Publications by authors named "Jung Eun Lee"

554 Publications

Association Between Diet Quality and Prevalence of Obesity, Dyslipidemia, and Insulin Resistance Among Filipino Immigrant Women in Korea: The Filipino Women's Diet and Health Study.

Front Public Health 2021 1;9:647661. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Diet quality may be a key modifiable factor for the prevention of non-communicable disease. We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among Filipino immigrant women in Korea. A total of 413 participants from the 2014-2016 baseline population of the Filipino Women's Diet and Health Study (FiLWHEL) were examined. Individual dietary intakes were evaluated through 24-h recalls and then converted into two dietary quality assessments: Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Data Derived Inflammation Index (DDII) originally developed by our group. Fasting blood levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterols, glucose, and insulin were measured. We used logistic regression models for odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found a statistically significant association between MDD-W scores and decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity; ORs (95% CIs) of the 3rd vs. 1st tertiles were 0.58 (0.36-0.94; for trend = 0.029). Increased DDII was associated with elevated prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance; ORs (95% CIs) of the 5th vs. 1-3rd quintiles were 6.44 (2.56-16.20) for triglycerides (TG), 3.90 (1.92-7.90) for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 3.36 (1.81-6.24) for total cholesterol (TC), 6.25 (2.53-15.41) for abnormal TG/HDL ratios, 3.59 (1.96-6.59) for HbA1c, 2.61 (1.11-6.17) for fasting blood glucose levels, 9.67 (4.16-22.48) for insulin levels, and 9.73 (4.46-21.25) for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( for trend <0.001 for all, except 0.033 for fasting blood glucose). Greater dietary diversity was inversely associated with the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Filipino immigrant women. Proinflammatory scores based on diet and lifestyle factors were associated with an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Further, epidemiological studies on the relationship between dietary acculturation and chronic disease are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.647661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281297PMC
July 2021

Predialysis predictors for identifying patients requiring dialysis at a higher glomerular filtration rate.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):1087-1093

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Current evidence suggests that the initiation of maintenance hemodialysis should not be based on a specific glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but on symptoms or signs attributable to kidney disease. However, it is difficult to predict the time point at which overt uremic syndrome develops in individuals. The estimated GFR is poorly correlated with occurrence of uremic symptoms, and some patients require dialysis at a higher eGFR than others. In this case, patients are more likely to be improperly prepared for dialysis. We investigated the predialysis characteristics of patients who require dialysis at a higher eGFR.

Methods: A total of 453 incident dialysis patients being monitored by a nephrologist from January 2013 to December 2018 were included. The predialysis characteristics when eGFR decreased to 20 mL/min/1.73 m were obtained.

Results: The mean age was 61 years, and 65.7% were men. Overall, the median eGFR at the first dialysis was 5.8 (interquartile range 4.6-7.3) mL/min/1.73 m and initiation of dialysis at the first quintile (≥7.8 mL/min/1.73 m) was defined as 'early initiation of dialysis' Among the predialysis characteristics, heart failure (adjusted odds ratio 3.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-8.03), serum albumin <4.0 mg/dL (2.22; 1.30-3.77), blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio >15 mg/mg (1.92, 1.16-3.18), and hyperuricemia (1.84; 1.05-3.23) were independent predictors of early initiation. Diabetes mellitus and the causes of kidney disease were not independent predictors of early initiation. The early initiation group was less likely to initiate dialysis with a permanent vascular access than the late initiation group.

Conclusions: For patients with heart failure, low serum albumin level, high BUN/Cr ratio, or hyperuricemia, clinicians can provide predialysis counseling in advance and consider early creation of vascular access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2021.1940202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259870PMC
December 2021

Associations of General and Abdominal Obesity with the Risk of Glioma Development.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

The association between obesity and the risk of glioma remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the potential association between general and abdominal obesity and the risk of glioma based on a nationwide population-based cohort study of Koreans. Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance System cohort, 6,833,744 people older than 20 years who underwent regular national health examination in both 2009 and 2011 were followed until the end of 2017. We documented 4771 glioma cases based on an ICD-10 code of C71 during the median follow-up period of 7.30 years. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25.0 kg/m were at significantly higher risk of developing glioma than those with a BMI < 25.0 kg/m (HR 1.08 CI 1.02-1.15). Individuals with a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 cm (males)/85 cm (females) also had a significantly higher risk of glioma than those with a WC < 90 cm (males)/85 cm (females) (HR 1.16 CI 1.09-1.24). In the group with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m, individuals with abdominal obesity were at significantly higher risk of developing glioma (HR 1.18 CI 1.09-1.27) than those without abdominal obesity. The role of abdominal obesity in this association was stronger in women than in men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that obese people may be at higher risk of glioma, especially centrally obese people from an Asian population with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m. Loss of visceral fat in people with abdominal obesity may reduce their risk of developing glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228893PMC
June 2021

