Publications by authors named "Jun-Young Park"

184 Publications

Sugammadex versus neostigmine on postoperative pulmonary complications after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: a propensity score-matched analysis.

J Anesth 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) requires particular surgical conditions, such as carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and steep Trendelenburg positioning, which may have adverse effects on the respiratory system. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) is controversial. Therefore, we evaluated the incidence of PPCs according to the type of neuromuscular blockade reversal agents in RALP.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed RALP patients. We compared the incidence of PPCs between patients receiving neostigmine (neostigmine group) and those receiving sugammadex (sugammadex group) as a neuromuscular blockade reversal agent. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed. Other postoperative outcomes, such as duration of hospital stays, major adverse cardiac events during hospital stays, and death during hospital stays, were also compared between the two groups.

Results: The incidence of PPCs was 28.9% (137/474) in RALP. The incidence of PPCs was significantly lower in the sugammadex group than in the neostigmine group (18.6% [44/237] vs. 39.2% [93/237], p < 0.001). The incidence of atelectasis was significantly lower in the sugammadex group than in the neostigmine group (18.6% vs. 39.2%, p < 0.001). The incidence of pneumonia was not significantly different between the sugammadex and neostigmine groups after RALP (0.0% vs. 0.4%, p > 0.999). Besides these, other postoperative outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusions: The incidence of PPCs after RALP was significantly lower in patients receiving sugammadex than in those receiving neostigmine. These results can provide useful information on the appropriate selection of neuromuscular blockade reversal agents in RALP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00540-021-02910-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Predictors Associated with Outcomes of Epidural Blood Patch in Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 28;10(5). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

An autologous epidural blood patch (EBP) is a mainstay of treatment in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). EBP, however, is less effective for SIH than post-dural puncture headaches. Therefore, patients with SIH frequently require an additional EBP. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with poor response to EBP. This single-center retrospective observational study used the institutional registry records of 321 patients who underwent EBP between September 2001 and March 2016. Patients were divided into two groups, a poor responder group, consisting of patients who underwent EBP at least three times or more, and a good responder group of patients who experienced sufficient symptom relief after two or fewer EBP. The demographic characteristics, clinical features, radiologic findings, procedural data, and laboratory data were analyzed. Univariate analysis showed that the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; = 0.004) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio ( = 0.015) were significantly lower in poor than in good responders. Multivariate analysis found that NLR was the only independent factor associated with a poor response (odds ratio = 0.720; = 0.008). These findings indicate that a low NLR was associated with three or more EBP administrations for the sufficient improvement of symptoms in patients with SIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050922DOI Listing
February 2021

Genotype and Long-term Clinical Course of Bietti Crystalline Dystrophy in Korean and Japanese Patients.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: To investigate the genotype and long-term clinical phenotype of patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) in Korea and Japan.

Design: Retrospective case series.

Subjects: We analyzed the cases of 62 patients with clinical features of BCD who harbor pathogenic biallelic CYP4V2 variants in their homozygote or compound heterozygote.

Methods: Data were collected from patient charts including, age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Goldmann perimetry, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and electroretinogram. We compared the clinical course of the patients with homozygous c.802-8_810del17insGC [Exon7del], the most common mutation in the East Asian population, with those of the patients with other genotypes.

Main Outcome Measures: BCVA, visual field (VF), and their changes during follow-up.

Results: The mean age at the first visit was 55.2 years, with the mean follow-up of 7.1 years. The mean BCVAs at the first and last visits were 0.28 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and 0.89 logMAR, respectively. In genetic testing, c.802-8_810del17insGC was detected in 86 of 124 alleles of the subjects, and 36 patients were homozygous for this mutation. The age, BCVA, VF area, central foveal thickness, and abnormal hypoautofluorescent area at either the first visit or the last visit were not different between the Exon7del homozygotes and the others. The mean BCVA changes per year were 0.089 logMAR in the Exon7del homozygotes and 0.089 logMAR in the others. An age- and sex-adjusted linear regression analysis showed no association between the Exon7del homozygote status and the rate of vision loss. Characteristic crystalline deposits in the posterior pole were generally observed in younger patients and disappeared over time along with progressive retinochoroidal atrophy.

Conclusions: BCD patients with a homozygote for c.802-8_810del17insGC accounted for >50% of this cohort of Korean and Japanese patients, and the clinical effect of this deleterious variant was not severe in the spectrum of CYP4V2 retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2021.02.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Isomer separation and analysis of amphiphilic polysialogangliosides using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

J Sep Sci 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Gangliosides are amphiphilic, acidic glycosphingolipids possessing one or more sialic acid residues and several isobaric structural isomers with different abundances and bioactivities. Therefore, the distinction between these isomers is crucial for their proper profiling. Although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been successfully employed for this purpose, the distinction process can still be improved, particularly regarding liquid chromatography. Recently, a reversed-phase liquid chromatography method that could separate disialoganglioside isomers was reported; however, the distinction of trisialoganglioside isomers using reversed-phase liquid chromatography has not been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the practicality of a reversed-phase liquid chromatography with an octadecylsilane column for separating polysialoganglioside isomers and successfully achieved the isomer separation of disialogangliosides and trisialogangliosides for the first time. We also confirmed several crucial factors in the mobile-phase composition, which affect the differential retention and mass spectral response of the isomers. First, an organic modifier, acetonitrile, exhibited superior selectivity against polysialogangliosides over methanol. Second, ammonium bicarbonate was the best ammonium salt additive among those tested, in terms of the separation efficiency and mass spectral response. Third, as the ammonium salt concentration increased, the negative electrospray ionization response was extensively suppressed, and the retention of gangliosides increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202001248DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Factors Associated With Successful Gastrostomy Tube Weaning in Patients With Prolonged Dysphagia After Stroke.

