Publications by authors named "Jun Zhou"

2,553 Publications

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Previously unaccounted atmospheric mercury deposition in a midlatitude deciduous forest.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964.

Mercury is toxic to wildlife and humans, and forests are thought to be a globally important sink for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition from the atmosphere. Yet there are currently no annual GEM deposition measurements over rural forests. Here we present measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere GEM exchange using tower-based micrometeorological methods in a midlatitude hardwood forest. We measured an annual GEM deposition of 25.1 µg ⋅ m (95% CI: 23.2 to 26.7 1 µg ⋅ m), which is five times larger than wet deposition of mercury from the atmosphere. Our observed annual GEM deposition accounts for 76% of total atmospheric mercury deposition and also is three times greater than litterfall mercury deposition, which has previously been used as a proxy measure for GEM deposition in forests. Plant GEM uptake is the dominant driver for ecosystem GEM deposition based on seasonal and diel dynamics that show the forest GEM sink to be largest during active vegetation growing periods and middays, analogous to photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation. Soils and litter on the forest floor are additional GEM sinks throughout the year. Our study suggests that mercury loading to this forest was underestimated by a factor of about two and that global forests may constitute a much larger global GEM sink than currently proposed. The larger than anticipated forest GEM sink may explain the high mercury loads observed in soils across rural forests, which impair water quality and aquatic biota via watershed Hg export.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2105477118DOI Listing
July 2021

Redox of naphthalenediimide radicals in a 3D polyimide for stable Li-ion batteries.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Photonic-Thermal-Electrical Energy Materials and Devices, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, P. R. China.

A 3D polyimide is designed as an organic cathode for Li-ion batteries. Detailed characterization and DFT simulations demonstrate that the 3D polyimide undergoes the redox of naphthalenediimide radicals and the rigidity effect of the 3D structure contributes to the stability of the radical intermediates for high-performance organic batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02426dDOI Listing
July 2021

The clinical efficacy of computed tomography-guided I particle implantation combined with arterial infusion chemotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul;17(3):720-725

Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University; The Key Laboratory of Biomarker High Throughput Screening and Target Translation of Breast and Gastrointestinal Tumor, Dalian University, Dalian, P. R. China.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the clinical value of I radioactive particle implantation combined with regional arterial chemotherapy perfusion in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Subjects And Methods: The clinical data of 23 patients with pancreatic cancer were retrospectively analyzed, and the patients were divided into two groups. In the observation group, 11 patients were injected with radioactive particles in combination with regional arterial chemotherapy. In the control group, 12 patients were treated with simple regional arterial perfusion chemotherapy. Curative effect, pain relief, survival period, and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.

Results: The proportion of patients was significantly higher in the observation group (complete remission + partial remission) (72.73%) than in the control group (41.67%). The 6-month and 9-month survival rates in the experimental group were 91.7% and 50%, respectively, while those in the control group were 63.6% and 18.2%, respectively, with significantly statistical difference. The 12-month survival rate in the experimental group was 16.7% and was significantly higher than that in the control group (8.3%). The experimental group should greater improvement in pain symptoms than the control group, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups except in complications of I radioactive particle implantation.

Conclusions: We conclude that I radioactive particle implantation combined with regional arterial perfusion chemotherapy is an effective and comprehensive treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_563_20DOI Listing
July 2021

Irinotecan eluting beads-transarterial chemoembolization using Callispheres® microspheres is an effective and safe approach in treating unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Cancer Interventional Center, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, 116001, Liaoning, China.

Background: Callispheres® microspheres (CSM) are the first drug-eluting bead (DEB) product developed in China; meanwhile, DEB-transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with CSM is effective and safe in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. However, the data regarding the role of irinotecan-eluting beads-TACE (DEBIRI-TACE) using CSM for colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) treatment is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of DEBIRI-TACE using CSM in the patients with unresectable CRLM.

Methods: Totally, 42 unresectable CRLM patients treated with DEBIRI-TACE using CSM were continuously enrolled in this study. Postoperative treatment response (including complete response rate (CR), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR)), survival data (overall survival (OS)), liver function, and adverse events were documented during the follow-up.

Results: CR, ORR, and DCR were 19.0%, 92.9%, and 100.0%, respectively, at month (M) 1; were 23.8%, 92.9%, and 97.6%, respectively, at M3; then were 14.3%, 78.6%, and 90.5%, respectively at M6. Regarding survival profiles, 1-year OS was 81.0%; 2-year OS was 58.5%; median OS was 25.0 months (95%CI: 19.3-30.7 months). Additionally, ALT and AST experienced an obviously increased trend at 4 days, but a declined trend at 7 days, while ALB and TBIL had no obvious change. No grade 3 or grade 4 adverse event was observed, and main adverse events included fever (95.3%), pain (57.1%), fatigue (50.0%), and nausea/vomiting (42.8%).

Conclusion: DEBIRI-TACE with CSM achieves high treatment response, acceptable survival benefits, and good toleration in unresectable CRLM treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-021-02629-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Multifaceted roles of centrosomes in development, health, and disease.

Authors:
Feifei Qi Jun Zhou

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China.