Cardiovascular Risk Comparison between Expanded Hemodialysis Using Theranova and Online Hemodiafiltration (CARTOON): A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Sci Rep 2021 May 24;11(1):10807. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Expanded hemodialysis (HDx) with medium cutoff (MCO) membranes, which remove middle-to-large molecules well, may be a good option to replace online hemodiafiltration (online-HDF). To provide more evidence, this randomized controlled trial compared several cardiovascular parameters between patients undergoing HDx and online-HDF. Eighty patients undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis were randomly assigned to receive either HDx with a Theranova membrane (n = 43) or online-HDF (n = 37). The primary endpoints were changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), echocardiographic parameters, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores over 1 year, and the secondary endpoints included blood cardiovascular biomarkers, mortality, and patient-reported outcomes. A linear mixed model and log-rank test were used to estimate the group differences. 65 patients had completed the trial. The changes in baPWV and echocardiographic parameters did not differ between the two groups. The CAC scores remained stable in the online-HDF group, whereas an increasing trend was shown in the HDx group (P = 0.012). Other endpoints, including cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities, were similar between the two groups. The changes in cardiovascular parameters did not differ between HDx with an MCO membrane and online-HDF. However, attention may be needed in patients with high CAC scores or scores with an increasing tendency when online-HDF is replaced with HDx with an MCO membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90311-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144214PMC
May 2021

Diet Before and After Breast Cancer.

Authors:
Jung Eun Lee

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:545-566

Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

The incidence of breast cancer has dramatically increased recently in several Asian countries. This region has experienced rapid economic growth and demographic and environmental changes. Breast cancer rates vary substantially among countries, with a lower incidence in developing countries than that in Western countries. Given the upward trend of breast cancer incidence in Asian countries and the large variation in incidence around the world, dietary changes may contribute to breast cancer development. In particular, nutrients and foods from animal sources have drawn attention as potential causes of breast cancer given that obesity and energy balance appear to be important factors associated with breast cancer risk. However, prospective cohort and intervention studies do not support the hypothesis that diet in middle life influences breast cancer development. However, recent studies have provided better insight into the roles of dietary factors in specific types of breast cancers, such as estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. Some studies suggest that diet in early life may play a substantial role in breast cancer development, but data and evidence remain limited.Although etiologic and epidemiologic studies have long studied modifiable risk factors for breast cancer incidence, much remains to be explored regarding the role of diet after a breast cancer diagnosis. Several epidemiologic studies have explored the factors that improve breast cancer survival rates, including diet, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). While there is evidence of the effect of BMI on breast cancer mortality, the effects of changing dietary habits after a breast cancer diagnosis on survival or recurrence are less clear. A report of the World Cancer Research Fund stated that evidence was not sufficient to draw firm conclusions about the effect of diet and nutrition on breast cancer prognosis, but it did suggest a link between diet and breast cancer survival.The global burden of breast cancer is increasing and breast cancer is a major and emerging health problem in both developed and developing countries. For example, the five-year survival rate for Korean breast cancer patients has improved from 78.0% in 1993-1995 to 92.7% in 2012-2016. This improvement emphasizes the importance of supportive care, diet, and quality of life for breast cancer survivors. However, we have limited data of non-Western breast cancer survivors. There is a need to examine the role of diet in breast cancer survival in both Western and non-Western regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9620-6_29DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Pokémon GO on Physical Activity and Psychological and Social Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 25;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Augmented reality (AR) mobile game, Pokémon GO, leverages gamification and location tracking technology to encourage players to walk in different places to catch Pokémon characters in real-world settings. The systematic review sought to explore the impact Pokémon GO has on players' physical activity (PA), and psychological and social outcomes. Six research databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus) were used. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) quantitative research published in English; (2) examined the relationships between or impact of Pokémon GO on PA, psychological, and/or social outcomes; and (3) included participants played or exposed to Pokémon GO. Thirty-six studies were included with a total sample of 38,724 participants. Players had significantly greater PA than non-players in terms of daily steps and number of days spent in moderate PA. Pokémon GO game also improved players' social interactions and their mood/affects. Selective attention and concentration improved in adolescents and memory improved in young adults after playing the game. Findings suggest playing Pokémon GO could promote meaningful improvements in walking behavior, as well as psychological and social well-being. More multidimensional research with randomized controlled trial design is needed to identify factors that influence adoption and sustainability of Pokémon GO playing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123321PMC
April 2021

Dietary Modification Alters the Intrarenal Immunologic Micromilieu and Susceptibility to Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:621176. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

The versatility of the intrarenal immunologic micromilieu through dietary modification and the subsequent effects on susceptibility to ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-salt (HS) or high-fat (HF) diet on intrarenal immunologic micromilieu and development of ischemic AKI using murine ischemic AKI and human kidney-2 (HK-2) cell hypoxia models. Four different diet regimens [control, HF, HS, and high-fat diet with high-salt (HF+HS)] were provided individually to groups of 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice for 1 or 6 weeks. After a bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (BIRI) operation, mice were sacrificed on day 2 and renal injury was assessed with intrarenal leukocyte infiltration. Human kidney-2 cells were treated with NaCl or lipids. The HF diet increased body weight and total cholesterol, whereas the HF+HS did not. Although the HF or HS diet did not change total leukocyte infiltration at 6 weeks, the HF diet and HF+HS diet increased intrarenal CD8 T cells. Plasma cells increased in the HF and HS diet groups. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and RANTES was increased by the HF or HS diet, and intrarenal VEGF decreased in the HS and HF+HS diet groups at 6 weeks. Deterioration of renal function following BIRI tended to be aggravated by the HF or HS diet. High NaCl concentration suppressed proliferation and enhanced expression of TLR-2 in hypoxic HK-2 cells. The HF or HS diet can enhance susceptibility to ischemic AKI by inducing proinflammatory changes to the intrarenal immunologic micromilieu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.621176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991094PMC
June 2021

Nutrient intakes from supplement and factors associated with supplement use among breast cancer survivors: A cross-sectional study.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 Mar 28:e13447. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: We investigated the contribution of supplement use to total nutrient intake, the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake and the factors associated with supplement use among breast cancer survivors.

