Publications by authors named "Jun Zheng"

748 Publications

The contribution of metamemory beliefs to the font size effect on judgments of learning: Is word frequency a moderating factor?

PLoS One 2021 20;16(9):e0257547. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment for Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Previous studies found that metamemory beliefs dominate the font size effect on judgments of learning (JOLs). However, few studies have investigated whether beliefs about font size contribute to the font size effect in circumstances of multiple cues. The current study aims to fill this gap. Experiment 1 adopted a 2 (font size: 70 pt vs. 9 pt) * 2 (word frequency (WF): high vs. low) within-subjects design. The results showed that beliefs about font size did not mediate the font size effect on JOLs when multiple cues (font size and WF) were simultaneously provided. Experiment 2 further explored whether WF moderates the contribution of beliefs about font size to the font size effect, in which a 2 (font size: 70 pt vs. 9 pt, as a within-subjects factor) * 2 (WF: high vs. low, as a between-subjects factor) mixed design was used. The results showed that the contribution of beliefs about font size to the font size effect was present in a pure list of low-frequency words, but absent in a pure list of high-frequency words. Lastly, a meta-analysis showed evidence supporting the proposal that the contribution of beliefs about font size to the font size effect on JOLs is moderated by WF. Even though numerous studies suggested beliefs about font size play a dominant role in the font size effect on JOLs, the current study provides new evidence suggesting that such contribution is conditional. Theoretical implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257547PLOS
September 2021

Insights Into Walnut Lipid Metabolism From Metabolome and Transcriptome Analysis.

Front Genet 2021 3;12:715731. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Sustainable Dryland Agriculture, Institute of Wheat Research, Shanxi Agricultural University, Linfen, China.

Walnut oil is an excellent source of essential fatty acids. Systematic evaluation of walnut lipids has significance for the development of the nutritional and functional value of walnut. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to characterize the lipids of walnut. A total of 525 lipids were detected and triacylglycerols (TG) (18:2/18:2/18:3) and diacylglycerols (DG) (18:2/18:2) were the main glycerolipids present. Essential fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were the main DG and TG fatty acid chains. Many types of phospholipids were observed with phosphatidic acid being present in the highest concentration (5.58%). Using a combination of metabolome and transcriptome analysis, the present study mapped the main lipid metabolism pathway in walnut. These results may provide a theoretical basis for further study and specific gene targets to enable the development of walnut with increased oil content and modified fatty acid composition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.715731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446449PMC
September 2021

A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study on Accessibility and Availability of Neonatal care Resources in Hospitals of China: Current Situation, Mortality and Regional Differences: Neonatal Care Resources and Newborn Mortality in China.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Sep 21;14:100212. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Shanxi Province Children's Hospital.

Background: To investigate the current situation of neonatal care resources (NCR), newborn mortality rates (NMR), regional differences and existing challenges in China.

Methods: By using a self-designed questionnaire form and the cross-sectional method, we conducted a survey of all hospitals equipped with neonatal facilities in China from March 2019 to March 2020 with respect to the level and nature of these hospitals, the number of newborn beds and NICU beds, the number of neonatal pediatricians, and the development of therapeutic techniques. The data about the newborn births and deaths were retrieved from the annual statistics of the health commissions of the related provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.

Finding: Included in this nationwide survey were 3,020 hospitals from all 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities directly under the Central Government of Mainland China, with a 100% response rate. They included 1,183 (39.2%) level-3 (L3) hospitals, 1629 (53.9%) L-2 hospitals and 208 (6.9%) L-1 hospitals. Geographically, 848 (31.4%) hospitals were distributed in Central China, 983 (32.5%) hospitals in East China, and 1,089 (36.1%) in West China. The 3,020 included hospitals were altogether equipped with 75,679 newborn beds, with a median of 20 (2-350) beds, of which 2,286 hospitals (75.7%) were equipped with neonatal intensive care units (NICU), totaling 28,076 NICU beds with a median of 5 (1-160) beds. There were altogether 27,698 neonatal pediatricians in these hospitals, with an overall doctor-bed ratio of 0.366. There were 48.18 newborn beds and 17.87 NICU beds per 10,000 new births in China. In East, Central and West China, the number of neonatal beds, NICU beds, neonatal pediatricians, and attending pediatricians or pediatricians with higher professional titles per 10,000 newborns was 42.57, 48.64 and 55.67; 17.07, 18.66 and 18.17; 16.26, 16.51 and 20.81; and 10.69, 10.81 and 11.29, respectively. However, when the population and area are taken into consideration and according to the health resources density index (HRDI), the number of newborn beds, NICU beds and neonatal pediatricians in West China was significantly lower than that in Central and East China. In addition, only 10.64% of the neonatal pediatricians in West China possessed the Master or higher degrees, 31.7% in East China and 20.14% in Central China. On the contrary, the number of neonatal pediatricians with a lower than Bachelor degree in West China was significantly higher than that in Central and East China (13.28% 7.36% and 4.28%). Technically, the application rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in L-1 hospitals of West China was lower than that in Central and East China. According to the statistics in 2018, the newborn mortality rate (NMR) in West China was significantly higher than that in Central and East China.

Interpretation: China has already possessed relatively good resources for neonatal care and treatment, which is the primary reason for the rapid decrease in the NMR in China. However, there are still substantial regional differences. The density of health resources, the level of technical development and educational background of neonatal pediatricians in West China still lag behind those in other regions of China and need to be further improved and upgraded.

Funding: This research work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81671504) and United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (CHINA-UNICEF501MCH).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358159PMC
September 2021

Respiratory Microbiota Profiles Associated With the Progression From Airway Inflammation to Remodeling in Mice With OVA-Induced Asthma.