The centrosome is a membrane-less organelle consisting of a pair of barrel-shaped centrioles and pericentriolar material and functions as the major microtubule-organizing center and signaling hub in animal cells. The past decades have witnessed the functional complexity and importance of centrosomes in various cellular processes such as cell shaping, division, and migration. In addition, centrosome abnormalities are linked to a wide range of human diseases and pathological states, such as cancer, reproductive disorder, brain disease, and ciliopathies. Herein, we discuss various functions of centrosomes in development and health, with an emphasis on their roles in germ cells, stem cells, and immune responses. We also discuss how centrosome dysfunctions are involved in diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating centrosome functions may lead the way to potential therapeutic targeting of this organelle in disease treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjab041DOI Listing
July 2021

The Immune Subtypes and Landscape of Gastric Cancer and to Predict Based on the Whole-Slide Images Using Deep Learning.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:685992. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of General Practice, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor with different responses to immunotherapy. Identifying immune subtypes and landscape of GC could improve immunotherapeutic strategies.

Methods: Based on the abundance of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in GC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we used unsupervised consensus clustering algorithm to identify robust clusters of patients, and assessed their reproducibility in an independent cohort from Gene Expression Omnibus. We further confirmed the feasibility of our immune subtypes in five independent pan-cancer cohorts. Finally, functional enrichment analyses were provided, and a deep learning model studying the pathological images was constructed to identify the immune subtypes.

Results: We identified and validated three reproducible immune subtypes presented with diverse components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, molecular features, and clinical characteristics. An immune-inflamed subtype 3, with better prognosis and the highest immune score, had the highest abundance of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T-activated cells, follicular helper T cells, M1 macrophages, and NK cells among three subtypes. By contrast, an immune-excluded subtype 1, with the worst prognosis and the highest stromal score, demonstrated the highest infiltration of CD4+ T resting cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, while an immune-desert subtype 2, with an intermediate prognosis and the lowest immune score, demonstrated the highest infiltration of M2 macrophages and mast cells, and the lowest infiltration of M1 macrophages. Besides, higher proportion of EVB and MSI of TCGA molecular subtyping, over expression of CTLA4, PD1, PDL1, and TP53, and low expression of JAK1 were observed in immune subtype 3, which consisted with the results from Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. These subtypes may suggest different immunotherapy strategies. Finally, deep learning can predict the immune subtypes well.

Conclusion: This study offers a conceptual frame to better understand the tumor immune microenvironment of GC. Future work is required to estimate its reference value for the design of immune-related studies and immunotherapy selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.685992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273735PMC
June 2021

Nonmetallic SERS-based immunosensor byintegrating MoS nanoflower and nanosheet towards the direct serum detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jul 3;193:113481. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, Zhejiang, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Recently, nonmetallic substrates have stimulated great interest in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay owing to their good uniformity, stability, and biocompatibility. In this context, a novel nonmetallic SERS-based immunoassay mediated by two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS) was delivered for the sensitive and specific monitoring of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). The effective enrichment of molecules on the large active surfaces of MoS as well as potential 532-nm laser-induced charge transfer resonances between them engendered desirable enhancement factor values at the level of 10. Intriguingly, a sandwich immunocomplex combined MoS nanoflower and nanosheet exhibited not only a wide linear range from 5 × 10 to 1 × 10 IU·mL but also a limit of detection as low as 3.43 × 10 IU·mL towards CA19-9. More meaningful, the analytical result for clinical patient serum sample was basically compared with the conventional chemiluminescent immunoassay. Such a novel nonmetallic SERS-based immunosensor with desirable biocompatibility and sensitivity is promising for clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113481DOI Listing
July 2021

MIER3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes breast cancer cell aggressiveness via forming a co-repressor complex with HDAC1/HDAC2/Snail.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Jul 6;406(1):112722. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Pathology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer death in women. MIER3 (Mesoderm induction early response 1, family member3) is considered as a potential oncogene for breast cancer. However, the role of MIER3 in breast cancer remain largely unknown. The expression of MIER3 was detected and the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological characteristics was also analyzed. The effect of MIER3 on proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells was detected in vitro and in vivo. Western blot, IF, and Co-IP were employed to detect the relationship between MIER3, HDAC1, HDAC2, and Snail. ChIP assay was performed to determine the binding of MIER3/HDAC1/HDAC2/Snail complex to the promoter of E-cadherin. In this study, we found that MIER3 was upregulated in breast cancer tissue and closely associated with poor prognosis of patients. MIER3 could promote the proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. Further studies showed that MIER3 interacted with HDAC1/HDAC2 and Snail to form a repressive complex which could bind to E-cadherin promoter and was related to its deacetylation. Our study concluded that MIER3 was involved in forming a co-repressor complex with HDAC1/HDAC2/Snail to promote EMT by silencing E-cadherin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112722DOI Listing
July 2021

Molybdenum Oxide/Tungsten Oxide Nano-heterojunction with Improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 7;13(28):33345-33353. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

The Photonic Research Institute, Ningbo University, No. 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211, China.