Ann Rehabil Med 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Objective: To investigate the clinical factors associated with successful gastrostomy tube weaning in patients with prolonged dysphagia after stroke.

Methods: This study involved a retrospective medical chart review of patients diagnosed with prolonged dysphagia after stroke who underwent gastrostomy tube insertion between May 2013 and January 2020. Forty-seven patients were enrolled and consequently divided into gastrostomy tube sustaining and weaning groups. The numbers of patients in the sustaining and weaning groups were 31 and 16, respectively. The patients' demographic data, Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score, Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Functional Dysphagia Scale (FDS) score, and Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) score were compared between the two groups. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed before making the decision of gastrostomy tube weaning. The clinical factors associated with gastrostomy tube weaning were then investigated.

Results: There were significant differences in age; history of aspiration pneumonia; K-MMSE, FDS, and PAS scores; and K-MBI between the groups. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the FDS (odds ratio [OR]=0.791; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.634-0.987) and PAS scores (OR=0.205; 95% CI, 0.059-0.718) were associated with successful gastrostomy tube weaning. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the FDS and PAS were useful screening tools for successful weaning, with areas under the curve of 0.911 and 0.918, respectively.

Conclusion: In patients with prolonged dysphagia, the FDS and PAS scores are the only factors associated with successful gastrostomy tube weaning. An evaluation of the swallowing function is necessary before deciding to initiate gastrostomy tube weaning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.20149DOI Listing
February 2021

Supercapacitors based on TiCT MXene extracted from supernatant and current collectors passivated by CVD-graphene.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):649. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, South Korea.

An ultrahigh capacity supercapacitor is fabricated using a nano-layered MXene as an active electrode material, and Ni-foil is used as a current collector. The high-quality TiCT obtained from supernatant during etching and washing processes improves the specific capacitance significantly. As another strategy, the surface of Ni-foil is engineered by coating chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene. The graphene grown directly on the Ni-foil is used as a current collector, forming the electrode structure of TiCT/graphene/Ni. The surface passivation of the current collectors has a high impact on charge-transfer, which in turn increases the capacitance of the supercapacitors. It is found that the capacitance of the graphene-based supercapacitors is more than 1.5 times of the capacitance without graphene. A high specific capacitance, ~ 542 F/g, is achieved at 5 mV/s scan rate based on cyclic voltammetry analysis. Also, the graphene-based supercapacitor exhibits a quasi-rectangular form in cyclic voltammetry curves and a symmetric behavior in charge/discharge curves. Furthermore, cyclic stability up to 5000 cycles is confirmed with high capacitance retention at high scan rate 1000 mV/s. A reduced series resistance with a high limit capacitance is revealed by equivalent circuit analysis with the Nyquist plot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80799-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804397PMC
January 2021

Integral Stereoselectivity of Lipase Based on the Chromatographic Resolution of Enantiomeric/Regioisomeric Diacylglycerols.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 4;69(1):325-331. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Stereoselectivity, a distinctive characteristic of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), refers to the ability to differentiate between enantiomeric positions (-1 and -3) in triacylglycerol (TAG). This property has been determined based on the time course of enantiomeric excess of diacylglycerol (DAG) considering several consecutive steps of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of TAG; however, this concept is insufficient to represent the true nature of lipases which are capable of hydrolyzing the -2 position of TAG under the condition acyl migration occurs. Here, we suggest "integral stereoselectivity" to capture the preference of lipases for all ester groups of both TAG and DAG, as a novel index of the stereochemistry of lipase. To determine integral stereoselectivity, we established an analytical system based on the chromatographic resolution of dioleoylglycerol (DO) enantiomers and regioisomers. DO enantiomers were derivatized with 4-nitrophenyl isocyanate, and subsequently, resolved by chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet. Regioisomers of monooleoylglycerol and DO were analyzed by HPLC with an evaporative light-scattering detector. Time-course analysis of three model lipases involved in the hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol validated the analytical system designed to determine the integral stereoselectivity. As an accurate indicator of lipase stereochemistry reflecting all hydrolysis steps, integral stereoselectivity can expedite the development of lipases with unique stereochemistry from agricultural sources and their application to the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07430DOI Listing
January 2021

4-O-methylascochlorin attenuates inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 11;90:107184. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Molecular and Cellular Glycobiology Laboratory, Department of Biological Science, SungKyunKwan University, Seoburo 2066, Suwon City, Kyunggi-Do 16419, Republic of Korea; Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences & Technology (SAIHST), Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 06351, South Korea. Electronic address:

Inflammation is implicated in various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. Ascochlorin (ASC) and its derivatives have been shown to modulate inflammatory responses in many previous studies. However, the effects of 4-O-methylascochlorin (MAC), one of the ASC derivatives, on inflammatory responses have yet to be reported. In addition, the consequences of chemical modification of ASC on protein signaling and immunity have yet to be fully understood. The fourth carbon in MAC is methylated, which may result in modulation of immune response differently compared with ASC. Hence, we have investigated the role of MAC in inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide in murine macrophage cells. Here, we found that MAC treatment decreased the inflammatory response by murine macrophages. When murine macrophages were treated with MAC, the transcription and translation of various pro-inflammatory indicators such as iNOS and COX-2 decreased. In addition, the ELISA results showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, which are pro-inflammatory cytokines, was successfully decreased by MAC. Such effects of MAC appear to be mediated via downregulation of MAPK signaling and the transactivational activity of NF-κB. Lipopolysaccharide upregulates MAPK protein phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation, which in turn enhances the transactivation of genes related to NF-κB. Such results of lipopolysaccharide were attenuated by MAC. Collectively, our results indicate that MAC alleviated the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide in murine macrophages successfully by modulating MAPK signaling pathway and NF-κB-related genes. This study shows that MAC, similar to other ASC derivatives, can potentially be used therapeutically to reduce the harmful damage induced by prolonged inflammation. In addition, the structural differences between ASC and its derivatives as well as their effect on intracellular signaling will also be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107184DOI Listing
January 2021

Ultrahigh-sensitive mixed-potential ammonia sensor using dual-functional NiWO electrocatalyst for exhaust environment monitoring.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 2;403:123797. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The exhaust monitoring for in-situ quantification of gas pollutants has always been a challenge due to the harsh thermo-chemical environments, for which the solid-electrolyte based gas sensors appear as a realistic solution. In this work, an ultrahigh-sensitive mixed-potential ammonia sensor was developed using a new dual-functional NiWO electrocatalyst, synthesized through a low-temperature molten-salt synthesis route. The electrode morphology and diffusion lengths were tuned for optimum performance. The sensor operated at 550 ℃ displayed response of -100 mV to 80 ppm NH, with response/recovery times of 28/68 s and a record-high sensitivity of 90 mV/decade. Besides, it displayed excellent selectivity and trace-level NH detection ability upto 400 ppb. While examining the sensing mechanism, the sensor exhibited an NH concentration-dependent transformation of rate-determining kinetics from charge-transfer limited Butler-Volmer type to diffusional mass-transport limited reaction kinetics. Moreover, the remarkable long-term stability with negligible response degradation (< 4%) confirms the suitability of the sensor for exhaust environment monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123797DOI Listing
February 2021

C-reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio and Acute Kidney Injury after Radical Cystectomy among Elderly Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

Dis Markers 2020 27;2020:8818445. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio is a useful index used to represent patient inflammation and nutritional status. Elderly patients are at the highest risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). We clarified the impact of the preoperative CRP/albumin ratio on AKI and evaluated the impact of postoperative AKI on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among elderly cystectomy patients.

Methods: We included elderly patients ≥ 65 years of age who underwent radical cystectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to identify risk factors for AKI. Propensity score-matched analysis and conditional logistic regression analysis were performed to elucidate the impact of the CRP/albumin ratio on AKI. The incidence of ESRD was compared between the non-AKI and AKI groups at 12 months after radical cystectomy.

Results: AKI occurred in 110 patients (32.2%). The CRP/albumin ratio and 6% hydroxyethyl starch amount were risk factors for postoperative AKI. The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/albumin ratio predicting AKI was 0.1. After propensity score matching, the AKI incidence in the CRP/albumin ratio ≥ 0.1 group was higher than that in the CRP/albumin ratio < 0.1 group (46.7% vs. 20.6%, < 0.001), and a CRP/albumin ratio ≥ 0.1 was associated with a higher AKI incidence (odds ratio = 4.111, < 0.001). The ESRD incidence was higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group (7.3% vs. 1.2%, = 0.017).

Conclusion: A CRP/albumin ratio ≥ 0.1 was associated with an increased incidence of AKI, which was associated with higher ESRD incidence among elderly cystectomy patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8818445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641682PMC
October 2020

Head elevation and laryngeal mask airway Supreme insertion: A randomized controlled trial.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 Mar 28;65(3):343-350. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: A laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is usually inserted by conventional 7 cm head elevation. However, little is known about the association of head elevation degree and LMA insertion. We hypothesized that 14 cm head elevation would increase the first attempt success rate of LMA Supreme insertion compared with conventional 7 cm head elevation in patients undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumour.

Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the high group (n = 55, 14 cm head elevation) or the control group (n = 55, conventional 7 cm head elevation). The primary outcome was the first attempt success rate of LMA Supreme insertion.

Results: The first attempt success rate was significantly higher in the high group than in the control group (53 [96.4%] vs 40 [72.7%], P = .001, relative risk = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.57, absolute risk reduction = 23.7%). Fibreoptic bronchoscope grade 4 (ie optimal position of the LMA) was significantly higher in the high group (35 [64.8%] vs 18 [36.7%], P = .004, relative risk = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.16-2.68, absolute risk reduction = 30.9%).

Conclusions: Head elevation of 14 cm height increased the first attempt success rate of LMA Supreme insertion and fibreoptic bronchoscopic grade in patients undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumour. High head elevation can be an effective option for successful LMA Supreme insertion. Trial Registry Number: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04229862).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aas.13742DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of isotope substitution on the Fermi resonance and vibrational lifetime of unnatural amino acids modified with IR probe: A 2D-IR and pump-probe study of 4-azido-L-phenyl alanine.

J Chem Phys 2020 Oct;153(16):164309

Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea.