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:723152. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Endocrine, Genetics and Metabolism, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The dysbiosis of respiratory microbiota plays an important role in asthma development. However, there is limited information on the changes in the respiratory microbiota and how these affect the host during the progression from acute allergic inflammation to airway remodeling in asthma.

Objective: An ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of chronic asthma was established to explore the dynamic changes in the respiratory microbiota in the different stages of asthma and their association with chronic asthma progression.

Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic acid-schiff (PAS), and Masson staining were performed to observe the pathological changes in the lung tissues of asthmatic mice. The respiratory microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing followed by taxonomical analysis. The cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were measured. The matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) expression levels in lung tissues were measured to detect airway remodeling in OVA-challenged mice.

Results: Acute allergic inflammation was the major manifestation at weeks 1 and 2 after OVA atomization stimulation, whereas at week 6 after the stimulation, airway remodeling was the most prominent observation. In the acute inflammatory stage, was more abundant, whereas and were more abundant at the airway remodeling stage. The microbial compositions of the upper and lower respiratory tracts were similar. However, the dominant respiratory microbiota in the acute inflammatory and airway remodeling phases were different. Metagenomic functional prediction showed that the pathways significantly upregulated in the acute inflammatory phase and airway remodeling phase were different. The cytokine levels in BALF and the expression patterns of proteins associated with airway remodeling in the lung tissue were consistent with the metagenomic function results.

Conclusion: The dynamic changes in respiratory microbiota are closely associated with the progression of chronic asthma. Metagenomic functional prediction indicated the changes associated with acute allergic inflammation and airway remodeling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.723152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435892PMC
August 2021

The Role of Kallikrein 7 in Tumorigenesis.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Immunotherapy, Medical College, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443003. China.

Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is a secreted serine protease with chymotrypsic protease activity. Abnormally high expression of KLK7 is closely related to the occurrence and development of various types of cancer. Therefore, KLK7 has been identified as a potential target for cancer drug development design in recent years. KLK7 mediates various biological and pathological processes in tumorigenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and cell metabolism, by hydrolyzing a series of substrates such as membrane proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, and cytokines. This review mainly introduces the downstream cell signaling pathways involved in the activation of KLK7 and its substrate-related proteins. This review will not only help us to better understand the mechanisms of KLK7 in regulating biological and pathological processes of cancer cells, but also lay a solid foundation for the design of inhibitors targeting KLK7.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666210915104537DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparative Analysis of Genomic and Transcriptome Sequences Reveals Divergent Patterns of Codon Bias in Wheat and Its Ancestor Species.

Front Genet 2021 20;12:732432. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

The synonymous codons usage shows a characteristic pattern of preference in each organism. This codon usage bias is thought to have evolved for efficient protein synthesis. Synonymous codon usage was studied in genes of the hexaploid wheat (AABBDD) and its progenitor species, (AA), (DD), and (AABB). exhibited stronger usage bias for G/C-ending codons than did the three progenitor species, and this bias was especially higher compared to and . High GC content is a primary factor influencing codon usage in . Neutrality analysis showed a significant positive correlation (<0.001) between GC12 and GC3 in the four species with regression line slopes near zero (0.16-0.20), suggesting that the effect of mutation on codon usage was only 16-20%. The GC3s values of genes were associated with gene length and distribution density within chromosomes. tRNA abundance data indicated that codon preference corresponded to the relative abundance of isoaccepting tRNAs in the four species. Both mutation and selection have affected synonymous codon usage in hexaploid wheat and its progenitor species. GO enrichment showed that GC biased genes were commonly enriched in physiological processes such as photosynthesis and response to acid chemical. In some certain gene families with important functions, the codon usage of small parts of genes has changed during the evolution process of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.732432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417831PMC
August 2021

Conjugated Porous Polydiaminophenylsulfone-Triazine Polymer-A High-Performance Anode for Li-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 6;13(36):43002-43010. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Key Laboratory of Structure and Functional Regulation of Hybrid Material, Leibniz Research Center of Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039, China.

Organic compounds are promising electrode materials because of their resource sustainability, environmental friendliness, and highly tailorable properties. The porous conjugated polymer shows great potential as an electrode material for its tunable redox nature, conjugated skeleton, and porous structure. Herein, a novel conjugated porous polymer, polydiaminophenylsulfone-triazine, was synthesized by a simple nucleophilic substitution reaction. The conjugated structure and triazine ring can improve the conductivity, charge-transfer efficiency, and physicochemical stability. Also, the porous polymeric framework shows a large specific surface area and high porosity, providing a large contact area with electrolytes and reducing diffusion distance. The polymer demonstrates highly stable cycling performance and good rate capability as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, suggesting a promising strategy to design a competitive electrode material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14973DOI Listing
September 2021

TNFAIP3-upregulated RIP3 exacerbates acute pancreatitis via activating NLRP3 inflammasome.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 1;100:108067. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072, PR China; Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu 610072, PR China. Electronic address:

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Accumulating studies have revealed the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) in the progression of AP. Here, the current study was conducted to elucidate the role of TNFAIP3 and the underlying molecular mechanisms on the progression of AP. The in vivo animal model and in vitro cell model of AP were generated by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate and stimulation of cerulein into AR42J cells, respectively. Relationships among TNFAIP3, receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were predicted on bioinformatics websites and verified by co-immunoprecipitation. AR42J cells were transfected with overexpressing plasmid or shRNA to study the effects of TNFAIP3/RIP3/NLRP3 axis on cell proliferation and apoptosis, secretion of inflammatory cytokines and production of ROS. The effect of TNFAIP3/RIP3/NLRP3 axis in AP was further confirmed in vivo. High expression of TNFAIP3 was observed in AP pancreatic tissues and AP cell model. TNFAIP3 increased RIP phosphorylation through deubiquitination. RIP activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Silencing of TNFAIP3 or RIP3T led to elevated proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in AR42J cells, accompanied by decreased inflammatory cytokine levels and ROS production. The protective role of inhibited TNFAIP3 in AP was confirmed evidenced by reduced levels of AMY, LIPA, and ROS in vivo. Collectively, overexpressed TNFAIP3 could contribute to the progression of AP by activating RIP3/NLRP3 axis, providing a potential therapeutic target for AP treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108067DOI Listing
September 2021