By virtue of their high uniformity and stability, metal oxide-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates have attracted enormous attention for molecular trace detection. However, strategies for further enhancing the SERS sensitivity are still desired. Herein, MoO/WO nano-heterojunctions are constructed by mixing MoO and WO together (MoO/WO hybrid) with diverse weight ratios. Using a 532 nm laser as the excitation source and R6G as the Raman reporter, it is shown that the Raman signal intensity (for the peak @ 1360 cm) obtained on the optimal MoO/WO hybrid (MoO/WO = 1:1/3) is twice that observed on a pure MoO or WO substrate. Moreover, a limit of detection of 10 M and an enhancement factor of 10 are achieved. In the SERS enhancement mechanism investigation, it is revealed that MoO and WO form a staggered band structure. During the SERS measurement, electron-hole pairs are generated in the nano-heterojunction using the incident laser. They are then separated by the built-in potential with the electrons moving toward WO. The accumulated electrons on WO are further transferred to the R6G molecules through the coupling of orbitals. Consequently, the molecular polarizability is amplified, and SERS performance is enhanced. The abovementioned explanation is supported by the evidence that the contribution of the chemical enhancement mechanism in the optimal MoO/WO hybrid substrate is about 2.5 times or 5.9 times that in the pure WO or MoO substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03848DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery of memantyl urea derivatives as potent soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors against lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 29;223:113678. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110016, China. Electronic address:

Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response, caused by pathogenic factors including microorganisms, has high mortality and limited therapeutic approaches. Herein, a new soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor series comprising a phenyl ring connected to a memantyl moiety via a urea or amide linkage has been designed. A preferential urea pharmacophore that improved the binding properties of the compounds was identified for those series via biochemical assay in vitro and in vivo studies. Molecular docking displayed that 3,5-dimethyl on the adamantyl group in B401 could make van der Waals interactions with residues at a hydrophobic pocket of sEH active site, which might indirectly explain the subnanomolar level activities of memantyl urea derivatives in vitro better than AR-9281. Among them, compound B401 significantly improved the inhibition potency with human and murine sEH IC values as 0.4 nM and 0.5 nM, respectively. Although the median survival time of C57BL/6 mice in LPS-induced sepsis model was slightly increased, the survival rate did not reach significant efficacy. Based on safety profile, metabolic stability, pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy, B401 demonstrated the proof of potential for this class of memantyl urea-based sEH inhibitors as therapeutic agents in sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113678DOI Listing
June 2021

Inhibition of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 affects mesangial cell proliferation and cell cycle in mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Paediatrics, Xiaogan Central Hospital Affiliated with Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Xiaogan, Hubei, China.

To explore the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN). SOCS-3 expression in kidney tissues from MsPGN patients was detected using immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorescence staining was performed to investigate the localization of SOCS-3 with α-SMA in glomeruli. Heminephrectomized wild-type (WT) and SOCS-3 (KO) mice were injected with Habu-snake venom (HSV) to establish MsPGN models, and renal function were compared. Simultaneously, immunofluorescence, periodic acid-Schiff staining, Picrosirius red staining, as well as immunohistochemistry for PCNA, MAC-2 and type IV collagen in glomeruli were performed. In addition, primary mouse renal mesangial cells and SV40 MES-13 cells were transfected with SOCS-3 siRNA or SOCS-3 lentiviral activation particles, followed by EdU assay, flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Mesangial SOCS-3 expression was enhanced in glomeruli of MsPGN patients, and SOCS-3 was well co-localized with activated α-SMA. After HSV injection, WT and KO mice presented with the increases in the serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and urinary protein, especially in KO mice. Besides, SOCS-3 alleviated the hyperplasia of glomerular MCs in MsPGN mice, with the reductions in PCNA, MAC-2, and collagen deposition. Furthermore, SOCS-3 inhibition reduced the cell proportion at S phase to suppress cell proliferation, with the downregulations of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, PCNA, and Ki-67. SOCS-3 knockout can alleviate the hyperplasia of glomerular MCs in MsPGN mice via affecting the cell cycle and proliferation of MCs, thus being a potential therapeutic target for MsPGN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/kjm2.12415DOI Listing
July 2021

Click chemistry-based pre-targeting cell delivery for cartilage regeneration.

Regen Biomater 2021 Jun 2;8(3):rbab018. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, PO Box 19138, Arlington, TX 76019, USA.

A fraction of the OA patient population is affected by post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) following acute joint injuries. Stopping or reversing the progression of PTOA following joint injury could improve long-term functional outcomes, reduced disability, and medical costs. To more effectively treat articular cartilage injury, we have developed a novel cell-based therapy that involves the pre-targeting of apoptotic chondrocytes and the delivery of healthy, metabolically active chondrocytes using click chemistry. Specifically, a pre-targeting agent was prepared via conjugating apoptotic binding peptide (ApoPep-1) and -cyclooctene (TCO) onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer carrier. The pre-targeting agent would be introduced to injured areas of articular cartilage, leading to the accumulation of TCO groups on the injured areas from actively binding to apoptotic chondrocytes. Subsequently, methyltetrazine (Tz)-bearing chondrocytes would be immobilized on the surface of TCO-coated injured cartilage via Tz-TCO click chemistry reaction. Using an human cartilage explant PTOA model, the effectiveness of this new approach was evaluated. Our studies show that this novel approach (Tz-TCO click chemistry) significantly enhanced the immobilization of healthy and metabolically active chondrocytes to the areas of apoptotic chondrocytes. Histological analyses demonstrated that this treatment regimen would significantly reduce the area of cartilage degeneration and enhance ECM regeneration. The results support that Tz-TCO click chemistry-mediated cell delivery approach has great potential in clinical applications for targeting and treatment of cartilage injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbab018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240595PMC
June 2021

Microenvironmental innate immune signaling and cell mechanical responses promote tumor growth.