The infrared (IR) probe often suffers from an unexpected complex absorption profile due to the Fermi resonance and short vibrational lifetime, which restricts the application of time-resolved IR spectroscopy to investigate the site-specific structural dynamics of the protein. Researchers have found that isotope substitution to the IR probe not only removes the Fermi resonance but also extends the dynamic observation window with a prolonged vibrational lifetime. This method has been successfully applied to modify the vibrational properties of many IR probes for time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging. In this study, the effect of isotope substitution (N) on the vibrational properties of the azide stretching band in 4-azido-L-phenylalanine has been investigated using ultrafast pump-probe and 2D-IR spectroscopy. In contrast to the earlier reports, it has been observed that the Fermi resonance remains unchanged even after isotope substitution, and there is very little change in the vibrational relaxation dynamics as well. Anharmonic frequency analysis reveals that the α-N atom of N is being shared between the two transitions participating in the Fermi resonance and gets affected similarly due to isotope labeling. Hence, this study unveils the specific circumstance at which the isotope labeling strategy may not be successful in eliminating the Fermi resonance band and explains the molecular origin behind it. This study also suggests definitive approaches on how to overcome the limitations related to the Fermi resonance to extend the development and application of this IR probe for biological research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0025289DOI Listing
October 2020

Risk factors and outcomes of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(43):e22893

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine.

Radical cystectomy is considered the standard treatment for patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumors and has high postoperative complication rates among urological surgeries. High-risk patients, defined as those ≥45 years of age with history of coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease or those ≥65 years of age, can have a higher incidence of cardiac complications. Therefore, we evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy.This retrospective observational study analyzed 248 high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy. MINS was defined as serum troponin I concentration ≥0.04 mg/L within postoperative 3 days. The risk factors for MINS were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated. The 1-year survival after radical cystectomy was also compared between patients who developed MINS (MINS group) and those who did not (non-MINS group) by Kaplan-Meier analysis.MINS occurred in 35 patients (14.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that early diastolic transmitral filling velocity (E)/early diastolic septal mitral annular velocity (E') ratio (odds ratio = 1.102, 95% confidence interval [1.009-1.203], P = .031) and large volume blood transfusion (odds ratio = 2.745, 95% confidence interval [1.131-6.664], P = .026) were significantly associated with MINS in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Major adverse cardiac events and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in the MINS group than in the non-MINS group (17.1% vs 6.1%, P = .035; 28.6% vs 12.7%, P = .021, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower 1-year survival in the MINS group than in the non-MINS group (P = .010).MINS occurred in 14.1% of patients. High E/E' ratio and large volume blood transfusion were risk factors for MINS in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Postoperative major adverse cardiac events and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in the MINS group than in the non-MINS group. Preoperative evaluation of risk factors for MINS may provide useful information to detect cardiovascular complications after radical cystectomy in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581156PMC
October 2020

Pathogenicity of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in mice regulated in type I interferon signaling: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia and type I interferon.

Lab Anim Res 2020 21;36:38. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, 54596 Republic of Korea.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging zoonotic disease, which causes high fever, thrombocytopenia, and death in humans and animals in East Asian countries. The pathogenicity of SFTS virus (SFTSV) remains unclear. We intraperitoneally infected three groups of mice: wild-type (WT), mice treated with blocking anti-type I interferon (IFN)-α receptor antibody (IFNAR Ab), and IFNAR knockout (IFNAR) mice, with four doses of SFTSV (KH1, 5 × 10 to 5 × 10 FAID). The WT mice survived all SFTSV infective doses. The IFNAR Ab mice died within 7 days post-infection (dpi) with all doses of SFTSV except that the mice were infected with 5 × 10 FAID SFTSV. The IFNAR mice died after infection with all doses of SFTSV within four dpi. No SFTSV infection caused hyperthermia in any mice, whereas all the dead mice showed hypothermia and weight loss. In the WT mice, SFTSV RNA was detected in the eyes, oral swabs, urine, and feces at 5 dpi. Similar patterns were observed in the IFNAR Ab and IFNAR mice after 3 dpi, but not in feces. The IFNAR Ab mice showed viral shedding until 7 dpi. The SFTSV RNA loads were higher in organs of the IFNAR mice compared to the other groups. Histopathologically, coagulation necrosis and mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and white pulp atrophy in the spleen were seen as the main lesions in the IFN signaling lacking mice. Immunohistochemically, SFTSV antigens were mainly detected in the marginal zone of the white pulp of the spleen in all groups of mice, but more viral antigens were observed in the spleen of the IFNAR mice. Collectively, the IFN signaling-deficient mice were highly susceptible to SFTSV and more viral burden could be demonstrated in various excreta and organs of the mice when IFN signaling was inhibited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42826-020-00070-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579947PMC
October 2020

Targeted Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Gemcitabine-Incorporated GPC3 Aptamer.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Oct 18;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignancy of the liver, which can progress rapidly and has a poor prognosis. Glypican-3 (GPC3) has been proposed to be an important diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. Aptamers have emerged as promising drug delivery vehicles because of their high binding affinity for target molecules. Herein, we developed G12msi, a gemcitabine-incorporated DNA aptamer, targeting GPC3, and evaluated its binding specificity and anti-tumor efficacy in GPC3-overexpressing HCC cell lines and murine xenograft models. GPC3-targeted aptamers were selected by using the SELEX process and the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine was internally incorporated into the aptamer. To determine the binding affinity and internalization of the G12msi, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were performed on GPC3-positive HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells, as well as a GPC3-negative A431 cell. The anti-tumor activities of G12msi were evaluated with in vitro and in vivo models. We found that G12msi binds to GPC3-overexpressing HCC tumor cells with high specificity and is effectively internalized. Moreover, G12msi treatment inhibited the cell proliferation of GPC3-positive HCC cell lines with minimal cytotoxicity in control A431 cells. In vivo systemic administration of G12msi significantly inhibited tumor growth of HCC HepG2 cells in xenograft models without causing toxicity. These results suggest that gemcitabine-incorporated GPC3 aptamer-based drug delivery may be a promising strategy for the treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12100985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588995PMC
October 2020