Serine Metabolism Tunes Immune Responses To Promote Survival upon Infection.

mSystems 2021 Aug 24;6(4):e0042621. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, School of Life Sciences, Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Sun Yat-sen Universitygrid.12981.33, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Overactive immune response is a critical factor triggering host death upon bacterial infection. However, the mechanism behind the regulation of excessive immune responses is still largely unknown, and the corresponding control and preventive measures are still to be explored. In this study, we find that Nile tilapia, , that died from Edwardsiella tarda infection had higher levels of immune responses than those that survived. Such immune responses are strongly associated with metabolism that was altered at 6 h postinfection. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolome profiling, we identify glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism as the top three of the most impacted pathways, which were not properly activated in the fish that died. Serine is one of the crucial biomarkers. Exogenous serine can promote survival both as a prophylactic and therapeutic upon infection. Our further analysis revealed exogenous serine flux into the glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism and, more importantly, the glutathione metabolism via glycine. The increased glutathione synthesis could downregulate reactive oxygen species. Therefore, these data together suggest that metabolic modulation of immune responses is a potential preventive strategy to control overactive immune responses. Bacterial virulence factors are not the only factors responsible for host death. Overactive immune responses, such as cytokine storm, contribute to tissue injury that results in organ failure and ultimately the death of the host. Despite the recent development of anti-inflammation strategies, the way to tune immune responses to an appropriate level is still lacking. We propose that metabolic modulation is a promising approach in tuning immune responses. We find that the metabolomic shift at as early as 6 h postinfection can be predictive of the consequences of infection. Serine is a crucial biomarker whose administration can promote host survival upon bacterial infection either in a prophylactic or therapeutic way. Further analysis demonstrated that exogenous serine promotes the synthesis of glutathione, which downregulates reactive oxygen species to dampen immune responses. Our study exemplifies that the metabolite(s) is a potential therapeutic reagent for overactive immune response during bacterial infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00426-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407201PMC
August 2021

The diagnostic value of chest X-ray in coronavirus disease 2019: A comparative study of X-ray and CT.

Sci Prog 2021 Jul-Sep;104(3):368504211016204

Radiology Department, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spreads around the world, the demand for imaging examinations increases accordingly. The value of conventional chest radiography (CCR) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of CCR in the detection of COVID-19 through a comparative analysis of CCR and CT. This study included 49 patients with 52 CT images and chest radiographs of pathogen-confirmed COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-suspected cases that were found to be negative (non-COVID-19). The performance of CCR in detecting COVID-19 was compared to CT imaging. The major signatures that allowed for differentiation between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases were also evaluated. Approximately 75% (39/52) of images had positive findings on the chest x-ray examinations, while 80.7% (42/52) had positive chest CT scans. The COVID-19 group accounted for 88.4% (23/26) of positive chest X-ray examinations and 96.1% (25/26) of positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CCR for abnormal shadows were 88%, 80%, and 87%, respectively, for all patients. For the COVID-19 group, the accuracy of CCR was 92%. The primary signature on CCR was flocculent shadows in both groups. The shadows were primarily in the bi-pulmonary, which was significantly different from non-COVID-19 patients ( = 0.008). The major CT finding of COVID-19 patients was ground-glass opacities in both lungs, while in non-COVID-19 patients, consolidations combined with ground-glass opacities were more common in one lung than both lungs ( = 0.0001). CCR showed excellent performance in detecting abnormal shadows in patients with confirmed COVID-19. However, it has limited value in differentiating COVID-19 patients from non-COVID-19 patients. Through the typical epidemiological history, laboratory examinations, and clinical symptoms, combined with the distributive characteristics of shadows, CCR may be useful to identify patients with possible COVID-19. This will allow for the rapid identification and quarantine of patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211016204DOI Listing
September 2021

Low (thyroid hormone receptor beta) Promoter Methylation Levels in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Induced By Systematic Inflammation Are Involved in Low Thyroid Hormone Function in Metabolic Syndrome.

Hypertension 2021 Sep 15;78(4):1005-1015. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (B.C., X.X., Jin'e Wang, H.W., C.W., Y.Y., Y. Zong, Y. Zhang, R.H., A.M.G., Y.W.).

[Figure: see text].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17847DOI Listing
September 2021

A New Method for Automatic Detection of Defects in Selective Laser Melting Based on Machine Vision.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 27;14(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 362021, China.

Selective laser melting (SLM) is a forming technology in the field of metal additive manufacturing. In order to improve the quality of formed parts, it is necessary to monitor the selective laser melting forming process. At present, most of the research on the monitoring of the selective laser melting forming process focuses on the monitoring of the melting pool, but the quality of forming parts cannot be controlled in real-time. As an indispensable link in the SLM forming process, the quality of powder spreading directly affects the quality of the formed parts. Therefore, this paper proposes a detection method for SLM powder spreading defects, mainly using industrial cameras to collect SLM powder spreading surfaces, designing corresponding image processing algorithms to extract three common powder spreading defects, and establishing appropriate classifiers to distinguish different types of powder spreading defects. It is determined that the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is the most accurate classifier. This detection method has high recognition rate and fast detection speed, which cannot only meet the SLM forming efficiency, but also improve the quality of the formed parts through feedback control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14154175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347657PMC
July 2021

A Mock Circulation Loop for In Vitro Hemodynamic Evaluation of Aorta: Application in Aortic Dissection.

