Publications by authors named "Jung Hyo Rhim"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Differences in Brain Morphology between Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo and Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Psychiatry Investig 2021 Jul 16;18(7):628-635. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine & SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The distinction between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and hydrocephalus ex vacuo caused by encephalic volume loss remains to be established. This study aims to investigate radiological parameters as clinically useful tools to discriminate iNPH from hydrocephalus ex vacuo caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: A total of 54 patients with ventriculomegaly (iNPH, 25; hydrocephalus ex vacuo, 29) were recruited in this study. Consequently, nine radiological parameters were compared between iNPH and hydrocephalus ex vacuo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Results: A small callosal angle (CA), the Sylvian fissure dilatation, and absence of narrowing of superior parietal sulci discriminated the iNPH group from the hydrocephalus ex vacuo group (p<0.05). The final binary logistic regression model included narrowing of superior parietal sulci, degrees of the CA, and height of the Sylvian fissure after controlling for age and global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The composite score made from these three indicators (narrowing of superior parietal sulci, degrees of the CA, and height of the Sylvian fissure) was statistically different between iNPH and hydrocephalus ex vacuo.

Conclusion: The narrowing of the CA, dilatation of the Sylvain fissure, and narrowing of superior parietal sulci may be used as radiological key indices and noninvasive tools for the differential diagnosis of iNPH from hydrocephalus ex vacuo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328827PMC
July 2021

The development of numerous radiation-induced cavernous malformations in a germ cell tumor patient: A case report.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 04 17;45(2):100654. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, SMG-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Radiation-induced cavernous malformations (RICMs) are most commonly reported in young patients who have previously received radiotherapy. Here, we report a case of a patient with a germ cell tumor who was treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and then incidentally found to have numerous RICMs. A 31-year-old male visited the hospital for a testicular mass. On examination, he was diagnosed with a mixed germ cell tumor with lung/brain metastases. The patient underwent a left orchiectomy and received 4 cycles of chemotherapy. He was then treated with WBRT for residual lesions in the brain and a wedge resection for the lung metastasis. Four years later, approximately 250-300 RICMs were incidentally observed in a follow-up brain image. Because the patient had not noticed any symptoms and the RICMs were small in size, he was not treated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of numerous (approximately 250-300) RICMs in a germ cell tumor patient after WBRT. Herein, we report details of this case and discuss the typical clinical features of RICM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2020.100654DOI Listing
April 2021

CT and MR imaging findings of ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with IgG4-related disease: multi-institutional case series.

Int J Ophthalmol 2020 18;13(8):1231-1237. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Radiology, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan 47392, Republic of Korea.

Aim: To report CT and MR imaging findings of ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-MALT lymphoma), a rare but clinically important complication of ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of histologically confirmed ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease at three tertiary and one secondary referral centers, between February 2003 and December 2016. Seven cases of histopathologically diagnosed IgG4-MALT lymphoma were identified. CT and MR images were analyzed by consensus of two experienced head and neck radiologists.

Results: Lacrimal glands were the main site of involvement in all seven patients. The lesions typically showed well-demarcated margins, iso- to hyperattenuation on precontrast CT, T2 hypo- to isointensity, T1 isointensity, and homogenous internal architecture with homogenous enhancement pattern. Lesions were mostly hyperdense and isointense to normal extraocular muscles on postcontrast CT and MR images, respectively.

Conclusion: Unlike in typical ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease, T2 isointensity and hyperattenuation on precontrast CT images were noted in some IgG4-MALT lymphoma cases. Although the findings may be nonspecific, the possibility of accompanying MALT lymphoma may need to be considered, when ocular adnexal lesions in patients clinically suspected of having IgG4-related disease are refractory to glucocorticoids and show T2 isointensity and hyperattenuation on precontrast CT for the optimal management of the patients. However, this is a case series of a very rare complication of ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease, and thus caution is warranted to generalize the conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2020.08.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387900PMC
August 2020

Prognostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI-Derived Pharmacokinetic Variables in Glioblastoma Patients: Analysis of Contrast-Enhancing Lesions and Non-Enhancing T2 High-Signal Intensity Lesions.