Dev Cell 2021 Jul 30;56(13):1884-1899.e5. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division Signaling and Functional Genomics and Heidelberg University, Department for Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Tissue homeostasis is achieved by balancing stem cell maintenance, cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as the purging of damaged cells. Elimination of unfit cells maintains tissue health; however, the underlying mechanisms driving competitive growth when homeostasis fails, for example, during tumorigenesis, remain largely unresolved. Here, using a Drosophila intestinal model, we find that tumor cells outcompete nearby enterocytes (ECs) by influencing cell adhesion and contractility. This process relies on activating the immune-responsive Relish/NF-κB pathway to induce EC delamination and requires a JNK-dependent transcriptional upregulation of the peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LA. Consequently, in organisms with impaired PGRP-LA function, tumor growth is delayed and lifespan extended. Our study identifies a non-cell-autonomous role for a JNK/PGRP-LA/Relish signaling axis in mediating death of neighboring normal cells to facilitate tumor growth. We propose that intestinal tumors "hijack" innate immune signaling to eliminate enterocytes in order to support their own growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2021.06.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Single-cell chromatin accessibility landscape of human umbilical cord blood in trisomy 18 syndrome.

Hum Genomics 2021 Jun 30;15(1):40. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Clinical Medical Research Center, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center of Autoimmune Disease Precision Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518020, People's Republic of China.

Background: Trisomy 18 syndrome (Edwards syndrome, ES) is a type of aneuploidy caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 18. Aneuploidy is the leading cause of early pregnancy loss, intellectual disability, and multiple congenital anomalies. The research of trisomy 18 is progressing slowly, and the molecular characteristics of the disease mechanism and phenotype are still largely unclear.

Results: In this study, we used the commercial Chromium platform (10× Genomics) to perform sc-ATAC-seq to measure chromatin accessibility in 11,611 single umbilical cord blood cells derived from one trisomy 18 syndrome patient and one healthy donor. We obtained 13 distinct major clusters of cells and identified them as 6 human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell types using analysis tool. Compared with the NC group, the ES group had a lower ratio of T cells to NK cells, the ratio of monocytes/DC cell population did not change significantly, and the ratio of B cell nuclear progenitor and megakaryocyte erythroid cells was higher. The differential genes of ME-0 are enriched in Human T cell leukemia virus 1 infection pathway, and the differential peak genes of ME-1 are enriched in apopotosis pathway. We found that CCNB2 and MCM3 may be vital to the development of trisomy 18. CCNB2 and MCM3, which have been reported to be essential components of the cell cycle and chromatin.

Conclusions: We have identified 6 cell populations in cord blood. Disorder in megakaryocyte erythroid cells implicates trisomy 18 in perturbing fetal hematopoiesis. We identified a pathway in which the master differential regulatory pathway in the ME-0 cell population involves human T cell leukemia virus 1 infection, a pathway that is dysregulated in patients with trisomy 18 and which may increase the risk of leukemia in patients with trisomy 18. CCNB2 and MCM3 in progenitor may be vital to the development of trisomy 18. CCNB2 and MCM3, which have been reported to be essential components of the cell cycle and chromatin, may be related to chromosomal abnormalities in trisomy 18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40246-021-00338-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246660PMC
June 2021

Assessment of efficacy and safety by CalliSpheres versus HepaSpheres for drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization in unresectable large hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1356-1362

Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Center, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of HepaSpheres and CalliSpheres in unresectable large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. One hundred and twenty-seven unresectable large HCC patients receiving drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) treatment with CalliSpheres or HepaSpheres microspheres were analyzed. Treatment response, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score, adverse events, main liver function indexes, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Objective response rate (82.7% vs. 63.8%, =.030) and disease control rate (100.0% vs. 91.5%, =.030) were increased in CalliSpheres group compared to HepaSpheres group at 1 month after treatment, while no difference was found between the two groups regarding treatment response at 3 or 6 months post treatment (all >.05). The KPS score at 1, 3, and 6 months was similar between the two groups (all >.05). As for the liver function, the ALT, AST, ALB, and TBIL levels at 7 and 30 days were of no difference between the two groups (all >.05). In addition, the adverse events including nausea/vomiting, pain, fever, myelosuppression, biloma, and abscess were of no difference between the two groups, either (all >.05). In terms of survival profile, there was no difference regarding TTP (6.3 months (95%CI: 5.9-6.6 months) vs. 6.0 months (95%CI: 5.6-6.4 months), =.082) or OS (23.0 months (95%CI: 20.1-25.9 months) vs. 22.0 months (95%CI: 20.2-23.8 months), =.571) between the two groups. In conclusion, CalliSpheres seems to be superior in short-term efficacy and equal in long-term efficacy as well as safety compared to HepaSpheres for DEB-TACE treatment in unresectable large HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1943057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245102PMC
December 2021