Methods: A total of 701 Korean breast cancer survivors were included. We calculated the contribution of dietary supplements to total nutrient intake and the proportion of the population below the estimated average requirements (EARs) or exceeding the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with dietary supplement use.

Results: A total of 66.5% of the survivors used dietary supplements, with multivitamins and minerals being the most commonly consumed ones. The per cent contribution of supplement to the total intake was the highest for vitamin C. 28.2%-55.4% of the non-users consumed below the EAR of riboflavin, folate and calcium; 6.1%, 4.9% and 6.5% of the supplement users consumed above the UL of vitamins A and C, and iron, respectively. Supplement users had higher education levels or longer survival time.

Conclusion: 66.5% of Korean breast cancer survivors used dietary supplements. A higher education level or prolonged survival time was associated with higher use of dietary supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13447DOI Listing
March 2021

Simple Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake During Adolescence and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Precursors.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19;161(1):128-142.e20. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background & Aims: Recent increasing trends in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) strongly supports that early-life diet is involved in CRC development. However, data are lacking on the relationship with high sugar intake during early life.

Methods: We prospectively investigated the association of adolescent simple sugar (fructose, glucose, added sugar, total sugar) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with CRC precursor risk in 33,106 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II who provided adolescent dietary information in 1998 and subsequently underwent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy between 1999 and 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for clustered data.

Results: During follow-up, 2909 conventional adenomas (758 high-risk) and 2355 serrated lesions were identified (mean age at diagnoses, 52.2 ± 4.3 years). High sugar and SSB intake during adolescence was positively associated with risk of adenoma, but not serrated lesions. Per each increment of 5% of calories from total fructose intake, multivariable ORs were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05-1.31) for total and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06-1.60) for high-risk adenoma. By subsite, ORs were 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.30) for proximal, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05-1.47) for distal, and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.10-1.86) for rectal adenoma. Per 1 serving/day increment in SSB intake, ORs were 1.11 (95% CI, 1.02-1.20) for total and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.08-1.55) for rectal adenoma. Contrary to adolescent intake, sugar and SSB intake during adulthood was not associated with adenoma risk.

Conclusions: High intake of simple sugars and SSBs during adolescence was associated with increased risk of conventional adenoma, especially rectal adenoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238879PMC
July 2021

A Scoring Model with Simple Clinical Parameters to Predict Successful Discontinuation of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

Blood Purif 2021 Mar 18:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea,

Background: Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the standard treatment for severe acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, a practical consensus for discontinuing CRRT is lacking. We aimed to develop a prediction model with simple clinical parameters for successful discontinuation of CRRT.

Methods: Adult patients who received CRRT at Samsung Medical Center from 2007 to 2017 were included. Patients with preexisting ESRD and patients who progressed to ESRD within 1 year or died within 7 days after CRRT were excluded. Successful discontinuation of CRRT was defined as no requirement for renal replacement therapy for 7 days after discontinuing CRRT. Patients were assigned to either a success group or failure group according to whether discontinuation of CRRT was successful or not.

Results: A total of 1,158 patients were included in the final analyses. The success group showed greater urine output on the day before CRRT discontinuation (D-1) and the discontinuation day (D0). Multivariable analysis identified that urine output ≥300 mL on D-1, and mean arterial pressure 50∼78 mm Hg, serum potassium <4.1 mmol/L, and BUN <35 mg/dL (12.5 mmol/L) on D0 were predictive factors for successful discontinuation of CRRT. A scoring system using the 4 variables above (area under the receiver operating curve: 0.731) was developed.

Conclusions: Scoring system composed of urine output ≥300 mL/day on D-1, and adequate blood pressure, serum potassium <4.1 mmol/L, and BUN <35 mg/dL (12.5 mmol/L) on D0 was developed to predict successful discontinuation of CRRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512350DOI Listing
March 2021

Catalytic Oxidation of Toluene with Ozone Over the Ru-Mn/Desilicated Nanoporous H-Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 at Room Temperature.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 07;21(7):3868-3871

School of Environment Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, 02504, Republic of Korea.

In this study, the effect of Ru-Mn bimetallic catalysts in combination with a zeolite support on the removal of toluene in the presence of ozone at room temperature was investigated. Desili-cated HZSM-5 (DZSM) was fabricated and applied as a Ru-Mn support for the removal of toluene (100 ppm) in the presence of ozone (1000 ppm) at room temperature. The surface area, pore volume, and average pore size of Ru-Mn with a DZSM support (RuMn/DZSM) were measured and compared with those of Ru-Mn/HZSM-5 (RuMn/HZSM). The pore size of RuMn/DZSM (69 Å) was much larger than that of RuMn/HZSM-5 (5.5 Å). In addition, the pore volumes of RuMn/DZSM and RuMn/HZSM were 0.64 and 0.25 cm³/g, respectively. Furthermore, the ratios of Mn³+/Mn⁴+ and O/O of RuMn/DZSM were larger than those of RuMn/HZSM-5. The removal efficiency of toluene of RuMn/DZSM was higher than that of RuMn/HZSM due to its larger pore volume, pore size, and the increased ratios of Mn³+/Mn⁴+ and O/O.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19194DOI Listing
July 2021

Epidemiological Study of Malignant Gliomas in Korea Using Nationwide Dataset from 2007 to 2017.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Mar 8;36(9):e68. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cell Death Disease Research Center, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of malignant gliomas (MGs) using population-based Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID) data.