Korean J Radiol 2020 06;21(6):707-716

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate pharmacokinetic variables from contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) and non-enhancing T2 high signal intensity lesions (NE-T2HSILs) on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for predicting progression-free survival (PFS) in glioblastoma (GBM) patients.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-four GBM patients who had undergone preoperative DCE MR imaging and received standard treatment were retrospectively included. We analyzed the pharmacokinetic variables of the volume transfer constant (Ktrans) and volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space within the CEL and NE-T2HSIL of the entire tumor. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed using preoperative clinical characteristics, pharmacokinetic variables of DCE MR imaging, and postoperative molecular biomarkers to predict PFS.

Results: The increased mean Ktrans of the CEL, increased 95th percentile Ktrans of the CELs, and absence of methylated O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter were relevant adverse variables for PFS in the univariate analysis ( = 0.041, = 0.032, and = 0.083, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that PFS was significantly shorter in patients with a mean Ktrans of the CEL > 0.068 and 95th percentile Ktrans of the CEL>0.223 (log-rank = 0.038 and = 0.041, respectively). However, only mean Ktrans of the CEL was significantly associated with PFS ( = 0.024; hazard ratio, 553.08; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-134756.74) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. None of the pharmacokinetic variables from NE-T2HSILs were significantly related to PFS.

Conclusion: Among the pharmacokinetic variables extracted from CELs and NE-T2HSILs on preoperative DCE MR imaging, the mean Ktrans of CELs exhibits potential as a useful imaging predictor of PFS in GBM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2019.0629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231611PMC
June 2020

Ultrasonographic Indeterminate Lymph Nodes in Preoperative Thyroid Cancer Patients: Malignancy Risk and Ultrasonographic Findings Predictive of Malignancy.

Korean J Radiol 2020 05;21(5):598-604

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Proper management of lymph nodes (LNs) with ultrasonographic (US) indeterminate features in thyroid cancer patients remains elusive. We aimed to evaluate the malignancy risk and US findings predictive of malignancy for US indeterminate LNs in preoperative thyroid cancer patients through node-by-node correlation.

Materials And Methods: A total of 348 LNs in 284 thyroid cancer patients, who underwent fine-needle aspiration or core-needle biopsy between December 2006 and June 2015, were included. We determined the malignancy risks for US probably benign, indeterminate, and suspicious categories. For US indeterminate LNs, which had neither echogenic hilum nor hilar vascularity in the absence of any suspicious finding, US findings were compared between benign and metastatic LNs using Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test.

Results: US imaging diagnoses were probably benign in 20.7% (n = 72) cases, indeterminate in 23.6% (n = 82), and suspicious in 55.7% (n = 194). Malignancy risk of US indeterminate LNs (19.5% [16/82]) differed from those of the US probably benign (2.8% [2/72]) ( = 0.002) and US suspicious LNs (78.4% [152/194]) ( < 0.001). Among US indeterminate LNs, there were no significant differences in short, long, and long-to-short diameter (L/S) ratios between benign and metastatic LNs (3.9 vs. 3.8 mm, = 0.619; 7.3 vs. 7.3 mm, = 0.590; 1.9 vs. 1.9, = 0.652).

Conclusion: US indeterminate LNs were frequently encountered during preoperative evaluation and had intermediate malignancy risk. Given the lack of discriminative power of size criteria and L/S ratio, clinical factors such as surgical strategy and node size should be considered for proper triage of US indeterminate LNs in thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2019.0755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183832PMC
May 2020

Ivy Sign Predicts Ischemic Stroke Recurrence in Adult Moyamoya Patients without Revascularization Surgery.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 18;47(5-6):223-230. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although there is a standard guideline for performing revascularization surgery in patients with Moyamoya diseases (MMD), more objective and easily obtainable predictors are still needed.

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between an ipsilateral ivy sign and ischemic stroke recurrence in adult MMD patients without revascularization surgery.