J Endovasc Ther 2021 Aug 3:15266028211034863. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Aortic dissection (AD) is a catastrophic disease with complex hemodynamic conditions, however, understandings regarding its perfusion characteristics were not sufficient. In this study, a mock circulation loop (MCL) that integrated the Windkessel element and patient-specific silicone aortic phantoms was proposed to reproduce the aortic flow environment in vitro.

Materials And Methods: Patient-specific normal and dissected aortic phantoms with 12 branching vessels were established and embedded into this MCL. Velocities for aortic branches based on 20 healthy volunteers were regarded as the standardized data for flow division. By altering boundary conditions, the proposed MCL could mimic normal resting and left-sided heart failure (LHF) conditions. Flow rates and pressure status of the aortic branches could be quantified by separate sensors.

Results: In normal resting condition, the simulated heart rate and systemic flow rate were 60 bpm and 4.85 L/minute, respectively. For the LHF condition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 75.94±0.77 mmHg and 57.65±0.35 mmHg, respectively. By tuning the vascular compliance and peripheral resistance, the flow distribution ratio (FDR) of each aortic branch was validated by the standardized data in the normal aortic phantom (mean difference 2.4%±1.70%). By comparing between the normal and dissected aortic models under resting condition, our results indicated that the AD model presented higher systolic (117.82±0.60 vs 108.75±2.26 mmHg) and diastolic (72.38±0.58 vs 70.46±2.33 mmHg) pressures, the time-average velocity in the true lumen (TL; 36.95 cm/s) was higher than that in the false lumen (FL; 22.95 cm/s), and the blood transport direction between the TL and FL varied in different re-entries.

Conclusions: The proposed MCL could be applied as a research tool for in vitro hemodynamic analysis of the aorta diseases under various physical conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15266028211034863DOI Listing
August 2021

Pilot study on the treatment of low carbon and nitrogen ratio municipal sewage by A1/O2/A3/A4/O5 sludge-membrane coupling process with multi-point inflow.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui, China.

A new multi-point inflow pre-anoxic/oxic/anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A1/O2/A3/A4/O5) sludge-membrane coupling process and pilot plant were developed and designed to solve the problem of nitrogen and phosphorus removal of low carbon and nitrogen (C/N) ratio domestic sewage in southern China. The removal effect and transformation rule of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the system were studied by changing the distribution ratio of multi-point influent. The average C/N ratio of the influent was 2.09 and the influent distribution ratio was 1:1. When the temperature was 16-25 °C, the average concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH- N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent were 21.31 (±2.65), 0.60 (±0.24), 12.76 (±1.09), and 0.34 (±0.05) mg/L, respectively, and their average removals are 87.3 (±1.2)%, 98.7 (±0.4)%, 74.1 (±1.3)%, and 88.1 (±0.4)% respectively. When the low temperature was 12-15 °C, the average removals were 78.6 (±1.1)%, 90.5 (±1.3)%, 73.7 (±1.13)%, and 86.6 (±1.7)%, respectively. Compared with the traditional anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A2O) process under the same conditions, the TN removal was increased by 15.4%, and the TP removal was increased by 22.2%. This system has obvious advantages in treating wastewater with low C/N ratio, thereby solving the problem wherein the effluent of biological phosphorus removal from low C/N ratio domestic sewage was difficult when it was lower than 0.5 mg/L.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15721-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Acid-Base Clusters during Atmospheric New Particle Formation in Urban Beijing.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Molecular clustering is the initial step of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) that generates numerous secondary particles. Using two online mass spectrometers with and without a chemical ionization inlet, we characterized the neutral clusters and the naturally charged ion clusters during NPF periods in urban Beijing. In ion clusters, we observed pure sulfuric acid (SA) clusters, SA-amine clusters, SA-ammonia (NH) clusters, and SA-amine-NH clusters. However, only SA clusters and SA-amine clusters were observed in the neutral form. Meanwhile, oxygenated organic molecule (OOM) clusters charged by a nitrate ion and a bisulfate ion were observed in ion clusters. Acid-base clusters correlate well with the occurrence of sub-3 nm particles, whereas OOM clusters do not. Moreover, with the increasing cluster size, amine fractions in ion acid-base clusters decrease, while NH fractions increase. This variation results from the reduced stability differences between SA-amine clusters and SA-NH clusters, which is supported by both quantum chemistry calculations and chamber experiments. The lower average number of dimethylamine (DMA) molecules in atmospheric ion clusters than the saturated value from controlled SA-DMA nucleation experiments suggests that there is insufficient DMA in urban Beijing to fully stabilize large SA clusters, and therefore, other basic molecules such as NH play an important role.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02701DOI Listing
August 2021

Translational GTPase BipA Is Involved in the Maturation of a Large Subunit of Bacterial Ribosome at Suboptimal Temperature.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:686049. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