Vacuolar accumulation and colocalization is not a proper criterion for cytoplasmic soluble proteins undergoing selective autophagy.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Jun 27:1932319. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Autophagy is an important cytoprotective process that mediates degradation of dysfunctional or unnecessary cellular components. In the process of autophagy, a double-membrane organelle termed the autophagosome is formed to sequestrate portions of cytoplasm and subsequently delivered into lysosome or vacuole for degradation. The accumulation of autophagic bodies in the vacuoles after treatment with concanamycin A (ConcA) is a widely used protocol for monitoring the occurrence of autophagy in plants. Here, it was found that the cytoplasmic soluble GFP was accumulated in vacuoles upon ConcA treatment. Importantly, the GFP signal showed good colocalization with the autophagic marker mCherry-ATG8f in vacuoles based on two commonly used methods, the Pearson-Spearman correlation colocalization analysis and the plot profile analysis. Further results showed that the free GFP did not interact with ATG8s. Thus, analysis of accumulation and colocalization only in vacuoles is not a trustworthy way to judge whether degradation of cytoplasmic protein is dependent on the selective autophagy pathway in plants. In this short perspective, we propose several primary steps to distinguish that the cytoplasmic proteins are degraded by selective or bulk autophagy, hoping they could contribute to identify and clarify the selective autophagic cargos and receptors in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2021.1932319DOI Listing
June 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow immunoassay mediated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic Ag-modified PMMA substrate.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jun 18;262:120092. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Microelectronic Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, PR China.

Recently, it is urgent to ameliorate the accumulation and quantification performances of surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow immunoassay (SERS-based LFIA) to promote its reliable clinical application. Herein, a smart hydrophilic-hydrophobic SERS-based LFIA strip was demonstrated by decorating Ag nanoplates with hydrophilic surface onto the specific regions of hydrophobic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film with Raman internal standard (IS), which can unexpectedly inhibit the "coffee-ring phenomenon". The target analytes were consequently enriched in the SERS-active Ag regions by the hydrophobic PMMA, considerably endowing the strip with amended quantitative monitoring ability. Aided by immunoprobes of flower-shaped Ag nanoplates, a limit of detection as 10 pg/mL and an outstanding correlation coefficient value (R) of 0.992 for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were obtained by utilizing this SERS-based LFIA strip, which can be conducive to clinical monitoring and will broaden the field of vision for the point-of-care diagnostic technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120092DOI Listing
June 2021

3,3',5-Triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) induces embryonic ζ-globin expression via thyroid hormone receptor α.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Jun 26;14(1):99. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, National Research Center for Translational Medicine at Shanghai, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The human ζ-globin gene (HBZ) is transcribed in primitive erythroid cells only during the embryonic stages of development. Reactivation of this embryonic globin synthesis would likely alleviate symptoms both in α-thalassemia and sickle-cell disease. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling ζ-globin expression have remained largely undefined. Moreover, the pharmacologic agent capable of inducing ζ-globin production is currently unavailable. Here, we show that TRIAC, a bioactive thyroid hormone metabolite, significantly induced ζ-globin gene expression during zebrafish embryogenesis. The induction of ζ-globin expression by TRIAC was also observed in human K562 erythroleukemia cell line and primary erythroid cells. Thyroid hormone receptor α (THRA) deficiency abolished the ζ-globin-inducing effect of TRIAC. Furthermore, THRA could directly bind to the distal enhancer regulatory element to regulate ζ-globin expression. Our study provides the first evidence that TRIAC acts as a potent inducer of ζ-globin expression, which might serve as a new potential therapeutic option for patients with severe α-thalassemia or sickle-cell disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01108-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235803PMC
June 2021

A new type of noncovalent surface-π stacking interaction occurring on peroxide-modified titania nanosheets driven by vertical π-state polarization.

Chem Sci 2021 Feb 2;12(12):4411-4417. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Chemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology Beijing 100029 China

Noncovalent π stacking of aromatic molecules is a universal form of noncovalent interactions normally occurring on planar structures (such as aromatic molecules and graphene) based on sp-hybridized atoms. Here we reveal a new type of noncovalent surface-π stacking unusually occurring between aromatic groups and peroxide-modified titania (PMT) nanosheets, which can drive versatile aromatic adsorptions. We experimentally explore the underlying electronic-level origin by probing the perturbed changes of unoccupied Ti 3d states with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS), and find that aromatic groups can vertically attract π electrons in the surface peroxo-Ti states and increase their delocalization regions. Our discovery updates the concept of noncovalent π-stacking interactions by extending the substrates from carbon-based structures to a transition metal oxide, and presents an approach to exploit the surface chemistry of nanomaterials based on noncovalent interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc06601jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179467PMC
February 2021

Clinical Characteristics of Lipid Metabolism in Untreated Patients with Anti-MDA5 Antibody-Positive.

Int J Gen Med 2021 14;14:2507-2512. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Clinical characterization of lipid metabolism in untreated patients with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibodies-positive (anti-MDA5).

Methods: Body-mass index (BMI), autoantibodies, lipid levels, and serum ferritin levels in 57 anti-MDA5 patients were determined in the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University.