Methods: We included consecutive MMD patients without revascularization surgery between 2006 and 2014. The ivy sign was defined as a linear or focal high-signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, and the burdens of ivy sign were rated in each hemisphere. The ischemic stroke recurrence was defined as a new clinical event that accompanied a new brain lesion on magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Overall, 84 patients with 154 hemispheres were analyzed. We found recurrent ischemic stroke in 9 (6%) hemispheres within 3 years. In multivariate analysis, an ipsilateral ivy sign remained an independent predictor of 3-year ischemic recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 10.15, 95% CI 2.10-49.14, p = 0.004). An initial presentation as infarction was also significant (aHR 7.15, 95% CI 1.36-36.78, p = 0.019). The burdens of ivy sign showed a dose-response tendency with the 3-year ischemic recurrence rate (p < 0.001). When comparing the ischemic recurrence rate among 4 groups with and without ivy sign and perfusion defect, the "Ivy sign (+) Perfusion defect (+) group" showed a significantly higher risk in both observed (p = 0.005) and estimated (p = 0.003) 3-year ischemic recurrence than did the other group. Additionally, the "Ivy sign (+) Perfusion defect (-) group" showed a higher recurrence rate than did the "Ivy sign (-) Perfusion defect (+) group".

Conclusions: The ivy sign is associated with ischemic recurrence in adult MMD patients in a dose-response manner. It would be helpful for selecting high-risk patients who need revascularization surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500610DOI Listing
May 2020

Persistent/Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics of Persistent Disease and Clinical Recurrence Based on Computed Tomography Analysis.

Thyroid 2018 11 16;28(11):1490-1499. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

7 Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The natural course of persistent/recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative incidence and clinico-radiological characteristics of persistent disease and clinical recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) analysis in patients with persistent/recurrent DTC.

Methods: From January 2005 to December 2016, this retrospective study included 107 patients (M:F = 28:79; M = 53.5 years) with surgically proven cervical locoregional recurrence of DTC. Two neck CT examinations (median interval 1.92 years; range 0.17-7.58 years) before the last thyroid cancer surgery within the study period were reevaluated. Based on the presence of the lesion on the first CT and its progression on the second CT, the locoregional recurrence was classified into the following categories: stable persistence (decrease, no change, or increase by <2 mm in short dimension on the second CT), progressive persistence (increase by ≥2 mm), and clinical recurrence (newly appeared on the second CT). Clinical and radiological characteristics of the three groups were compared using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results: The relative incidences of stable persistence, progressive persistence, and clinical recurrence were 56.1% (60/107), 15.0% (16/107), and 29.0% (31/107), respectively. Multivariate analysis between the clinical recurrence (29.0%) and persistence (71.0%) groups revealed various independent factors for prediction of clinical recurrence. These included longer interval between the two CT examinations (median 2.67 vs. 1.79 years; p = 0.021), a smaller number of thyroid surgeries (1.16 ± 0.45 vs. 1.55 ± 0.81; p = 0.002), and a history of neck dissection at the location of the largest locoregional recurrence (70.0% vs. 31.4%; p < 0.001). There was no significant independent factor for differentiation between the stable persistence (78.9%; 60/76) and progressive persistence (21.1%; 16/76) groups. The results may have been influenced by selection bias because this study included only surgically proven cases.

Conclusions: With regard to cervical locoregional recurrence of DTC, active surveillance may be favored because more than a half of the cases are structurally persistent and stable. However, meticulous evaluation is necessary to detect progressive persistence and clinical recurrence, considering various clinical factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2018.0151DOI Listing
November 2018

PREDICTION OF NONDIAGNOSTIC RESULTS IN FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION OF THYROID NODULES: UTILITY OF ON-SITE GROSS VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF SPECIMENS FOR LIQUID-BASED CYTOLOGY.

Endocr Pract 2018 Oct 5;24(10):867-874. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Objective: To explore a comprehensive approach for on-site gross visual assessments of liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens of thyroid nodules and determine morphologic criteria that help predict nondiagnostic rates.

Methods: Two-hundred nodules from 165 patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) at our hospital were included in this prospectively designed, retrospective analysis. Specimens were visually assessed on-site for three morphologic categories (specimen color, specimen volume, and particle count) using a 5-point grading.

Results: Twenty-two nodules (11%) showed nondiagnostic results. Regarding specimen color, nondiagnostic rates tended to be higher in grades 1 (75%) and 5 (100%) than in grades 2 (18%), 3 (8%), or 4 (17%), with a significant difference between grade 1 and grade 3 ( P = .003). For specimen volume, nondiagnostic results were significantly more common in grade 1 (33%) and 5 (33%) than in grades 3 (5%) or 4 (1%) ( P<.005). There was a significant negative correlation between the grading of the particle count and the nondiagnostic rate (Spearman ρ = -1.000; P<.001). The sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of nondiagnostic results were 77% and 76%, respectively, at the optimal cutoff value of 2 (grade 2 or lower).

