then decreased (P < 0.05) with a further increasing dietary methionine level. In contrast, feed conversion ratio of the KND decreased up to 0.4% and increased (P < 0.05) with the increasing dietary methionine level. Both empty body weight and proportions of empty body weight were linearly increased (P < 0.05) while the dietary methionine level elevated up to 0.4%. Estimated dietary methionine requirement for maximum body weights, daily gain and minimum feed conversion ratio were 0.36, 0.39 and 0.40%, respectively, when it was fitted into linear- and quadratic-plateau models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12833DOI Listing
October 2017

Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2016 Apr 1;29(4):471-8. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh.

Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782081PMC
April 2016

Erratum to: A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 12;57:38. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 Republic of Korea.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40781-015-0062-4.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0071-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603810PMC
October 2015

A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 1;57:29. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 Republic of Korea.

This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0062-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4607012PMC
October 2015

Comparison between operative versus non-operative management of traumatic liver injury.

Korean J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2015 Aug 28;19(3):103-8. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Department of Surgery, The Catholic University of Korea, St. Vincent's Hospital, Suwon, Korea.

Backgrounds/aims: The aim of this study was to compare operative versus non-operative management of patients with liver injury and to ascertain the differences of the clinical features.

Methods: From April 2000 to July 2012, 191 patients were admitted to Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and St. Vincent's Hospital for liver injuries. Of these, 148 patients were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed using computed tomography (CT). The liver injury was graded in accordance with the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma liver injury scoring scale. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent surgery and those treated with non-operative management (NOM). There was a comparison between these two groups concerning the clinical characteristics, grade of liver injury, hemodynamic stability, laboratory findings, and mortality.

Results: According to the 148 patient records evaluated, 108 (72.9%) patients were treated with NOM, and 40 (27.1%) underwent surgery. Patients treated with NOM had significantly fewer severe injuries as rated using the Revised Traumatic Injury Scale, Injury Severity Score, and Glasgow Coma Scale. Grade of liver injury and number of patients with extravasation of contrast dye on CT and hemoperitoneum were higher in the operative group than in the NOM group. There were significant differences between the two groups for: heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and mean hemoglobin levels at admission and after 4 hours. The operative group experienced a significantly higher mortality than the NOM group.

Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that hemodynamic stability and the following should be considered for deciding the treatment for liver injuries: grade of liver injury, amount of blood loss, and injury scales scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/kjhbps.2015.19.3.103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568597PMC
August 2015

A between-experiment analysis of relationships linking dietary protein intake and post-weaning diarrhea in weanling pigs under conditions of experimental infection with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli.

Anim Sci J 2015 Mar 18;86(3):286-93. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea; School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

Numerous experiments have demonstrated that feeding a lower protein diet decreases protein fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and reduces the incidence of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). However, there is a lack of holistic evidence underpinning the relationship between feeding a lower protein diet and PWD in relation to physiological responses and protein fermentation in the GIT. The scope of this article, therefore, will: (i) focus on the impact of dietary protein levels on selected indices of GIT health in weaned pigs without and with experimental infection with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli; and (ii) attempt to conduct regression analysis to examine the relationships between dietary-origin protein intake, nitrogen fermentation indices, fecal consistency and the incidence of PWD. We used datasets generated from a series of four intensive experiments in weaned pigs. The collective results derived from these datasets indicate that restriction of daily protein intake to less than 60 g through feeding a lower protein diet for as little as 7 days after weaning reduced the incidence of PWD commensurate with a reduction in protein fermentation indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12275DOI Listing
March 2015

Treatment of bimaxillary protrusion with lever-arm mechanics and micro-implant anchorage.

J Clin Orthod 2014 Aug;48(8):505-12

Department of Orthodontics, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University, Seoul.

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August 2014

Determination of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

Anim Sci J 2014 Jul 9;85(7):751-6. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n=6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12196DOI Listing
July 2014

Orthodontic treatment of gummy smile by maxillary total intrusion with a midpalatal absolute anchorage system.

Korean J Orthod 2013 Jun 24;43(3):147-58. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Department of Orthodontics, Chong-A Dental Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 31-year-old Korean female patient with gummy smile and crowding. The patient showed excessive gingival display in both the anterior and posterior areas and a large difference in gingival heights between the anterior and posterior teeth in the maxilla. To correct the gummy smile, we elected to intrude the entire maxillary dentition instead of focusing only on the maxillary anterior teeth. Alignment and leveling were performed, and a midpalatal absolute anchorage system as well as a modified lingual arch was designed to achieve posterosuperior movement of the entire upper dentition. The active treatment period was 18 months. The gummy smile and crowding were corrected, and the results were stable at 21 months post-treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2013.43.3.147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694207PMC
June 2013

Lingual applications of the midpalatal absolute anchorage system.