Results: Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) levels were significantly lower in deceased group than in the survival group (P < 0.05). Plasma levels of HDL and ApoA1 were significantly lower in patients who were simultaneously anti-MDA5 and anti-Ro-52 than in patients who were anti-MDA5 alone (P < 0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, and ApoA1 were significantly decreased in patients with high levels of serum ferritin compared with patients with low levels (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in blood lipid levels between patients grouped according to BMI.

Conclusion: 1) HDL and ApoA1 levels are important indicators of poor prognosis in anti-MDA5 patients; 2) Dysregulated lipid metabolism in anti-MDA5 patients is closely associated with anti-Ro-52 antibody and ferritin levels but independent of BMI; 3) HDL involvement in inflammation and immune regulation merits close attention by rheumatologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S315885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214207PMC
June 2021

Dexmedetomidine alleviates neuroinflammation, restores sleep disorders and neurobehavioral abnormalities in rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 24;96:107795. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, PR China. Electronic address:

The occurrence and progress of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is closely related to the inflammatory response; however, inflammation contributes to behavioral abnormalities and sleep disorders. Dexmedetomidine has anti-inflammatory effects against various diseases. Whether dexmedetomidine improves MHE and the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine on sleep structure, neurobehavior, and brain morphology of MHE rats and investigate its underlying mechanism. A rat MHE model was established by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA). Dexmedetomidine or yohimbine was administered intraperitoneally to investigate the role of α adrenoreceptor in the protection conferred by dexmedetomidine. The 24-h sleep, neurobehavioral changes, the liver function, blood ammonia and morphological changes of the liver and brain were assessed. Also, the microglia, astrocytes, neurons, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-18), and NLRP3 inflammasomes were detected. The results showed that marked sleep disorders, cognitive impairment, anxiety, abnormal liver function and pathological damage of liver and brain were detected in the MHE rats. The microglia in the prefrontal cortex was highly activated along with the increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors and NLRP3 inflammasomes. Interestingly, dexmedetomidine improved above indicators, however, yohimbine significantly abolished the protection of dexmedetomidine. These findings showed that dexmedetomidine restored the changes in the sleep disorders and neurobehavior in rats and reduced brain damage. The mechanism might be partially related to the activation of α2 adrenergic receptors, reduction of neuroinflammatory response, and inhibition of the activation of microglia and NLRP3/Caspase1 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107795DOI Listing
July 2021

Meta-analysis-based systematic review of effect of traditional Chinese medicine intervention in treatment of diabetic nephropathy on thyroid function.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 16;10(6):6736-6752. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Background: This research sought to systematically evaluate the clinical effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) intervention in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and analyze changes in thyroid function in patients with DN.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Medline, Ovid, Springer, and self-built databases were searched to screen literature on TCM intervention and the treatment of DN published from the establishment of the databases to January 1, 2021. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention 5.0.2 was then employed to assess the risk of bias in literature, and Review Manager 5.3 was utilized for the meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the study, involving 3,566 subjects, and meta-analysis results showed that the clinical treatment efficiency of the experimental group was dramatically higher than the control group [MD =6.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.77-10.25, Z=7.17, P<0.00001]. Moreover, the serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urine protein excretion rate (UAER), 24 h postoperative urine protein quantification, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) of patients after TCM intervention were all remarkably inferior to those of the control group as seen in the following results: Scr, MD =-8.69, 95% CI: -9.92 to -7.47, Z=13.94, P<0.00001; BUN, MD =-1.74, 95% CI: - 2.48 to -1.00, Z=4.6, P<0.00001; UAER, MD =-26.16, 95% CI: -46.89 to -5.44, Z=2.47, P=0.01; 24 h postoperative urine protein quantification, MD =-0.54, 95% CI: -0.68 to -0.4, Z=7.4, P<0.00001; TNF-α, MD =-5.3, 95% CI: -9.15 to -1.46, Z=2.7, P=0.007; and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), MD =-1.34, 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.78, Z=4.66, P<0.00001.

Discussion: TCM intervention in DN is effective in treating the clinical symptoms of patients with this disease and has ideal therapeutic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1220DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimization and visualization of phase modulation with filtered and amplified maximal-length sequence for SBS suppression in a short fiber system: a theoretical treatment.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):16781-16803

We use a model to investigate both the temporal and spectral characteristics of a signal lightwave which has been spectrally broadened through phase modulation with a maximal-length sequence (MLS), which is a common type of pseudo-random bit sequence. The enhancement of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold of the modulated lightwave in a fiber system is evaluated by numerically simulating the coupled three-wave SBS interaction equations. We find that SBS can build up on a nanosecond-level time scale in a short fiber, which can reduce the SBS suppressing capability of MLS modulation waveforms with GHz-level clock rate, if the sub-sequence ("run") lengths with the same symbol (zero or one) of the MLS extend over several nanoseconds. To ensure the SBS buildup is perturbed and thus suppressed also during these long sub-sequences, we introduce a low-pass filter to average the signal over several bits so that the modulation waveform changes gradually even during long runs and amplify the RF modulation waveforms to the level required for sufficient spectral broadening and carrier suppression of the optical signal. We find that the SBS suppression depends non-monotonically on the parameters of the filtered and amplified MLS waveform such as pattern length, modulation depth, and the ratio of low-pass filter cutoff frequency to clock rate for maximum SBS mitigation. We optimize the SBS suppression through numerical simulations and discuss it in terms of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the lightwave and modulation waveform using derived analytical expressions and numerical simulations. The simulations indicate that the normalized SBS threshold reaches a maximum for a RMS modulation depth of 0.56π and a ratio of filter cutoff frequency to clock rate of 0.54 and that MLS9 is superior to other investigated patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426070DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of FeO nanoparticles on the performance of anaerobic digestion through electrochemical analysis.