BPI-inducible protein A (BipA), a highly conserved paralog of the well-known translational GTPases LepA and EF-G, has been implicated in bacterial motility, cold shock, stress response, biofilm formation, and virulence. BipA binds to the aminoacyl-(A) site of the bacterial ribosome and establishes contacts with the functionally important regions of both subunits, implying a specific role relevant to the ribosome, such as functioning in ribosome biogenesis and/or conditional protein translation. When cultured at suboptimal temperatures, the genomic deletion strain (Δ) exhibits defects in growth, swimming motility, and ribosome assembly, which can be complemented by a plasmid-borne supplementation or suppressed by the genomic deletion. Based on the growth curve, soft agar swimming assay, and sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis, mutation of the catalytic residue His78 rendered plasmid-borne unable to complement its deletion phenotypes. Interestingly, truncation of the C-terminal loop of BipA exacerbates the aforementioned phenotypes, demonstrating the involvement of BipA in ribosome assembly or its function. Furthermore, tandem mass tag-mass spectrometry analysis of the Δ strain proteome revealed upregulations of a number of proteins (e.g., DeaD, RNase R, CspA, RpoS, and ObgE) implicated in ribosome biogenesis and RNA metabolism, and these proteins were restored to wild-type levels by plasmid-borne supplementation or the genomic deletion, implying BipA involvement in RNA metabolism and ribosome biogenesis. We have also determined that BipA interacts with ribosome 50S precursor (pre-50S), suggesting its role in 50S maturation and ribosome biogenesis. Taken together, BipA demonstrates the characteristics of a 50S assembly factor in ribosome biogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.686049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313970PMC
July 2021

pMGF505-7R determines pathogenicity of African swine fever virus infection by inhibiting IL-1β and type I IFN production.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1009733. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Fundamental Immunology, National African Swine Fever Para-reference Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

Inflammatory factors and type I interferons (IFNs) are key components of host antiviral innate immune responses, which can be released from the pathogen-infected macrophages. African swine fever virus (ASFV) has developed various strategies to evade host antiviral innate immune responses, including alteration of inflammatory responses and IFNs production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inhibition of inflammatory responses and IFNs production by ASFV-encoded proteins has not been fully understood. Here we report that ASFV infection only induced low levels of IL-1β and type I IFNs in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), even in the presence of strong inducers such as LPS and poly(dA:dT). Through further exploration, we found that several members of the multigene family 360 (MGF360) and MGF505 strongly inhibited IL-1β maturation and IFN-β promoter activation. Among them, pMGF505-7R had the strongest inhibitory effect. To verify the function of pMGF505-7R in vivo, a recombinant ASFV with deletion of the MGF505-7R gene (ASFV-Δ7R) was constructed and assessed. As we expected, ASFV-Δ7R infection induced higher levels of IL-1β and IFN-β compared with its parental ASFV HLJ/18 strain. ASFV infection-induced IL-1β production was then found to be dependent on TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, we demonstrated that pMGF505-7R interacted with IKKα in the IKK complex to inhibit NF-κB activation and bound to NLRP3 to inhibit inflammasome formation, leading to decreased IL-1β production. Moreover, we found that pMGF505-7R interacted with and inhibited the nuclear translocation of IRF3 to block type I IFN production. Importantly, the virulence of ASFV-Δ7R is reduced in piglets compared with its parental ASFV HLJ/18 strain, which may due to induction of higher IL-1β and type I IFN production in vivo. Our findings provide a new clue to understand the functions of ASFV-encoded pMGF505-7R and its role in viral infection-induced pathogenesis, which might help design antiviral agents or live attenuated vaccines to control ASF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341718PMC
July 2021

Determination of the dynamic cellular transcriptional profiles during kidney development from birth to maturity in rats by single-cell RNA sequencing.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 24;7(1):162. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Neonatology, Tianjin Central Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tianjin, China.

Recent single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analyses have offered much insight into the gene expression profiles in early-stage kidney development. However, comprehensive gene expression profiles from mid- and late-stage kidney development are lacking. In the present study, by using the scRNA-seq technique, we analyzed 54,704 rat kidney cells from just after birth to adulthood (six time points: postnatal days 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 56) including the mid and late stages of kidney development. Twenty-five original clusters and 13 different cell types were identified during these stages. Gene expression in these 13 cell types was mapped, and single cell atlas of the rat kidney from birth to maturity ( http://youngbearlab.com ) was built to enable users to search for a gene of interest and to evaluate its expression in different cells. The variation trend of six major types of kidney cells-intercalated cells of the collecting duct (CD-ICs), principal cells of the collecting duct (CD-PCs), cells of the distal convoluted tubules (DCTs), cells of the loop of Henle (LOH), podocytes (PDs), and cells of the proximal tubules (PTs)-during six postnatal time points was demonstrated. The trajectory of rat kidney development and the order of induction of the six major types of kidney cells from just after birth to maturity were determined. In addition, features of the dynamically changing genes as well as transcription factors during postnatal rat kidney development were identified. The present study provides a resource for achieving a deep understanding of the molecular basis of and regulatory events in the mid and late stages of kidney development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00542-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257621PMC
June 2021

Perioperative management with biologics on severe aortic valve regurgitation caused by Behçet syndrome: the experience from a single center.

Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2021 22;12:20406223211026753. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Clinical Research Center for Dermatologic and Immunologic Diseases (NCRC-DID), State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, No.1 Shuaifuyuan Hutong, Dongcheng-qu, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: To investigate the efficacy and safety of biologics in the perioperative management of severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) caused by Behçet syndrome (BS).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with severe AR caused by BS who were all treated with biologics during the perioperative period of cardiac surgeries in our center between February 2016 and October 2020.