Ophthalmic Manifestations and Genetics of the Polyglutamine Autosomal Dominant Spinocerebellar Ataxias: A Review.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:892. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a part of the cerebellar neurodegenerative disease group that is diverse in genetics and phenotypes. It usually shows autosomal dominant inheritance. SCAs, always together with the cerebellar degeneration, may exhibit clinical deficits in brainstem or eye, especially retina or optic nerve. Interestingly, autosomal dominant SCAs share a common genetic mechanism; the length of the glutamine chain is abnormally expanded due to the increase in the cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats of the disease causing gene. Studies have suggested that the mutant ataxin induces alteration of protein conformation and abnormal aggregation resulting in nuclear inclusions, and causes cellular loss of photoreceptors through a toxic effect. As a result, these pathologic changes induce a downregulation of genes involved in the phototransduction, development, and differentiation of photoreceptors such as , one of the photoreceptor transcription factors. However, the exact mechanism of neuronal degeneration by mutant ataxin restricted to only certain type of neuronal cell including cerebellar Purkinje neurons and photoreceptor is still unclear. The most common SCAs are types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17 which contain about 80% of autosomal dominant SCA cases. Various aspects of eye movement abnormalities are evident depending on the degree of cerebellar and brainstem degeneration in SCAs. In addition, certain types of SCAs such as SCA7 are characterized by both cerebellar ataxia and visual loss mainly due to retinal degeneration. The severity of the retinopathy can vary from occult macular photoreceptor disruption to extensive retinal atrophy and is correlated with the number of CAG repeats. The value of using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with electrodiagnostic and genetic testing is emphasized as the combination of these tests can provide critical information regarding the etiology, morphological evaluation, and functional significances. Therefore, ophthalmologists need to recognize and differentiate SCAs in order to properly diagnose and evaluate the disease. In this review, we have described and discussed SCAs showing ophthalmic abnormalities with particular attention to their ophthalmic features, neurodegenerative mechanisms, genetics, and future perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472957PMC
August 2020

Anthropometric Measurement About the Safe Zone for Transacetabular Screw Placement in Total Hip Arthroplasty in Asian Middle-Aged Women: In Vivo Three-Dimensional Model Analysis.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Feb 24;36(2):744-751. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although the pelvic vascular injury caused by a transacetabular screw is rare, it is a major local complication of total hip arthroplasty. We aimed to obtain anthropometric data about the safe zone for the placement of transacetabular screws by analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model and determine the safe length of transacetabular screws by performing the 3D simulated surgery.

Methods: We reviewed 50 hips of 25 patients who underwent lower extremity angiographic computed tomography scans retrospectively. We reconstructed the 3D models of 50 hips with normal pelvic bone and vascular status using the customized computer software. We measured the central angle and safe depth of the safe zone of the transacetabular screws on the 3D models. We also performed the 3D simulated surgery to confirm the safe length of screws in each hole of the customized cup implant.

Results: The measured central angle of the posterior-superior area was 79.5°. And we determined a mean safe depth of 49.8 mm in the safe zone, with a central angle of 47.7°. During the 3D simulated surgery, we determined a mean safe length of the transacetabular screw of 43.3 mm when applied to a lateral hole on a line bisecting the posterior-superior area.

Conclusion: Although our study was limited by the use of a virtual computer program, the quantitative measurements obtained can help reduce the incidence of pelvic vascular injury during transacetabular screw fixation in total hip arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.08.035DOI Listing
February 2021

Enhancement of pipecolic acid production by the expression of multiple lysine cyclodeaminase in the Escherichia coli whole-cell system.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2020 Oct 6;140:109643. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Pipecolic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, is a metabolite in lysine metabolism and a key chiral precursor in local anesthesia and macrolide antibiotics. To replace the environmentally unfriendly chemical production or preparation procedure of pipecolic acid, many biological synthetic routes have been studied for a long time. Among them, synthesis by lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD), encoded by pipA, has several advantages, including stability of enzyme activity and NAD self-regeneration. Thus, we selected this enzyme for pipecolic acid biosynthesis in a whole-cell bioconversion. To construct a robust pipecolic acid production system, we investigated important conditions including expression vector, strain, culture conditions, and other reaction parameters. The most important factor was the introduction of multiple pipA genes into the whole-cell system. As a result, we produced 724 mM pipecolic acid (72.4 % conversion), and the productivity was 0.78 g/L/h from 1 M l-lysine after 5 days. This is the highest production reported to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2020.109643DOI Listing
October 2020

Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy reveals a hidden Fermi resonance band in the azido stretch spectrum of β-azidoalanine.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Sep;22(34):19223-19229

Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. and Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Azido stretch modes in a variety of azido-derivatized nonnatural amino acids and nucleotides have been used as a site-specific infrared (IR) probe for monitoring changes in their conformations and local electrostatic environments. The vibrational bands of azide probes are often accompanied by complex line shapes with shoulder peaks, which may arise either from incomplete background subtraction, Fermi resonance, or multiple conformers. The isotope substitution in the infrared probe has thus been introduced to remove Fermi resonances without causing a significant perturbation to the structure. Here, we synthesized and labeled the mid-N atoms of aliphatic azide derivatives with 15N to study the effects of isotope labelling on their vibrational properties. The FT-IR spectra of the aliphatic azide with asymmetric lineshape became a single symmetric band upon isotope substitution, which might be an indication of the removal of the hidden Fermi resonance from the system. We also noticed that the 2D-IR spectrum of unlabeled aliphatic azide has cross-peaks, even though it is not apparently identifiable. The 1D slice spectra obtained from the 2D-IR spectra reveal the existence of a hidden Fermi resonance peak. Furthermore, we show that this weak Fermi resonance does not produce discernible oscillatory beating patterns in the IR pump-probe spectrum, which has been used as evidence of the Fermi resonance. Therefore, we confirm that isotope labelling combined with 2D-IR spectroscopy is the most efficient and incisive way to identify the origin of small shoulder peaks in the linear and nonlinear vibrational spectra of various IR probe molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp02693jDOI Listing
September 2020

Triamcinolone-Gold Nanoparticles Repolarize Synoviocytes and Macrophages in an Inflamed Synovium.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 24;12(35):38936-38949. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Gachon Advanced Institute for Health Science & Technology (GAIHST), Gachon University, Incheon 21999, South Korea.

Understanding the crosstalk between synoviocytes and macrophages is very important for the development of strategies to regulate inflammatory responses in an inflamed synovium. Simultaneous regulation of the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of synoviocytes and macrophages (repolarization) is critical for the treatment of arthritis. Thus, the immune regulatory functions of an ideal nanodrug should not only decrease the pro-inflammatory response but also effectively increase the anti-inflammatory response. In this study, crosstalk between synoviocytes and macrophages was found to be significantly involved in the activation and deactivation of inflammatory responses in the synovium. Interestingly, a developed triamcinolone-gold nanoparticle (Triam-AuNP) complex both decreased the pro-inflammatory responses and increased the anti-inflammatory responses of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and macrophages via repolarization of macrophages from the M1 to the M2 phenotype. In contrast, triamcinolone alone only decreased the pro-inflammatory responses of FLSs and macrophages without upregulating their anti-inflammatory responses. In vitro (human), ex vivo (human), and in vivo (mouse) analyses clearly indicated that Triam-AuNPs effectively regulated the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in FLSs and effectively repolarized activity of macrophages in the inflamed synovium. Furthermore, Triam-AuNPs significantly promoted cartilage regeneration, whereas triamcinolone alone did not induce either FLS anti-inflammatory activity or macrophage repolarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c09842DOI Listing
September 2020

Therapeutic Efficacy of Curcumin Enhanced by Microscale Discoidal Polymeric Particles in a Murine Asthma Model.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Aug 6;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Gangwon-do, Wonju 26493, Korea.

Curcumin is considered a potential anti-asthmatic agent owing to its anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the present study was to prepare curcumin-containing poly(lactic--glycolic acid)-based microscale discoidal polymeric particles (Cur-PLGA-DPPs) and evaluate their anti-asthmatic properties using a murine asthma model. Cur-PLGA-DPPs were prepared using a top-down fabrication method. The prepared Cur-PLGA-DPPs had a mean particle size of 2.5 ± 0.4 μm and a zeta potential value of -34.6 ± 4.8 mV. Ex vivo biodistribution results showed that the Cur-PLGA-DPPs mainly accumulated in the lungs and liver after intravenous injection. Treatment with Cur-PLGA-DPPs effectively suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced bronchial wall thickening and goblet-cell hyperplasia compared to those in the phosphate-buffered-saline-treated control group. No significant changes in hematology and blood biochemistry parameters were observed after treatment with Cur-PLGA-DPPs. At equal curcumin concentrations, treatment with Cur-PLGA-DPPs exhibited better therapeutic efficacy than treatment with free curcumin. Our results suggest that the microscale Cur-PLGA-DPPs can be potentially used as a lung-targeted asthma therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12080739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463530PMC
August 2020

Impact of Prognostic Nutritional Index on Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Radical Cystectomy: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 9;28(3):1859-1869. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer but frequently entails postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). Nutrition is closely associated with postoperative outcomes. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on PPCs in radical cystectomy.

Methods: PNI was calculated as 10 × (serum albumin) + 0.005 × (total lymphocyte count). The risk factors for PPCs were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of PNI was performed, and an optimal cut-off value was identified. Propensity score-matched analysis was used to determine the impact of PNI on PPCs. Postoperative outcomes were also evaluated.

Results: PPCs occurred in 112 (13.6%) of 822 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified PNI, age, and serum creatinine level as risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of PNI for predicting PPCs was 0.714 (optimal cut-off value: 45). After propensity score matching, the incidence of PPCs in the PNI ≤ 45 group was significantly higher compared with the PNI > 45 group (20.8% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001), and PNI ≤ 45 was associated with a higher incidence of PPCs (odds ratio 3.308, 95% confidence interval 1.779-6.151; p < 0.001). The rates of intensive care unit admission and prolonged (> 2 days) stay thereof were higher in patients who developed PPCs.