Environ Technol 2021 Jul 6:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, People's Republic of China.

In view of the high cost and complex operation of the traditional chemical method for the determination of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, this study investigated the feasibility of using electrochemistry analysis to determine the effect of FeO nanoparticles (NPs) on the AD process. The quantity of electric charge of FeO NPs modified graphite electrode in sodium acetate electrolyte was higher than that of graphite electrode. The addition of FeO NPs was beneficial to improve the electrochemical activity of the electrode. On this basis, enzymes and microorganisms were extracted from anaerobic reactors containing different concentrations of FeO NPs to make electrodes respectively to further investigate the effects of FeO NPs on enzyme and microbial activities in AD. The electrochemical analysis results of the enzyme electrodes and microbial electrodes showed that the quantity of electric charge produced by the group of 200 mg/L FeO NPs was the highest. The cumulative biogas production of 200 mg/L FeO NPs was 809 mL/g VS, and better than other groups. These results showed that 200 mg/L FeO NPs was the best dosage, and the electrochemical analysis has higher sensitivity in the AD detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1946161DOI Listing
July 2021

Proliferation kinetics of immune cells during early phase of bone marrow transplantation in mouse model based on chemotherapy conditioning.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 May;46(5):449-457

Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008.

Objectives: To establish mouse bone marrow transplantation by pretreatment with chemotherapy, and to explore the dynamic changes of immune cells in the early stage of allogeneic transplantation in the spleen of mice.

Methods: Mice were divided into 4 groups (80 mg/kg group, 100 mg/kg group, 120 mg/kg group, and 150 mg/kg group) according to the difference in dose of busulfan. The mice were treated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide combined chemotherapy, and the appropriate dosage was determined by evaluating the myeloablative effect and drug toxicity. According to the type of the genetic transplantation, the mice were also divided into 4 groups: An allogeneic transplantation group, a homogenic transplantation group, a chemotherapy alone group, and a normal control group. The mice were pretreated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide before bone marrow transplantation. In the allogeneic transplantation group, the suspension of splenocytes was prepared at the first day, the 3rd day, the 5th day, and the 8th day after transplantation for flow cytometry detection, and the dynamic changes of splenic immune cells were analyzed. The homogeneic transplantation group served as the concurrent control, the normal control group served as the control of basic value of spleen immune cells, and the chemotherapy alone group was used to evaluate the myeloablative effect.

Results: 1) The optimal dose of busulfan was 100 mg/kg. The combination of busulfan and cyclophosphamide can restore the hematopoiesis of transplanted mice, and the toxicity associated with pretreatment is small. 2) In the allogeneic transplantation group: The hematopoietic reconstitution and high donor chimerism rate were achieved after transplantation. In the early phase of bone marrow transplantation, the T lymphocytes were the main cell group, while the recovery of B lymphocytes was relatively delayed. The dendritic cells and natural killer cells from donors were the earliest cells to recover and achieve high chimerism rate compared with T cells and B cells. Most T cells were in the initial T cell state within 5 days after allogeneic transplantation. However, in the 5th day after transplantation, these cells were mainly in the effective memory phenotype. The reconstruction of donor-derived naive T cells was slow, but the reconstruction of donor-derived effective memory T cells and regulatory T cells was relatively fast. 3) In the homogeneic transplantation group: The mice could recover hematopoiesis and the recovery of B lymphocytes was delayed. 4) In the chemotherapy alone group: All mice died in 12-15 days after chemotherapy, and the peripheral blood routine showed pancytopenia before death.

Conclusions: Pretreatment with chemotherapy can successfully establish the mouse model of bone marrow transplantation. There are difference in the proportion of T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, effector memory T cells, initial T cells, and regulatory T cells after transplantation, and the relationship between donor and recipient is also changed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2021.190496DOI Listing
May 2021

Catalyst-free carbosilylation of alkenes using silyl boronates and organic fluorides via selective C-F bond activation.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 18;12(1):3749. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

A regioselective carbosilylation of alkenes has emerged as a powerful strategy to access molecules with functionalized silylated alkanes, by incorporating silyl and carbon groups across an alkene double bond. However, to the best of our knowledge, organic fluorides have never been used in this protocol. Here we disclose the catalyst-free carbosilylation of alkenes using silyl boronates and organic fluorides mediated by BuOK. The main feature of this transformation is the selective activation of the C-F bond of an organic fluoride by the silyl boronate without undergoing potential side-reactions involving C-O, C-Cl, heteroaryl-CH, and even CF groups. Various silylated alkanes with tertiary or quaternary carbon centers that have aromatic, hetero-aromatic, and/or aliphatic groups at the β-position are synthesized in a single step from substituted or non-substituted aryl alkenes. An intramolecular variant of this carbosilylation is also achieved via the reaction of a fluoroarene with a ω-alkenyl side chain and a silyl boronate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24031-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213744PMC
June 2021