Results: A total of 20 patients with severe AR were enrolled, including 19 males and 1 female, with a mean age of 39.1 ± 8.8 years and a median course of 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 5.25-10.00] years. Before biologic administration, 92.9% of the patients who underwent aortic valve replacement had failed conventional therapy and developed postoperative paravalvular leakage (PVL) at a median interval of 4 months. Biologics were administered with background glucocorticoids (GCs) and immunosuppressants during the perioperative period for 22 aortic valve surgeries, including preoperatively with a median interval of 3.5 (IQR 2.75-4.25) months in 13 cases and within 3 months postoperatively in 9 cases. After a median follow up of 21 (IQR 15-32) months, 2 out of 13 cases (15.4%) preoperatively, and 1 out of 9 cases (11.1%) postoperatively treated with biologics developed PVL, and the rest were event free. The Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form score improved significantly (7 0, median,  < 0.0001). Decrease of erythrocyte sedimentation rate [25.0 (IQR 11.00-36.25) mm/h 6.5 (IQR 4.0-8.8) mm/h,  < 0.001], and C-reactive protein [20.77 (IQR 7.19-29.58) mg/l 1.53 (IQR 0.94-2.92) mg/l,  = 0.001] were achieved rapidly and effectively. The GC dosage tapered from 40 (IQR 30-60) mg/d to 10 (IQR 5-11.25) mg/d,  < 0.0001. Immunosuppressants were tapered in number and dosage in 6 (30%) and 20 patients (100%), respectively. No serious adverse event was observed.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that biologics were effective and well tolerated for the perioperative management of severe and refractory AR caused by BS, which significantly reduced the occurrence of postoperative PVL and had favorable GC- and immunosuppressant-sparing effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20406223211026753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221692PMC
June 2021

Predictive Ability of Ultraearly Hematoma Growth and Spot Sign for Redefined Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 30;30(9):105950. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Redefined hematoma expansion (rHE) including intraventricular hematoma expansion (IVHE) is a new concept in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with better prognostic ability compared to the conventional hematoma expansion. Ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign are both useful indictors to predict HE and poor clinical outcome. This study aims to explore the clinical characteristics of rHE in retrospective cohort and evaluate the predictive ability of uHG and spot sign in rHE.

Materials And Methods: This study included nontraumatic spontaneous ICH patients from June 1 2013 and January 1 2018 in West China Hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for HE/IVHE/rHE and primary outcomes of ICH patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of uHG and spot sign for predicting HE/IVHE/rHE.

Results: This retrospective cohort included 469 consecutive patients with ICH. rHE was significantly associated with clinical variables including Glasgow coma scale (GCS), time to initial CT, presence of IVH, hematoma volume, presence of spot sign, and uHG. uHG and spot sign were independent risk factors for rHE. ROC analysis indicated that both uHG (AUC 0.726, 95%CI 0.680-0.773) and spot sign (AUC 0.735, 95%CI 0.686-0.785) possessed high predictive accuracy for rHE. HE and rHE were independent risk factors for 1-month mortality and 3-month functional outcome.

Conclusions: Both uHG and the spot sign were considered to be good predictors for rHE, and the spot sign appeared to have a better predictive accuracy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105950DOI Listing
September 2021

Purification, Characterization, and Self-Assembly of the Polysaccharide from .

Foods 2021 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, 17 East Tsinghua Rd., Beijing 100083, China.

The major polysaccharide component from the stalk of (sP) was extracted and purified. Gel filtration chromatography purified sP exhibited a molecular weight of around 1.7 kDa, which was verified by MALDI-ToF-MS. The monosaccharide analysis revealed its composition as rhamnose: arabinose: galactose: glucose: mannose: fructose with a molar ratio of 0.03:2.46:3.71:3.35:1.00:9.93, respectively. The Congo-red assay indicated that there was no tertiary structure of this polysaccharide, however, it self-assembled into a homogenous nanoparticle with a diameter of ~600 nm as revealed by the dynamic light scattering measurement. The solution behavior of this polysaccharide was simulated. The association of this polysaccharide was both time dependent and concentration dependent. sP forms spherical particles spontaneously as time passes by, and when the sP concentration increased, the spherical particles increased their sizes and eventually merged into cylindrical micelles. The diversity of sP hydrodynamic behavior endowed potential versatility in its future applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230776PMC
June 2021

Prostatic fluid exosome-mediated microRNA-155 promotes the pathogenesis of type IIIA chronic prostatitis.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):1976-1987

Department of Urology, Southwest Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Background: The latest research has shown that exosomes play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and are closely related to the occurrence of many chronic inflammatory diseases. However, no studies have clarified whether exosomes are involved in the pathogenesis of aseptic inflammation, type IIIA chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS-A). This study aimed to explore the relationship between prostatic fluid exosomes and CP/CPPS-A and reveal new pathogenesis.

Methods: Our group collected prostatic fluid samples from CP/CPPS-A patients and normal adult men. Electron microscope, quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western Blot, nanoparticle tracking analysis, hematoxylin-and-eosin (HE) staining, immunofluorescence staining and miRNA-155 functional analysis were used to verify the role of exosomes in CP/CPPS-A and .

Results: Exosomes were abundantly enriched in the prostatic fluid of CP/CPPS-A patients and selectively overloaded with microRNA-155 (). These exosomes were taken up by prostatic stromal cells in large quantities. They activated interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression , and the integrity of the exosomes' plasma membrane is a necessary condition for information transmission by exosomes. In experiments, histological results showed that prostatic fluid exosomes induced prostatitis in rats. Also, immunofluorescence staining showed excessive activation of IL-8, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Conclusions: Exosomes in the prostatic fluid and the contained therein were may be involved with the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS-A.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185664PMC
May 2021

Blood Transfusion and Acute Kidney Injury After Total Aortic Arch Replacement for Acute Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection.

Heart Lung Circ 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Aortic Disease Center, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Aim: To evaluate the effect of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelet concentrate (PC) transfusions on acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) with total arch replacement (TAR).