Conclusions: Preoperative PNI ≤ 45 was associated with a higher incidence of PPCs in radical cystectomy, suggesting that PNI provides useful information regarding pulmonary complications after radical cystectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08994-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415333PMC
March 2021

Preliminary Clinical Trial of Balance Compensation System for Improvement of Balance in Patients With Spinocerebellar Ataxia.

Ann Rehabil Med 2020 Aug 5;44(4):284-291. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Objective: To determine the immediate and short-term impact of the application of wearable balance compensation system (BCS) on balance impairment in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA).

Methods: The study enrolled 6 participants with SCA with varying degrees of balance impairment. After adjustment for individual fitting, wearable BCS with up to 3% body weight was placed in a garment on the trunk. Sway direction and magnitude were measured with sensors placed posteriorly at the lumbosacral junction, immediately before and after, and at day 1, day 2, and day 7 after wearing the BCS. Timed Up & Go test (TUG) and 25-foot timed walk test were performed, and static foot pressure was measured.

Results: A significant improvement in static and dynamic balance was found during the 25-foot timed walk and in static foot pressure measurement results after wearing the BCS, when compared with that at baseline (p=0.044 vs. p=0.011). Anterior and posterior sway showed improvements from baseline after wearing the BCS. Improvement in the lateral swaying movement control was also seen.

Conclusion: Application of the BCS might be beneficial in the improvement ofthe static and dynamic balance in patients with SCA. Further research on long-term effects and with a larger sample size is indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.19165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463113PMC
August 2020

Assessment of the Stability of Fresh Beef Patties with the Addition of Clove Extract during Frozen Storage.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2020 Jul 1;40(4):601-612. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

The study assessed the stability for fresh beef patties with the inclusion of clove extract (CE) as a natural antioxidant in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA) at frozen storage. Four different patties were made dependent on the added antioxidants: control (added no antioxidants), added with 0.02% BHT, 0.05% AA, and 0.1% CE. Inclusion of BHT, AA, and CE resulted in a significant reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hue angle (h°) value and increase of redness (CIE a*) and chroma (C*) values (p<0.05). BHT, AA, and CE were observed effectively to retard lipid oxidation and increase color stability. BHT and AA revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher thiol content than the control and CE. However, the reduction percentage for thiol content in CE treated patties was lower than the control and AA-treated patties from first to last time of storage. Moreover, inclusion of AA and CE led to significantly (p<0.05) increased heme iron content when compared to BHT and the control. In conclusion, CE can replace the application of AA and BHT while improving lipid stability, heme iron content, and color stableness of fresh beef patties throughout frozen storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2020.e37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372992PMC
July 2020

Catalytic characterization of heterodimeric linoleate 13S-lipoxygenase from black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

Enzyme Microb Technol 2020 Sep 20;139:109595. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Center for Agricultural Microorganism and Enzyme, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

A novel lipoxygenase (BLOX) was purified from black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and its catalytic properties were characterized. The molecular weight of BLOX was 101 kDa and its unique heterodimeric structure with two different subunits of molecular weight 46 kDa and 55 kDa was elucidated. The optimum pH and temperature of BLOX were pH 9.5 and 40 °C, respectively. BLOX was highly stable at the pH range of 6.0-10.0 and below 40 °C, and was stimulated by adding ferrous ion (Fe). In terms of substrate specificity, BLOX showed a substrate preference to linoleic acid that is the main substance to produce hydroperoxides in soybean. When it reacted with linoleic acid, the major product was 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid; therefore, it could be classified into the linoleate 13S-LOX family (EC 1.13.11.12). Finally, the kinetic parameters (V, K, and k) of BLOX were 0.124 mM min, 0.636 mM, and 12.28 s, respectively, and consequently, the catalytic efficiency (k/K) was calculated as 1.93 × 10 M·s. These catalytic characteristics of BLOX could contribute to understanding the enzymatic rancidification of black soybean, and to further biotechnical approaches to control and mitigate the deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2020.109595DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of a Significant Decline in the Glomerular Filtration Rate between Ileal Conduit and Ileal Neobladder Urinary Diversions after Radical Cystectomy: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 14;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Urinary diversion after radical cystectomy is associated with a risk of renal function impairment. A significant decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (i.e., a ≥30% decline in baseline GFR after 12 months) is associated with long-term renal function impairment. We compared the significant GFR decline between ileal conduit and ileal neobladder urinary diversions 12 months after radical cystectomy. We retrospectively included radical cystectomy patients. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed. The primary outcome was the incidence of a significant GFR decline in ileal conduit urinary diversion (ileal conduit group) and ileal neobladder urinary diversion (ileal neobladder group) 12 months after radical cystectomy. The secondary outcomes were the change of GFR and the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the two groups. After propensity score matching, the ileal conduit and neobladder groups had 117 patients each. The incidence of a significant GFR decline was not significantly different between ileal conduit and ileal neobladder groups (12.0% vs. 13.7%, = 0.845). The change of GFR and ESRD incidence were not significantly different between the two groups (-8.4% vs. -9.7%, = 0.480; 4.3% vs. 5.1%, > 0.999, respectively). These results can provide important information on appropriate selection of the urinary diversion type in radical cystectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408753PMC
July 2020

A portable and high-sensitivity optical sensing system for detecting fluorescently labeled enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 2B-subunit.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(7):e0236043. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Electronics and Control Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