ULECGNet: An Ultra-Lightweight End-to-End ECG Classification Neural Network.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 18;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

ECG classification is a key technology in intelligent ECG monitoring. In the past, traditional machine learning methods such as SVM and KNN have been used for ECG classification, but with limited classification accuracy. Recently, the end-to-end neural network has been used for the ECG classification and shows high classification accuracy. However, the end-to-end neural network has large computational complexity including a large number of parameters and operations. Although dedicated hardware such as FPGA and ASIC can be developed to accelerate the neural network, they result in large power consumption, large design cost, or limited flexibility. In this work, we have proposed an ultra-lightweight end-to-end ECG classification neural network which has extremely low computational complexity (~8.2k parameters & ~227k MUL/ADD operations) and can be squeezed into a low-cost MCU (i.e. microcontroller) while achieving 99.1% overall classification accuracy. This outperforms the state-of-the-art ECG classification neural network. Implemented on a low-cost MCU (i.e. MSP432), the proposed design consumes only 0.4 mJ and 3.1 mJ per heartbeat classification for normal and abnormal heartbeats respectively for real-time ECG classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3090421DOI Listing
June 2021

Enhanced Valley Polarization of Bilayer MoSe with Variable Stacking Order and Interlayer Coupling.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 18;12(25):5879-5888. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China.

In two-dimensional transitional metal dichalcogenides, tuning the spin-valley-layer coupling via changing layer numbers and stacking orders remains desirable for their application in valleytronics. Herein, six-point star-like MoSe nanoflakes simultaneously containing different atom registration regions from monolayer to bilayer with 2H and 3R stacking order were fabricated, and the valley polarizations were comparably investigated by circular polarized photoluminescent spectroscopy. The degree of valley polarization was detected to be about 12.5% in the monolayer and 10% in the 2H bilayer, but greatly upgraded to about 40% in the 3R bilayer MoSe. This enhancement was attributed to the multiband spin splitting and generation of spin-dependent layer polarization for the 3R MoSe bilayer, which is well evidenced by our calculations of the energy band structures. Our results demonstrate that preparing TMD crystals with controllable stacking orders and interlayer coupling is a promising route to tune the valley index in TMDs for developing valleytronics technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01578DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficiency-Tunable Single-Component White-Light Emission Realized in Hybrid Halides Through Metal Co-Occupation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of New Energy Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halides have attracted widespread attention as emerging optoelectronic materials, especially in solid-state lighting, where they can be used as single-component white-light phosphors for white light-emitting diodes. Herein, we have successfully synthesized a zero-dimensional (0D) organic-inorganic hybrid mixed-metal halide (Bmpip)PbSnBr (0 < < 1, Bmpip = 1-butyl-1-methyl-piperidinium, CHN) that crystallizes in a monoclinic system in the 2/ space group. Pb and Sn form a four-coordinate seesaw structure separated by organic cations forming a 0D structure. For different excitation wavelengths, (Bmpip)PbSnBr (0 < < 1) exhibits double-peaked emission at 470 and 670 nm. The emission color of (Bmpip)PbSnBr can be easily tuned from orange-red to blue by adjusting the Pb/Sn molar ratio or excitation wavelength. Representatively, (Bmpip)PbSnBr exhibits approximately white-light emission with high photoluminescence quantum yield up to 39%. Interestingly, the color of (Bmpip)PbSnBr can also be easily tuned by temperature, promising its potential for application in temperature measurement and indication. Phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes are fabricated by combining (Bmpip)PbSnBr and 365 nm near-UV LED chips and exhibit high-quality light output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07636DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Ultrashort Wave Therapy on Inflammation and Macrophage Polarization after Acute Lung Injury in Rats.

Bioelectromagnetics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Rehabilitation Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, People's Republic of China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) features dysregulated pulmonary inflammation. Ultrashort waves (USWs) exert anti-inflammatory effects but no studies have evaluated their activity in ALI. Herein, we used an in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI model to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory activity of USWs is mediated by altering the polarization of M1 to M2 macrophages. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, untreated ALI, and ALI treated with USW groups (n = 8 in each group). ALI was induced by intratracheal LPS instillation. Rats in the USW group were treated for 15 min at 0, 4, and 8 h after a single LPS intratracheal instillation. Histopathologic examination, wet/dry lung weight ratio, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the degree of lung injury and to determine macrophage phenotypes. Histopathologic examination disclosed attenuation of ALI, with reduced alveolar hemorrhage and neutrophilic infiltration in the USW group. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly decreased after USW therapy. Moreover, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly decreased in the USW group, whereas the mRNA expression of Arginase 1 (Arg1) and the protein expression of mannose receptor significantly increased in comparison with the untreated ALI group. We conclude that USW therapy may attenuate inflammation in LPS-induced ALI through the modulation of macrophage polarization. © 2021 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.22353DOI Listing
June 2021