Method: From December 2015 to October 2017, 421 consecutive patients with ATAAD undergoing TAR were included in the study. The clinical data of the patients and the amount of pRBCs, FFP, and PC were collected. Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Logistic regression was used to identify whether pRBCs, FFP, and platelet transfusions were risk factors for KDIGO AKI, stage 3 AKI, and AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).

Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 47.67±10.82 years; 77.7% were men; and the median time from aortic dissection onset to operation was 1 day (range, 0-2 days). The median transfusion amount was 8 units (range, 4-14 units) for pRBCs, 400 mL (range, 0-800 mL) for FFP, and no units (range, 0-2 units) for PC. Forty-one (41; 9.7%) patients did not receive any blood products. The rates of pRBC, PC, and FFP transfusions were 86.9%, 49.2%, and 72.9%, respectively. The incidence of AKI was 54.2%. Considering AKI as the endpoint, multivariate logistic regression showed that pRBCs (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; p<0.001) and PC transfusions (OR, 1.28; p=0.007) were independent risk factors. Considering KDIGO stage 3 AKI as the endpoint, multivariate logistic regression showed that pRBC transfusion (OR, 1.15; p<0.001), PC transfusion (OR, 1.28; p<0.001), a duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ≥293 minutes (OR, 2.95; p=0.04), and a creatinine clearance rate of ≤85 mL/minute (OR, 2.12; p=0.01) were independent risk factors. Considering RRT as the endpoint, multivariate logistic regression showed that pRBC transfusion (OR, 1.12; p<0.001), PC transfusion (OR, 1.33; p=0.001), a duration of CPB ≥293 minutes (OR, 3.79; p=0.02), and a creatinine clearance rate of ≤85 mL/minute (OR, 3.34; p<0.001) were independent risk factors.

Conclusions: Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes-defined stage AKI was common after TAR for ATAAD. Transfusions of pRBCs and PC increased the incidence of AKI, stage 3 AKI, and RRT. Fresh frozen plasma transfusion was not a risk factor for AKI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2021.05.087DOI Listing
June 2021

Chromosome-level genome assembly of a regenerable maize inbred line A188.

Genome Biol 2021 06 9;22(1):175. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, 4024 Throckmorton Center, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5502, USA.

Background: The maize inbred line A188 is an attractive model for elucidation of gene function and improvement due to its high embryogenic capacity and many contrasting traits to the first maize reference genome, B73, and other elite lines. The lack of a genome assembly of A188 limits its use as a model for functional studies.

Results: Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of A188 using long reads and optical maps. Comparison of A188 with B73 using both whole-genome alignments and read depths from sequencing reads identify approximately 1.1 Gb of syntenic sequences as well as extensive structural variation, including a 1.8-Mb duplication containing the Gametophyte factor1 locus for unilateral cross-incompatibility, and six inversions of 0.7 Mb or greater. Increased copy number of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (ccd1) in A188 is associated with elevated expression during seed development. High ccd1 expression in seeds together with low expression of yellow endosperm 1 (y1) reduces carotenoid accumulation, accounting for the white seed phenotype of A188. Furthermore, transcriptome and epigenome analyses reveal enhanced expression of defense pathways and altered DNA methylation patterns of the embryonic callus.

Conclusions: The A188 genome assembly provides a high-resolution sequence for a complex genome species and a foundational resource for analyses of genome variation and gene function in maize. The genome, in comparison to B73, contains extensive intra-species structural variations and other genetic differences. Expression and network analyses identify discrete profiles for embryonic callus and other tissues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02396-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188678PMC
June 2021

Naa10p and IKKα interaction regulates EMT in oral squamous cell carcinoma via TGF-β1/Smad pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 31;25(14):6760-6772. Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Disease, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been contributed to increase migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the correlate of Naa10p and IKKα with EMT in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not yet fully understood. In our present study, we found N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) and IκB kinase α (IKKα) were abnormally abundant in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Bioinformatic results indicate that the expression of Naa10p and IKKα is correlated with TGF-β1/Smad and EMT-related molecules. The Transwell migration, invasion, qRT-PCR and Western blot assay indicated that Naa10p repressed OSCC cell migration, invasion and EMT, whereas IKKα promoted TGF-β1-mediated OSCC cell migration, invasion and EMT. Mechanistically, Naa10p inhibited IKKα activation of Smad3 through the interaction with IKKα directly in OSCC cells after TGF-β1 stimulation. Notably, knockdown of Naa10p reversed the IKKα-induced change in the migration, invasion and EMT-related molecules in OSCC cells after TGF-β1 stimulation. These findings suggest that Naa10p interacted with IKKα mediates EMT in OSCC cells through TGF-β1/Smad, a novel pathway for preventing OSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278082PMC
July 2021

A Bayesian inference model for metamemory.

Psychol Rev 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University.

The dual-basis theory of metamemory suggests that people evaluate their memory performance based on both processing experience during the memory process and their prior beliefs about overall memory ability. However, few studies have proposed a formal computational model to quantitatively characterize how processing experience and prior beliefs are integrated during metamemory monitoring. Here, we introduce a Bayesian inference model for metamemory (BIM) which provides a theoretical and computational framework for the metamemory monitoring process. BIM assumes that when people evaluate their memory performance, they integrate processing experience and prior beliefs via Bayesian inference. We show that BIM can be fitted to recall or recognition tasks with confidence ratings on either a continuous or discrete scale. Results from data simulation indicate that BIM can successfully recover a majority of generative parameter values, and demonstrate a systematic relationship between parameters in BIM and previous computational models of metacognition such as the stochastic detection and retrieval model (SDRM) and the meta-d' model. We also show examples of fitting BIM to empirical data sets from several experiments, which suggest that the predictions of BIM are consistent with previous studies on metamemory. In addition, when compared with SDRM, BIM could more parsimoniously account for the data of judgments of learning (JOLs) and memory performance from recall tasks. Finally, we discuss an extension of BIM which accounts for belief updating, and conclude with a discussion of how BIM may benefit metamemory research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000270DOI Listing
May 2021

Heat shock preconditioning mesenchymal stem cells attenuate acute lung injury via reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 05 17;12(1):290. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Surgical Intensive Care Unit, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong Province, China.