We developed a stand-alone, real-time optical detection device capable of reading fluorescence intensities from cell samples with high sensitivity and precision, for use as a portable fluorescent sensor for sensing fluorescently labeled enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Shiga toxins (Stxs). In general, the signal intensity from the fluorescently labeled Stxs was weak due to the small number of molecules bound to each cell. To address this technical challenge, we used a highly sensitive light detector (photomultiplier tube: PMT) to measure fluorescence, and designed a portable optical housing to align optical parts precisely; the housing itself was fabricated on a 3D printer. In addition, an electric circuit that amplified PMT output was designed and integrated into the system. The system shows the toxin concentration in the sample on a liquid crystal display (LCD), and a microcontroller circuit is used to read PMT output, process data, and display results. In contrast to other portable fluorescent detectors, the system works alone, without any peripheral computer or additional apparatus; its total size is about 17 × 13 × 9 cm3, and it weighs about 770 g. The detection limit was 0.01 ppm of Alexa Fluor 488 in PBS, which is ten thousand times lower than those of other smartphone-based systems and sufficiently sensitive for use with a portable optical detector. We used the portable real-time optical sensing system to detect Alexa Fluor 488-tagged Stx2B-subunits bound to monocytic THP-1 cells expressing the toxin receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). The device did not detect a signal from Gb3-negative PD36 cells, indicating that it was capable of specifically detecting Stxs bound to cells expressing the toxin receptor. Following the development of a rapid and autonomous method for fluorescently tagging cells in food samples, the optical detection system described here could be used for direct detection of Shiga toxins in food in the field.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236043PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365435PMC
September 2020

Effects of osmolytes on salt resistance of Halomonas socia CKY01 and identification of osmolytes-related genes by genome sequencing.

J Biotechnol 2020 Oct 10;322:21-28. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, South Korea; Institute for Ubiquitous Information Technology and Applications, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, South Korea. Electronic address:

Bacteria from the genus Halomonas hold promise in biotechnology as sources of salt-tolerant enzymes, biosurfactants, biopolymers, osmolytes, and as actors in bioremediation processes. In a previous work, we have identified Halomonas socia strain CKY01 having various hydrolase activities. Here, we aimed to study the survival strategies of marine bacteria. A deep genome sequencing study of H. socia CKY01 has revealed 4627 genes reaching 4,753,299 bp with 64 % of GC content. This strain produced polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) having one gene clusters having phaC and phasin, and it has several genes responsible for the uptake, synthesis, and transport of the osmolytes such as betaine, choline, ectoine, carnitine, and proline in the bacterial genome. The addition of 60 mM glutamate, 60 mM proline and 60 mM ectoine enhanced growth 300.8 %, 294.2 % and 235.0 %, respectively, under 10 % saline conditions. In particular, ectoine and proline increased salt resistance and allowed cells to survive in more than 15 % NaCl. By combining experimental and genome sequencing data, we have investigated the importance of osmolytes on the survival of this Halomonas strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.07.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Structures and Biosynthetic Pathway of Pulvomycins B-D: 22-Membered Macrolides from an Estuarine sp.

Org Lett 2020 07 6;22(14):5358-5362. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Pulvomycins B-D (-) were discovered from an estuarine strain along with the known pulvomycin (). The 22-membered macrocyclic lactone structures of - were determined based on the interpretation of NMR, UV, and MS data, the modified Mosher's method, and Kishi's bidentate chiral solvent NMR spectroscopy. Genomic analysis of the bacterial strain revealed the biosynthetic gene cluster of pulvomycin and enabled us to propose the -acyltransferase polyketide biosynthetic pathway. Pulvomycin D displayed potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01249DOI Listing
July 2020

Functional/physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of ground meat from broilers reared under different photoperiods.

Poult Sci 2020 Jul 6;99(7):3761-3768. Epub 2020 May 6.

Meat Science and Muscle Biology Laboratory, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Long photoperiods are used in the broiler industry to maximize animal performance, though the impact on meat quality remains poorly understood. The current study evaluated the impact of photoperiod on functional/physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of meat through broiler processing. Ross 308 broilers (n = 432) were randomly assigned to 4 photoperiod treatments (hours in L = light, D = dark): 20L:4D, 18L:6D, 16L:8D, or 12L:12D with 6 pens per treatment. At 42 D of age, 2 broilers per pen (n = 12 per treatment) were harvested under standard conditions. Broiler tenderloin (M. Pectoralis minor) and leg muscles were removed at 1 D postmortem and frozen/stored at -40°C. After 24 h thawing at 2°C, the samples were deboned, ground, and formed into patties in 3 independent batches. Photoperiod had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, textural profile, meat emulsion activity index, and thiol content (P > 0.05). The patties from 12L:12D and 16L:8D had lower CIE b∗ (yellowness) values than 18L:6D and 20L:4D (P < 0.05), whereas 12L:12D had lower chroma (color intensity) values than other treatments (P < 0.05). The meat from 20L:4D exhibited lower sarcoplasmic protein solubility than other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas both 20L:4D and 18L:6D exhibited lower total protein solubility than 12L:12D (P < 0.05). Higher transmission values (indication of protein denaturation) were observed in 20L:4D than in other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas 12L:12D also maintained lower values than both 18L:6D and 16L:8D (P < 0.05). There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between photoperiod and display storage on 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values, where the patties from 12L:12D maintained less lipid oxidation compared with the patties from other treatments. Results of this study suggest photoperiod has limited impact on meat quality attributes, though rearing broilers with a 12L:12D lighting schedule may be beneficial in reducing protein denaturation and improving lipid stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.04.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597906PMC
July 2020