Methods: Using the Korean NHID, we identified patients with MG as C71 codes in KCD 5-7 according to ICD-10 from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017. Epidemiological characteristics of MG, including annual incidence, prevalence, mortality rates, and survival rates, were collected and analyzed according to socioeconomic state (SES) and treatments received.

Results: We identified 45,066 newly diagnosed-MG patients from 2007 to 2017, for an age-adjusted incidence of 7.47 per 100,000 people. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. The male to female ratio was 1.11. Mortality and survival probability were analyzed among total subjects and in subgroups. The mortality rates were lower in female than that of male patients (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.71), and in younger age population and in higher income group. Patients operated had a slightly higher survival rate. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were estimated at 63.4%, 46.2%, 39.4%, and 34.8%, respectively. This is the first population-based study to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG according to epidemiological characteristics in Korea using NHID.

Conclusion: Our study found that female sex and high SES were factors that significantly lowered the mortality rate in MG, and younger groups and operated patients showed significantly higher survival rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940121PMC
March 2021

Lipidomics reveals that acupuncture modulates the lipid metabolism and inflammatory interaction in a mouse model of depression.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 05 16;94:424-436. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, 62 Daehak-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34520, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Depression is a serious disease that has considerable impact on lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have shown that leptin, which is well known as a mediator of energy homeostasis and is a cytokine in inflammatory response, plays an important role in depression. Acupuncture is widely used to treat depression; however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of acupuncture on depression remain poorly understood. In this study, we utilized the chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced depression model and acupuncture treatment was performed at KI10, LR8, LU8, LR4 (AP) or non-acupoint (NP). Then, lipidomics was applied to investigate the effects of acupuncture on lipid metabolism and analyze leptin signals in the brain and changes of immune markers. Acupuncture treatment at AP improved depression-like behavior in an open-field test, forced swimming test, and marble burying test. Concurrently, CRS mice treated with AP acupuncture (CRS + AP) had significantly lower levels of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, liver injury markers) and exhibited different lipid patterns in liver lipidomic profiles. In particular, triglycerides (TGs) contributed the change of lipid patterns. Compared to the CRS mice, TGs with relatively high degrees of unsaturated fatty acids increased in the CRS + AP mice, but did not change in CRS mice treated with NP acupuncture (CRS + NP). The levels of leptin in plasma and leptin receptor positive cells in the brain (hypothalamus and hippocampus) decreased and increased, respectively, in the CRS + AP mice, while opposite patterns were exhibited in the CRS and CRS + NP mice. These results indicated that acupuncture treatment at AP attenuated leptin insensitivity in CRS mice. Additionally, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased in the spleen, plasma, and liver of CRS + AP mice, which was one of results of alleviation of leptin resistance. In conclusion, these results show that AP acupuncture treatment effectively alleviated the depression-like behavior, affected immune responses, and altered hepatic lipid metabolism through the attenuation of leptin insensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2021.02.003DOI Listing
May 2021

Functional Restoration of Pituitary after Pituitary Allotransplantation into Hypophysectomized Rats.

Cells 2021 Jan 29;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Cell Death Disease Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpodaero, Seochogu, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Long-term hormone replacement therapy due to panhypopituitarism can lead to serious complications and thus, pituitary transplantation is considered a more desirable. We investigated functional restoration after allotransplatation of the pituitary gland. We transplanted extracted pituitary gland into the omentum of an hypophysectomized rat. Two experiments were performed: (1) to confirm the hypophysectomy was successful and (2) to assess functional restoration after pituitary transplantation. Pituitary hormone level and weight change were consecutively assessed. Electron microscopic (EM) examinations were performed to identify morphological changes at 3 days after transplantation. We confirmed that pituitary gland was properly extracted from 6 rats after sacrifice. The findings showed (1) a weight loss of more than 3% or (2) a weight change of less than 2% along with a decreased growth hormone (GH) level by more than 80% at 2 weeks post-hypophysectomy. A further four rats underwent pituitary transplantation after hypophysectomy and were compared with the previously hypophysectomized rats. All showed rapid weight gain during the two weeks after transplantation. The thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and GH levels were restored at one week post-transplantation and maintained for 10 weeks. Hypophyseal tissue architecture was maintained at 3 days after transplantation, as indicated by EM. These data suggest that a transplanted pituitary gland can survive in the omentum with concomitant partial restoration of anterior pituitary hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10020267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912485PMC
January 2021

Albumin inhibits the nuclear translocation of Smad3 via interleukin-1beta signaling in hepatic stellate cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 4;11(1):3196. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Anatomy, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 02841, Korea.

Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to myofibroblasts plays a key role in liver fibrosis. We had previously shown that albumin and its derivative, R-III (a retinol-binding protein-albumin domain III fusion protein), inhibited HSC activation by sequestering retinoic acid (RA) and that R-III administration reduced carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced liver fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism of action of albumin downstream of RA sequestration. Nuclear factor-κB p65 was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in activated mouse HSCs, whereas albumin expression or R-III treatment (albumin/R-III) caused the nuclear translocation of p65, probably via RA sequestration, resulting in a dramatic increase in interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) expression. Albumin/R-III in turn induced the phosphorylation of Smad3 at the linker region, inhibiting its nuclear import in an IL-1β-dependent manner. Consistent with the in vitro results, the level of IL-1β mRNA expression was higher in CCl/R-III-treated livers than in CCl-treated livers. These findings reveal that albumin/R-III inhibits the transforming growth factor-β-Smad3 signaling as well as the retinoic acid receptor-mediated pathway, which probably contributes to the inhibition of HSC activation, and suggest that R-III may be an anti-fibrotic drug candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82758-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862402PMC
February 2021

Modeling Uremic Vasculopathy With Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells as a Drug Screening System.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 12;8:618796. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Institute(SCRMI), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uremic vasculopathy plays a crucial role in facilitating the progression of cardiovascular complications in advanced CKD. However, the improvement of conventional research methods could provide further insights into CKD. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel model of uremic vasculopathy as a potential drug screening system. The effects of uremic serum and different combinations of uremic toxins on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) of a normal control and a CKD patient were investigated using several functional assays. We found that a mixture of uremic toxins composed of high urea, creatinine, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate exerted deleterious effects on normal control iPSC-ECs that were comparable to uremic serum by increasing reactive oxygen species and apoptosis, as well as suppression of tube formation. Additional characterization revealed a potential involvement of dysregulated TGF-β signaling as treatment with either losartan or TGF-β inhibitors led to the attenuation of adverse effects induced by uremic toxins. Importantly, impaired wound healing potential seen in CKD patient-specific iPSC-ECs was rescued by treatment with losartan and TGF-β inhibitors. Our study demonstrated that simplified uremic toxin mixtures can simulate the uremic micromilieu reproducibly and CKD patient-specific iPSC-ECs can potentially recapitulate susceptibility to uremic vasculopathy. This novel model of uremic vasculopathy may provide a new research tool as a drug screening system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.618796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835337PMC
January 2021

Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008).

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: An adequate large-scale pediatric cohort based on nationwide administrative data is lacking in Korea.

Purpose: This study established the National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008) based on data from a nationwide population-based health screening program and data on healthcare utilization for children.

Methods: The NICKs-2008 study consisted of the Korean National Health Insurance System (NHIS) and the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children (NHSPIC) databases comprising children born in 2008 (n = 469,248) and 2009 (n = 448,459) in the Republic of Korea. The NHIS database contains data on age, sex, residential area, income, healthcare utilization (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes, procedure codes, and drug classification codes), and healthcare providers. The NHSPIC consists of seven screening rounds. These screening sessions comprised physical examination, developmental screening (rounds 2-7), a general health questionnaire, and age-specific anticipatory guidance.

Results: During the 10-year follow-up, 2,718 children (0.3%) died, including more boys than girls (hazard ratio = 1.145, p < 0.001). A total of 848,048 children participated in at least one of the seven rounds of the NHSPIC, while 96,046 participated in all seven screening programs. A total of 823 infants (0.1%) weighed less than 1000 g, 3177 (0.4%) weighed 1000-1499 g, 37,166 (4.4%) weighed 1500-2499 g, 773,081 (91.4%) weighed 2500-4000 g, and 32,016 (5.1%) weighed over 4000 g. There were 23,404 (5.5%) premature babies in 2008 compared to 23,368 (5.6%) in 2009. The developmental screening test indicated appropriate development in 95-98% of children, follow-up requirements for 1-4% of children, and recommendations for further evaluation for 1% of children.

Conclusion: The NICKs-2008, which integrates data from the NHIS and NHSPIC databases, can be used to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01284DOI Listing
January 2021

Improvement of Hypertriglyceridemia by Roasted in High Fat/High Cholesterol Diet Rat Model.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 17;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Hanbang Cardio-Renal Research Center & Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea.

Hypertriglyceridemia is a condition characterized by high triglyceride levels and is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of roasted (RN), which is a medicinal substance produced by heating lotus leaves, on lipid metabolism in high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Except for those in the control group, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an HFC diet for four weeks to induce hypertriglyceridemia. During the next nine weeks, the control, regular diet; HFC, HFC diet, FLU, fluvastatin (3 mg/kg/day); RNL, RN (100 mg/kg/day); RNH, RN (200 mg/kg/day) were orally administered together with the diet, and the experiments were conducted for a total of 13 weeks. The weight of the epididymal adipose tissue, liver, and heart of rats in the HFC diet group significantly increased compared to those in the control group but improved in the RN-treated group. It was also confirmed that vascular function, which is damaged by an HFC diet, was improved after RN treatment. The levels of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein increased in the HFC diet group compared to those in the control group, while the administration of RN attenuated these parameters. In addition, the administration of RN significantly reduced the gene expression of both LXR and SREBP-1, which indicated the inhibitory effect of the biosynthesis of triglycerides caused by RN. The results indicated that RN administration resulted in an improvement in the overall lipid metabolism and a decrease in the concentration of triglycerides in the HFC diet-induced rat model of hypertriglyceridemia. Therefore, our findings suggest that the RN can be a candidate material to provide a new direction for treating hypertriglyceridemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766402PMC
December 2020