Conclusion: Particle count was an important morphologic criterion that helped predict nondiagnostic rates in LBC specimens of thyroid nodules, and the specimen color and volume were also useful adjuncts. In routine practice, on-site gross visual assessment followed by resampling (if necessary) may potentially help reduce the rates of nondiagnostic results, repeat FNAs, and the number of unnecessary needle passes.

Abbreviations: FNA = fine-needle aspiration; LBC = liquid-based cytology; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; US = ultrasonography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2018-0183DOI Listing
October 2018

Metal Artifact Reduction for Orthopedic Implants: Brain CT Angiography in Patients with Intracranial Metallic Implants.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 May 2;33(21):e158. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effects of a metal artifact reduction for orthopedic implants (O-MAR) for brain computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in patients with aneurysm clips and coils.

Methods: The study included 36 consecutive patients with 47 intracranial metallic implants (42 aneurysm clips, 5 coils) who underwent brain CTA. The computed tomographic images with and without the O-MAR were independently reviewed both quantitatively and qualitatively by two reviewers. For quantitative analysis, image noises near the metallic implants of non-O-MAR and O-MAR images were compared. For qualitative analysis, image quality improvement and the presence of new streak artifacts were assessed.

Results: Image noise was significantly reduced near metallic implants ( < 0.01). Improvement of implant-induced streak artifacts was observed in eight objects (17.0%). However, streak artifacts were aggravated in 11 objects (23.4%), and adjacent vessel depiction was worsened in eight objects (17.0%). In addition, new O-MAR-related streak artifacts were observed in 32 objects (68.1%). New streak artifacts were more prevalent in cases with overlapping metallic implants on the same axial plane than in those without ( = 0.018). Qualitative assessment revealed that the overall image quality was not significantly improved in O-MAR images.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of the O-MAR in patients with metallic implants significantly reduces image noise. However, the degree of the streak artifacts and surrounding vessel depiction were not significantly improved on O-MAR images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955738PMC
May 2018

Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis: MR imaging features and their impact on prognosis.

Neuroradiology 2018 Jul 17;60(7):715-723. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Radiology, GangNeung Asan Hospital, GangNeung, South Korea.

Purpose: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a life-threatening disease that is difficult to diagnose. Its overall imaging features have not been evaluated and the prognostic impact is unclear. The purpose of our study was to present MR imaging features and their impact on prognosis of AIFRS.

Methods: MR images and clinical records of 23 patients with AIFRS were retrospectively evaluated to identify the imaging features and to determine the factors affecting patients' survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of the prognostic factors, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared by using a log-rank test.

Results: All cases showed extra-sinonasal involvement and the orbit was the most common (65.2%, 15/23) location. The lesion enhancement pattern was classified into lack of contrast enhancement (LoCE) (47.8%, 11/23) and homogeneous (34.8%, 8/23) and heterogeneous (17.4%, 4/23) enhancement. Although LoCE showed variable signal intensity (SI), homogeneously or heterogeneously enhancing lesions showed exclusively low SI (100%, 12/12) on T2WI. Among various clinical and imaging factors, LoCE was correlated with coagulation necrosis, probably provoked by numerous fungal hyphae, and was found to be a sole independent prognostic factor for disease-specific mortality (hazard ratio = 16.819; 95% CI, 1.646-171.841, p = 0.017). In addition, patients with LoCE showed worse survival than patients without LoCE (p = 0.008).

Conclusion: AIFRS showed frequent extra-sinonasal involvement and variable MR enhancement patterns. An enhancement pattern of LoCE was seen in about half of the cases and was a unique prognostic factor among the various clinico-radiologic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-018-2034-0DOI Listing
July 2018

Non-Motor Symptom Burdens Are Not Associated with Iron Accumulation in Early Parkinson's Disease: a Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Study.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Mar 26;33(13):e96. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University-Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been used to measure iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined the relationship between non-motor symptoms (NMSs) and iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD.