J Clin Orthod 2012 Jun;46(6):344-53

Department of Orthodontics, Chong-A Dental Hospital, 648-22, Yoksam Dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul 135-080, Korea.

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June 2012

Decreasing dietary particle size of lupins increases apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and alters fermentation characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

Br J Nutr 2009 Aug 23;102(3):350-60. Epub 2009 Jan 23.

Animal Research and Development, Department of Agriculture and Food, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983, Australia.

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of lupin particle size on amino acid (AA) and energy digestibility and fermentation characteristics in pigs. Expt 1 examined the effects of lupin variety (cv. Tanjil and Mandelup) and lupin particle size (746, 888, 1099 and 1136 mum) on the total-tract apparent digestibility of dietary components in 63.5 (sd 7.28) kg pigs. While variety had no effect on total-tract apparent digestibility, decreasing particle size of lupins linearly increased total-tract apparent digestibility of crude protein of diets containing 350 g lupins per kg (P < 0.01). Expt 2 examined the effect of lupin particle size (567, 995, 1198, 1250 and 1304 mum) on digestion and fermentation characteristics in 29.8 (sd 2.9) kg pigs. Pigs were fed the respective diets ad libitum for the first 2 weeks and fed at three times maintenance energy level in the third week. Pigs were euthanised under sedation at 46.7 (sd 4.21) kg to collect digesta samples along the intestinal tract. Decreasing particle size increased apparent ileal and total-tract digestible N (P < 0.01) and the apparent and standardised ileal digestible AA content (P < 0.05- < 0.001) of lupins. Decreasing particle size of lupins linearly decreased the molar proportion of straight-chain volatile fatty acids (sum of acetic, propionic and butyric acids; VFAAPB), while branched-chain fatty acids (sum of valeric, caproic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids) were linearly increased (P < 0.001). The results demonstrated that particle size of lupins is a critical factor influencing nutrient, especially AA, utilisation efficiency and fermentation characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508191231DOI Listing
August 2009

Effects of feeding low protein diets to piglets on plasma urea nitrogen, faecal ammonia nitrogen, the incidence of diarrhoea and performance after weaning.

Arch Anim Nutr 2008 Oct;62(5):343-58

aSchool of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia.

This study evaluated the effects of feeding pigs low protein (LP) diets for different lengths of time after weaning on indices of protein fermentation, the incidence of postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), growth performance, and total-tract apparent digestibility. Sixty weaner pigs weighing 6.1 +/- 0.13 kg (mean +/- SEM) were used in a completely randomised design having five treatments: (i) a high protein diet (HP, 243 g/kg CP) fed for 14 d after weaning (HP14); (ii) a low protein diet (LP, 173 g CP/kg) fed for 5 d after weaning (LP5); (iii) LP diet fed for 7 d after weaning (LP7); (iv) LP diet fed for 10 d after weaning (LP10), and (v) LP diet fed for 14 d after weaning (LP14). All diets were supplemented with lysine, methionine, tryptophan and threonine, with all LP diets additionally fortified with crystalline isoleucine and valine to conform to a proposed ideal amino acid (AA) pattern. A second-stage diet (215 g CP/kg) was fed to pigs at the conclusion of each treatment. None of the diets contained antimicrobial compounds. Feeding a LP diet, regardless of duration of feeding, decreased plasma urea nitrogen (p < 0.001) and faecal ammonia-nitrogen (p < 0.001) contents. Feeding a LP diet, irrespective of feeding duration, decreased the incidence of PWD at day 8 after weaning (p = 0.044), and pigs fed diets LP7, LP010 and LP14 had firmer faeces (p = 0.030, p = 0.047 and p = 0.007, respectively) between days 10 and 12 after weaning. Treatments LP5, LP7, LP10 and LP14 did not reduce (p > 0.05) growth performance up to 106 days after weaning compared to pigs fed the HP diet. Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, energy and crude protein were similar (p > 0.05) between treatments. Our data suggest that feeding a LP diet, supplemented with AA to conform to an ideal AA pattern, for 7-10 days after weaning can reduce PWD in pigs fed antibiotic-free diets without compromising production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17450390802327811DOI Listing
October 2008
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