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33445DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of zeolite acidity and structure on ozone oxidation of toluene using Ru-Mn loaded zeolites at ambient temperature.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 12;403:123934. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504, South Korea. Electronic address:

Five different Ru-Mn/zeolites were used to investigate their catalytic efficiencies for removing toluene (100 ppm) with ozone (1000 ppm) at room temperature. In general, most of metal oxide catalysts for removal of organic compounds need higher temperature than the ambient temperature, but Mn-based catalysts shows activity for prevalent organic pollutants even at room temperature with ozone. For the removal of toluene at room temperature without further heating, bimetallic Ru added Mn catalysts were applied in combination with different zeolite supports. The catalytic activity of the Ru-Mn catalysts strongly depended on the zeolite, of which the characteristics such as acidity and adsorption degree of toluene are dependent on the ratio of SiO/AlO. Among the five Ru-Mn catalysts used, Ru-Mn/HY (SiO/AlO ratio: 80) and Ru-Mn/ZSM-5 (SiO/AlO ratio: 80) had higher toluene and ozone removal efficiencies. The toluene removal efficiency of Ru-Mn/zeolites was proportional to the pore volume and surface area. In terms of ozone degradation, Ru-Mn/HY(80) and Ru-Mn/HZSM-5(80) had the highest removal efficiencies. Overall, the catalytic ozone oxidation of toluene using Ru-Mn/zeolites seemed to be affected by a combination of the acidic properties of zeolites, Mn/Mn ratio, and concentration ratio of oxygen vacancies to oxygen lattices on the catalyst surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123934DOI Listing
February 2021

Incorporating sarcopenia and inflammation with radiation therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with nivolumab.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jun 24;70(6):1593-1603. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Statistics and Data Center, Samsung Medical Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, Republic of Korea.

Background: We investigated the combined effects of sarcopenia and inflammation on outcomes in patients with HCC treated with nivolumab.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed 102 patients treated with nivolumab between 2017 and 2018. Sarcopenia was diagnosed when the L3 skeletal muscle indices were < 42 cm/m and < 38 cm/m in men and women, respectively. Baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and absolute lymphocyte count were used as surrogate markers of inflammation and immune cell reservoir. High NLR (hNLR) was defined as NLR ≥ 3, and severe lymphopenia (sLP) was defined as lymphocyte < 800/μL. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.

Results: With a median follow-up of 21.9 (interquartile range, 8.3-58.3) months, patients with sarcopenia showed shorter OS than those without sarcopenia (median, 2.9 vs. 7.5 months, respectively). Patients with either hNLR or sLP exhibited inferior survival than those without risk factor (median OS, 2.8 vs. 14.5 months; median PFS, 1.3 vs. 3.7 months, respectively). Among 70 patients treated with RT, benefit of RT was observed in patients with sarcopenia or those without hNLR/sLP (all p < 0.05). After multivariable analysis, RT, hNLR/sLP, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, and alpha-fetoprotein were significantly associated with OS (all p < 0.05), and hNLR/sLP was also associated with decreased PFS together with ALBI grade, alpha-fetoprotein, and RT (all p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The current study hypothetically demonstrated that the risk group stratified by hNLR/sLP outweighs the significance of sarcopenia in predicting outcomes after nivolumab. Furthermore, patients with sarcopenia might benefit from RT, especially those without risk factors of hNLR/sLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02794-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Distinct genetic profile with recurrent population-specific missense variants in Korean adult atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Thromb Res 2020 10 9;194:45-53. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), characterized by micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. In more than half of cases, genetic defects leading to overactivation of the alternative complement system have been identified. In this study, we investigated genetic defects in Korean adult patients with aHUS.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-six Korean adult patients with aHUS were ascertained from the Korean TMA Registry. Genetic variants of 15 aHUS-related genes (eight core genes [CFH, CFB, CFI, CD46, C3, THBD, PLG, and DGKE] and seven candidate genes [CFP, C4BPA, and CHFR1-5]) were analyzed from exome sequencing data. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of CFH and related genes was performed to detect hybrid genes or large deletions.

Results: Thirty patients (45%) had at least one aHUS-related variant (s) in eight core genes (total 40 variant alleles). The most frequently affected gene was CFH (13/40, 32%), followed by THBD (8/40, 20%) and CD46 (7/40, 18%). The two most common variants were Asp486Tyr of THBD (N = 7) and Tyr1058His-Val1060Leu of CFH (N = 5, linked on the same allele), accounting for 30% (12/40). In seven candidate genes, 19 variants were detected. When combined, 40 patients (61%) had at least one variant in 15 core or candidate genes. No patients had anti-CFH Ab or hybrid gene/CFHR1 homozygous deletions.