Methods: The QSM data were acquired from 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 patients with early PD and 19 normal controls. The Korean version of the NMS scale (K-NMSS) was used for evaluation of NMSs in patients. The patients were divided into high NMS and low NMS groups. The region-of-interest analyses were performed in the following deep nuclei: red nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars reticulata, dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and head of the caudate nucleus.

Results: Thirteen patients had high NMS scores (total K-NMSS score, mean = 32.1), and 16 had low NMS scores (10.6). The QSM values in the deep were not different among the patients with high NMS scores, low NMS scores, and controls. The QSM values were not correlated linearly with K-NMSS total score after adjusting the age at acquisition of brain MRI.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the NMS burdens are not associated with iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. These results suggest that future neuroimaging studies on the pathology of NMSs in PD should use more specific and detailed clinical tools and recruit PD patients with severe NMSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e96DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865060PMC
March 2018

Application of diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging for ganglioglioma in adults: Comparison study with oligodendroglioma.

J Neuroradiol 2016 Oct 5;43(5):331-8. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 110-744 Seoul, Republic of Korea; Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), and School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-742 Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) of ganglioglioma (GG) compared with oligodendroglioma (ODG).

Materials And Methods: We enrolled 36 patients with histopathologically confirmed GG (12 patients) or ODG (24 patients). The volumetric analyses of normalized ADC (nADC) and normalized CBV (nCBV) maps, tumor volume, and ratio of enhancing portion compared to the tumor volume were performed. The microvessel area (MVA) was analyzed by staining with the CD34 monoclonal antibody.

Results: GGs occurred more frequently in the temporal lobe than in the frontal lobe. GGs showed a smaller tumor volume, and higher ratio of enhancing portion per tumor volume than ODGs (P=.002, and P=.010, respectively). GGs also showed lower nADC values (1.055±0.063 vs 1.204±0.030, P=.021) and higher nCBV values (0.777±0.032 vs 0.514±0.025, P<.001) than ODGs. Among the parameters in the multivariate model, nCBV was the most significant factor for differentiating GGs and ODGs (P<.0001). GGs showed significantly higher MVAs than ODGs (0.48±0.09 vs 0.24±0.04, P=.025).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that GGs tend to have relatively smaller tumor volume with higher ratio of enhancing portions, lower nADC values, and higher nCBV values than ODGs. Among these parameters, measurement of nCBV, which is correlated with a higher MVA measurement in GGs, can be the most useful tool for differentiating GGs from ODGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2016.06.001DOI Listing
October 2016

Utility of arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in prediction of angiographic vascularity of meningiomas.

J Neurosurg 2016 09 29;125(3):536-43. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Departments of 1 Radiology and.

OBJECTIVE Arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging (ASL-PWI) enables quantification of tissue perfusion without contrast media administration. The aim of this study was to explore whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) from ASL-PWI can reliably predict angiographic vascularity of meningiomas. METHODS Twenty-seven patients with intracranial meningiomas, who had undergone preoperative ASL-PWI and digital subtraction angiography prior to resection, were included. Angiographic vascularity was assessed using a 4-point grading scale and meningiomas were classified into 2 groups: low vascularity (Grades 0 and 1; n = 11) and high vascularity (Grades 2 and 3; n = 16). Absolute CBF, measured at the largest section of the tumor, was normalized to the contralateral gray matter. Correlation between the mean normalized CBF (nCBF) and angiographic vascularity was determined and the mean nCBF values of the 2 groups were compared. Diagnostic performance of the nCBF for differentiating between the 2 groups was assessed. RESULTS The nCBF had a significant positive correlation with angiographic vascularity (ρ = 0.718; p < 0.001). The high-vascularity group had a significantly higher nCBF than the low-vascularity group (3.334 ± 2.768 and 0.909 ± 0.468, respectively; p = 0.003). At the optimal nCBF cutoff value of 1.733, sensitivity and specificity for the differential diagnosis of the 2 groups were 69% (95% CI 41%-89%) and 100% (95% CI 72%-100%), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.875 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS ASL-PWI may provide a reliable and noninvasive means of predicting angiographic vascularity of meningiomas. It may thus assist in selecting potential candidates for preoperative digital subtraction angiography and embolization in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.8.JNS151211DOI Listing
September 2016

Bright vessel appearance on arterial spin labeling MRI for localizing arterial occlusion in acute ischemic stroke.