Objectives: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and to date, there is no effective treatment for ALI. Previous studies have revealed that topical administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can attenuate the pathological changes in experimental acute lung injury. Heat shock (HS) pretreatment has been identified as a method to enhance the survival and function of cells. The present study aimed to assess whether HS-pretreated MSCs could enhance immunomodulation and recovery from ALI.

Materials And Methods: HS pretreatment was performed at 42 °C for 1 h, and changes in biological characteristics and secretion functions were detected. In an in vivo mouse model of ALI, we intranasally administered pretreated umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs), confirmed their therapeutic effects, and detected the phenotypes of the macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we cocultured pretreated UC-MSCs with macrophages in vitro, and the expression levels of inflammasome-related proteins in the macrophages were assessed.

Results: The data showed that UC-MSCs did not exhibit significant changes in viability or biological characteristics after HS pretreatment. The administration of HS-pretreated UC-MSCs to the ALI model improved the pathological changes and lung damage-related indexes, reduced the proinflammatory cytokine levels, and modulated the M1/M2 macrophage balance. Mechanistically, both the in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that HS pretreatment enhanced the protein level of HSP70 in UC-MSCs, which negatively modulated NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in alveolar macrophages. These effects were partially reversed by knocking down HSP70 expression.

Conclusion: HS pretreatment can enhance the beneficial effects of UC-MSCs in inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages during ALI. The mechanism may be related to the upregulated expression of HSP70.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02328-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127288PMC
May 2021

A nomogram to predict survival in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure after liver transplantation.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):555

Department of Hepatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Center, Organ Transplantation Institute, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Individualized prediction of survival after liver transplantation (LT) for patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) has not been well investigated. This study aimed to develop a prognostic nomogram for patients with HBV-ACLF undergoing LT.

Methods: The nomogram was derived from a retrospective study of 290 patients who underwent LT for HBV-ACLF at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between January 2012 and December 2017. Concordance index and determiner calibration curve was used to ascertain the predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of the nomogram. The predictive performance of the nomogram was compared with that of Child-Pugh score, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), MELD-Na, chronic liver failure Consortium Organ Failure score (CLIF-C OFs), and CLIF-C ACLF.

Results: The 1-year mortality rate was 23.1% (67/290). The Cox multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for 1-year survival rate included white blood cell count, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase ratio, and the organ failure numbers. The determiner calibration curve showed good agreement between prediction of the nomogram and actual observation. The concordance index of the nomogram for predicting 1-year survival was 0.707, which was significantly higher than that of other prognostic models: Child-Pugh score (0.626), MELD (0.627), MELD-Na (0.583), CLIF-C OF (0.674), and comparable to that of CLIF-C ACLF (0.684).

Conclusions: Our study developed a novel nomogram that could accurately predict individualized post-transplantation survival in patients with HBV-ACLF. The nomogram might be a useful tool for identifying HBV-ACLF patients who would benefit from LT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105851PMC
April 2021

Succinate Promotes Phagocytosis of Monocytes/Macrophages in Teleost Fish.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 15;8:644957. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Development of immunity-based strategy to manage bacterial infection is urgently needed in aquaculture due to the widespread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Phagocytosis serves as the first line defense in innate immunity that engulfs bacteria and restricts their proliferations and invasions. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of phagocytosis is not fully elucidated and the way to boost phagocytosis is not yet explored. In this manuscript, we profiled the metabolomes of monocytes/macrophages isolated from Nile tilapia, prior and after phagocytosis on . Monocytes/macrophages showed a metabolic shift following phagocytosis. Interestingly, succinate was accumulated after phagocytosis and was identified as a crucial biomarker to distinguish before and after phagocytosis. Exogenous succinate increased the phagocytotic rate of monocytes/macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was dependent on the TCA cycle as the inhibitor of malonate that targets succinate dehydrogenase abrogated the effect. Meanwhile, exogenous succinate regulated the expression of genes associated with innate immune and phagocytosis. In addition, succinate-potentiated phagocytosis was applicable to both gram-negative and -positive cells, including , and . Our study shed light on the understanding of how modulation on host's metabolism regulates immune response, and this can be a potent therapeutic approach to control bacterial infections in aquaculture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.644957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082191PMC
April 2021

The Genetic Variant of SARS-CoV-2: would It Matter for Controlling the Devastating Pandemic?

Int J Biol Sci 2021 10;17(6):1476-1485. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau SAR, China.

The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is far from being controlled despite the great effort that have been taken throughout the world. Herd immunity through vaccination is our major expectation to rein the virus. However, the emergence of widespread genetic variants could potentially undermine the vaccines. The evidence that some variants could evade immune responses elicited by vaccines and previous infection is growing. In this review, we summarized the current understanding on five notable genetic variants, i.e., D614G, Cluster 5, VOC 202012/01, 501Y.V2 and P.1, and discussed the potential impact of these variants on the virus transmission, pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. We also highlight that mutations in the N-terminal domain of spike protein should be considered when evaluating the antibody neutralization abilities. Among these genetic variants, a concern of genetic variant 501Y.V2 to escape the protection by vaccines was raised. We therefore call for new vaccines targeting this variant to be developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.59137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071763PMC
May 2021
-->