Conclusions: The genetic profile of Korean adult aHUS was unique with recurrent missense variants, demonstrating ethnicity- and age-dependent differences in the genetic background of aHUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.06.016DOI Listing
October 2020

Predicting the Risk of Malignancy of Lung Nodules Diagnosed as Indeterminate on Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 13;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

The next diagnostic step in cases of indeterminate radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (radial EBUS)-guided biopsy results remains uncertain. This study aimed to identify risk factors for malignancy based on clinical findings, chest computed tomography (CT), and radial EBUS images, and to estimate the risk of malignancy in lung nodules that showed indeterminate radial EBUS-guided biopsy results by constructing a nomogram. This retrospective study included 157 patients with indeterminate results on an initial radial EBUS biopsy performed at the Samsung Medical Center from January 2017 to December 2018, but with a definitive final diagnosis. Medical records, chest CT, radial EBUS images, and the final diagnoses were reviewed. Patients were randomly divided into training and validation sets. Factors related to malignancy were identified through logistic regression analysis, and a nomogram was constructed using the training set and subsequently applied to the validation set. Six factors in univariable and multivariable analyses, including upper lobe location, spiculation, satellite nodules, echogenicity, presence of dots or linear arcs, and patency of vessels and bronchi predicted malignancy. A nomogram was constructed based on these predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) value of the nomogram was 0.858 using the chest CT factors, which improved to 0.952 when radial EBUS factors were added. The calibration curve showed good agreement between the actual and nomogram-predicted malignancy outcomes. The utility of radial EBUS images for revealing risk factors of malignancy was confirmed. Furthermore, our nomogram was able to predict the probability of malignancy in lung nodules with indeterminate radial EBUS-guided biopsy results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697809PMC
November 2020

Urinary Sodium and Potassium Levels and Blood Pressure in Population with High Sodium Intake.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 10;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio and potassium-to-creatinine ratio with blood pressure in a cross-sectional study comprising Korean adults who participated in the Healthy Twin Study. The participants consisted of 2653 men and women in the Healthy Twin Study aged ≥19 years. Participants' urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and creatinine was measured from overnight half-day urine samples. Food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressures according to sodium- or potassium-to-creatinine ratios using the generalized linear model. We determined food groups explaining high urinary sodium- or potassium-to-creatinine ratio using the reduced rank regression and calculated sodium- or potassium-contributing food score. We observed that systolic blood pressure was higher among men and women in the highest quintile of urinary sodium-to-creatinine ratio or sodium-to-potassium ratio than it was in the lowest quintile. Geometric means (95% CIs) of the lowest and the highest quintiles of systolic blood pressure (mmHg) were 113.4 (111.8-115.0) and 115.6 (114.1-117.2; for trend = 0.02), respectively, for sodium-to-creatinine ratio. The association between urinary sodium-to-creatinine and systolic blood pressure was more pronounced among individuals whose body mass index (BMI) was less than 25 kg/m ( for interaction = 0.03). We found that vegetables, kimchi and seaweed intake contributed to high sodium intake and a sodium-contributing food score were associated with increased blood pressure. In our study, we identified the food groups contributing to high sodium intake and found that high urinary sodium levels were associated with increasing blood pressure among Korean adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697285PMC
November 2020

Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor Treatment as a Novel Therapy Attenuating Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Front Immunol 2020 14;11:564288. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Intrarenal robust inflammatory response following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major factor in the pathogenesis of renal injury in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). Although numerous studies have investigated various agents of immune modulation or suppression for ischemic AKI, few showed reproducible effects. We hypothesized that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor may favorably change post-ischemic intrarenal immunologic micromilieu by reducing damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signals and improve renal outcome in ischemic AKI. The effects of JPI-289 (a PARP inhibitor) on early renal injury in a murine IRI model and hypoxic HK-2 cell model were investigated. Bilateral IRI surgery was performed in three groups of 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (control, JPI-289 50 mg/kg, and JPI-289 100 mg/kg; n = 9-10 in each group). Saline or JPI-289 was intraperitoneally injected. Renal function deterioration was significantly attenuated in the JPI-289 treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expressions in the post-ischemic kidneys were also attenuated by JPI-289 treatment. JPI-289 treatment at 0.5 and 0.75 μg/ml facilitated the proliferation of hypoxic HK-2 cells. PARP inhibition with JPI-289 treatment showed favorable effects in ischemic AKI by attenuating intrarenal inflammatory cascade in a murine model and facilitating proliferation of hypoxic HK-2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.564288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597449PMC
May 2021

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus and Low-Dose Corticosteroid with High-Dose Corticosteroid for Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 01 9;32(1):199-210. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea

Background: Tacrolimus is used as a steroid-sparing immunosuppressant in adults with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. However, combined treatment with tacrolimus and low-dose steroid has not been compared with high-dose steroid for induction of clinical remission in a large-scale randomized study.

Methods: In this 24-week open-label noninferiority study, we randomized 144 adults with minimal change nephrotic syndrome to receive 0.05 mg/kg twice-daily tacrolimus plus once-daily 0.5 mg/kg prednisolone, or once-daily 1 mg/kg prednisolone alone, for up to 8 weeks or until achieving complete remission. Two weeks after complete remission, we tapered the steroid to a maintenance dose of 5-7.5 mg/d in both groups until 24 weeks after study drug initiation. The primary end point was complete remission within 8 weeks (urine protein: creatinine ratio <0.2 g/g). Secondary end points included time until remission and relapse rates (proteinuria and urine protein: creatinine ratio >3.0 g/g) after complete remission to within 24 weeks of study drug initiation.