Stroke 2015 Feb 18;46(2):564-7. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

From the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea (R.-E.Y., T.J.Y., J.H.R., K.M.K., S.H.C., J.-H.K., C.-H.S., M.H.H.); Department of Radiology (R.-E.Y., T.J.Y., J.H.R., K.M.K., S.H.C., J.-H.K., C.-H.S., M.H.H.), Clinical Research Center for Stroke, Clinical Research Institute (B.-W.Y.), Department of Neurology (B.-W.Y.), and Department of Neurosurgery (J.E.K., H.-S.K.), Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether bright vessel appearance on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI can help localize arterial occlusion sites in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: Patients who underwent MRI for suspected acute ischemic stroke, as identified by an area of restricted diffusion, were included. All images were visually analyzed for the presence or absence of (1) arterial occlusion on time-of-flight MR angiography, (2) bright vessel appearance on ASL images, and (3) susceptibility vessel sign. McNemar 2-tailed test was used to compare the sensitivities of ASL and susceptibility-weighted imaging for the detection of arterial occlusion, using MR angiography as the reference standard.

Results: ASL bright vessel appearance was significantly more common in the group with occlusion than in the group without occlusion (94% [33 of 35] versus 21% [17 of 82], respectively; P<0.001). The bright vessel appearance, when present, was seen proximal or distal to the occlusion site. The bright vessel appearance had a significantly higher sensitivity for the detection of occlusion than the susceptibility vessel sign (94% [33 of 35] versus 66% [23 of 35], respectively; P=0.002). In cases with negative MR angiography, the bright vessel appearance helped identify more additional arterial occlusions than the susceptibility vessel sign (21% [17 of 82] versus 10% [8 of 82], respectively; P=0.012).

Conclusions: The bright vessel appearance on ASL imaging can provide an important diagnostic clue for the detection and localization of arterial occlusion sites in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007797DOI Listing
February 2015

Desmoid-type fibromatosis in the head and neck: CT and MR imaging characteristics.

Neuroradiology 2013 Feb 22;55(3):351-9. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, South Korea.

Introduction: In the head and neck region, desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon tumor, and the imaging features have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to describe imaging features with their pathologic correlation of desmoid-type fibromatosis in this region.

Methods: Computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images of nine consecutive patients (five women and four men; age range, 2-72 years; mean age, 28 years) with desmoid-type fibromatosis in the head and neck were retrospectively evaluated, focusing on lesion location, size, shape, presence of a rim of surrounding fat, CT attenuation, signal intensity, and enhancement characteristics on MR with pathologic correlation.

Results: Desmoid-type fibromatosis involved perivertebral space (n = 5) and carotid space (n = 1) in six adult patients. In three pediatric patients, the fibromatosis primarily involved submandibular space (n = 2) and masticator space (n = 1) with frequent invasion to the adjacent spaces (3/3). A mean greatest dimension of 5.8 cm, elongated shape (7/9), and rim of surrounding fat (8/9) were the common features of the desmoid-type fibromatosis. Tumors often showed iso (3/7) or high attenuation (3/7) on postcontrast CT, high signal intensity (6/9) on T2-weighted image, iso signal intensity (8/9) on T1-weighted image, and strong MR enhancement (8/9). Characteristic nonenhancing low signal intensity bands (8/9) on all MR sequences were well correlated with dense collagenous stroma.

Conclusions: Desmoid-type fibromatosis in the head and neck of adults frequently involves perivertebral space. Along with various common imaging features, desmoid-type fibromatosis shows characteristic nonenhancing low signal intensity bands on MR images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-012-1037-5DOI Listing
February 2013

Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

Pediatr Radiol 2013 Mar 7;43(5):628-30. Epub 2012 Oct 7.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-Dong Chongno-Gu, Seoul, South Korea, 110-744.

Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-012-2521-0DOI Listing
March 2013

Targeting the tumor vasculature to improve the efficacy of oncolytic virus therapy.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2007 Dec 27;99(23):1739-41. Epub 2007 Nov 27.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djm234DOI Listing
December 2007

Cancer cell-derived IL-1alpha induces IL-8 release in endothelial cells.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2008 Jan 11;134(1):45-50. Epub 2007 Jul 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea.