Results: Complete remission within 8 weeks occurred in 53 of 67 patients (79.1%) receiving tacrolimus and low-dose steroid and 53 of 69 patients (76.8%) receiving high-dose steroid; this difference demonstrated noninferiority, with an upper confidence limit below the predefined threshold (20%) in both intent-to-treat (11.6%) and per-protocol (17.0%) analyses. Groups did not significantly differ in time until remission. Significantly fewer patients relapsed on maintenance tacrolimus (3-8 ng/ml) plus tapered steroid versus tapered steroid alone (5.7% versus 22.6%, respectively; =0.01). There were no clinically relevant safety differences.

Conclusions: Combined tacrolimus and low-dose steroid was noninferior to high-dose steroid for complete remission induction in adults with minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Relapse rates were significantly lower with maintenance tacrolimus and steroid compared with steroid alone. No clinically-relevant differences in safety findings were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2019050546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894664PMC
January 2021

Prognostic factors for steroid-free remission in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: importance of anthropometric measurements.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2020 16;12:1759720X20936822. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Centre, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Background: Several studies have been conducted on factors associated with mortality in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), but few studies have assessed prognostic factors for steroid-free remission in IIM. We investigated the various clinical factors, including body measurements, that affect IIM treatment outcomes.

Methods: Patients who were newly diagnosed with IIM between 2000 and 2018 were included. Steroid-free remission was defined as at least 3 months of normalisation of muscle enzymes and no detectable clinical disease activity. The factors associated with steroid-free remission were evaluated by a Cox regression analysis.

Results: Of the 106 IIM patients, 35 displayed steroid-free remission during follow-up periods. In the multivariable Cox regression analyses, immunosuppressants' early use within 1 month after diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR) 6.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.61-14.74,  < 0.001] and sex-specific height quartiles (second and third quartiles first quartile, HR 3.65, 95% CI 1.40-9.51,  = 0.008 and HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.13-7.32,  = 0.027, respectively) were positively associated with steroid-free remission. Polymyositis dermatomyositis (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.53,  = 0.001), presence of dysphagia (HR 0.15, CI 0.05-0.50,  = 0.002) and highest lowest quartile of waist circumference (WC; HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.85,  = 0.027) were negatively associated with steroid-free remission.

Conclusion: The early initiation of immunosuppressant therapy, type of myositis and presence of dysphagia are strong predictors of steroid-free remission in IIM; moreover, height and WC measurements at baseline may provide additional important prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1759720X20936822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576908PMC
October 2020

Effect of α-AlO Particle Size in a Slurry on the Physical Properties of Chemically Strengthened Thin Glass Prepared by the Spray Method.

ACS Omega 2020 Oct 5;5(41):26667-26672. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Optic & Electronic Components Materials Center, Electronic Convergence Materials Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering & Technology, Jinju 52851, Republic of Korea.

Chemical strengthening is considered as the most suitable method for strengthening thin glass sheets used in mobile phones. The spray method of chemical strengthening requires a slurry to be sprayed on the glass sample to be strengthened. This slurry is prepared by mixing various compounds. In this study, the influence of α-AlO particle size in the slurry on the physical properties of the chemically strengthened glass prepared by the spray method was investigated. The compressive stress (CS) was dramatically enhanced as the particle size of AlO in the slurry decreased. The glass sample with 13 nm α-AlO including the KNO-AlO slurry exhibited the highest CS of 905 MPa, and the depth-of-layer (DOL) of this sample was 37 μm. The same slurry composition also achieved the highest bending strength of 640 MPa under different heat treatment conditions. The optimization of the heat treatment conditions, such as temperature and time duration, resulted in the highest value of CS (916 MPa) obtained for the sample heated at 400 °C for 1.5 h, and the maximum DOL (65 μm) was obtained for the sample at 480 °C for 4 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581263PMC
October 2020

Effect of Pioglitazone on Perihematomal Edema in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mouse Model by Regulating NLRP3 Expression and Energy Metabolism.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2020 Nov 27;63(6):689-697. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cell Death Disease Research Center, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Cerebral edema is the predominant mechanism of secondary inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist has been shown to play a role in regulation of central nervous system inflammation. Here, we examined the pharmacological effects of pioglitazone in an ICH mouse model and investigated its regulation on NLRP3 inflammasome and glucose metabolism.

Methods: The ICH model was established in C57 BL/6 mice by the stereotactical inoculation of blood (30 µL) into the right frontal lobe. The treatment group was administered i.p. pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) for 1, 3, and 6 days. The control group was administered i.p. phosphate-buffered saline for 1, 3, and 6 days. We investigated brain water contents, NLRP3 expression, and changes in the metabolites in the ICH model using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: On day 3, brain edema in the mice treated with pioglitazone was decreased more than that in the control group. Expression levels of NLRP3 in the ICH model treated with pioglitazone were decreased more than those of the control mice on days 3 and 7. The pioglitazone group showed higher levels of glycolytic metabolites than those in the ICH mice. Lactate production was increased in the ICH mice treated with pioglitazone.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated less brain swelling following ICH in mice treated with pioglitazone. Pioglitazone decreased NLRP3-related brain edema and increased anaerobic glycolysis, resulting in the production of lactate in the ICH mice model. NLRP3 might be a therapeutic target for ICH recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2020.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671775PMC
November 2020