Purpose: Cancer cells release a multitude of cytokines and growth factors that influence neighboring cells and help establish a favorable environment for tumor development. As part of our studies designed to elucidate the complex cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate tumor development, we investigated cancer cell-induced changes in gene expression in endothelial cells.

Methods: After treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with conditioned medium (CM) of SNUC5 colon cancer cells, gene expression profile in HUVEC was analyzed using cDNA microarray. Neutralizing antibodies against pro-inflammatory cytokines were used to identify the major effecter in SNUC5 CM.

Results: IL-8 was one of the four genes up-regulated over fourfold, and IL-1alpha in SNUC5 CM was revealed as a major effecter of IL-8 over-expression and release, which was nearly completely neutralized by anti-IL-1alpha antibody. Constitutive secretion of IL-1alpha was confirmed in many other human cancer cells.

Conclusions: IL-1alpha is constitutively expressed in many human cancer cells and directly induces IL-8 secretion in neighboring endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-007-0243-8DOI Listing
January 2008

A neutralizable epitope is induced on HGF upon its interaction with its receptor cMet.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 29;354(1):115-21. Epub 2006 Dec 29.

Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-Dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

A new conformational neutralizable epitope is created on heptocyte growth factor (HGF), when it interacts with its receptor, cMet. By immunizing rabbits with HGF-cMet complex, we successfully generated a monoclonal antibody (SFN68) that inhibits HGF-cMet interaction, and blocks the biological function mediated by HGF. To define the epitope, we screened out an epitope-mimicking peptide, KSLSRHDHIHHH, from a phage display of combinatorial peptide library. In molecular mimicry this peptide bound to cMet and inhibited HGF-cMet interaction. No humoral response was induced to this epitope-mimicking peptide when immunization was done with HGF alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.12.164DOI Listing
March 2007

Metabolic loading of guanosine induces chondrocyte apoptosis via the Fas pathway.

Exp Mol Med 2006 Aug;38(4):401-7

Metabolic Engineering Laboratory Inc., Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea.

Although the apoptosis of chondrocytes plays an important role in endochondral ossification, its mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that guanosine induces chondrocyte apoptosis based on the results of acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, caspase-3 activation, and sub-G1 fraction analysis. The potent inhibitory effect of dipyridamole, a nucleoside transporter blocker, indicates that extracellular guanosine must enter the chondrocytes to induce apoptosis. We found that guanosine promotes Fas-Fas ligand interaction which, in turn, leads to chondrocyte apoptosis. These findings indicate a novel mechanism for endochondral ossification via metabolic regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emm.2006.47DOI Listing
August 2006

Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

Mol Cells 2006 Apr;21(2):308-13

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744, Korea.

Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.
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April 2006

Screening of LPS-specific peptides from a phage display library using epoxy beads.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005 Apr;329(1):312-7

Program in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Korea.

The selection of identical or highly homologous peptides from phage display combinatorial peptide libraries has been unsuccessful in biopanning experiments using microtiter plates. In the present study, by biopanning on LPS-conjugated epoxy beads, we repeatedly enriched clones encoding AWLPWAK and NLQEFLF. These peptides were found to interact with the polysaccharide moiety of LPS, which is highly variable among gram negative bacterial species. In addition, phages encoding these peptides preferentially bound to the LPS of Salmonella family. AWLPWAK-conjugated beads absorbed Salmonella enteritidis from solution and showed a preference for S. enteritidis over Escherichia coli. In summary, this study shows for the first time that a peptide screened from phage displays of combinatorial peptide libraries can be synthesized on beads and be used practically to concentrate bacterial cells from solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.01.137DOI Listing
April 2005

Generation and characterization of IgG monoclonal antibodies specific for malondialdehyde.

Hybrid Hybridomics 2003 Aug;22(4):259-62

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea.

Numerous studies have indicated that the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) is one of the candidate oxidative products. Therefore, to allow the assessment of oxidized LDL in human serum, we developed monoclonal antibodies for MDA-LDL. Two of these-MDA1 and MDA2-bound to oxidized LDL but not to native LDL by Western blot analysis. The murine monoclonal antibodies to oxidized LDL have potential clinical implications, as imaging agents, for defining the compositions of atherosclerotic vessels in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/153685903322328983DOI Listing
August 2003
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