Publications by authors named "Jun Zhang"

6,814 Publications

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Insight investigation of the on-site activated sludge reduction induced by metabolic uncoupler: Effects of 2,6-dichlorophenol on soluble microbial products, microbial activity, and environmental impact.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;286(Pt 1):131575. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China.

Metabolic uncoupling technology was one of the methods widely used to on-site control the production of excess sludge in wastewater treatment processes. However, the uncoupler effects on soluble microbial products (SMP), microbial activity, and environment impact have few been reported. This study showed that sludge yield was reduced by 33.3% at 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) concentrations of 10 mg/L. The addition of 2,6-DCP also reduced the content of polysaccharide and protein in SMP, and the three-dimension excitation emission matrix (3D-EEM) suggested that the fluorescence intensities of humic acid-like, fulvic acid-like, and tryptophan protein-like substances decreased, proving that 2,6-DCP addition will weaken the interaction between microorganisms and the environmental matrix. Moreover, 2,6-DCP addition will change the microbial morphology and community of activated sludge. The active or respiring bacteria portion was lessened, and sludge flocs become dispersed, but it will not affect its settling performance. Surprisingly, 2,6-DCP has certain biodegradability and could be used as an environmentally friendly metabolic uncoupler under low-concentration dosing conditions. This study systematically evaluated the effect of 2,6-DCP on sludge production, SMP contents, microbial morphology, microbial community, demonstrating the environmental impact and application feasibility in the wastewater treatment systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131575DOI Listing
July 2021

Prediction of outflow parameters for a shower head.

Water Res 2021 Jul 15;202:117436. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Xiamen EASO Co.,Ltd., Xiamen 361021, Fujian Province, China.

Bathing or showering is one of the main pathways of water consumption. The shower head, as an important part of our bathing facilities, is directly related to water saving and bathing satisfaction. To design a water-saving and comfortable shower, it is extremely important to know its likely outflow parameters .In the resent research, the shower head structure and the water jet characteristics, and the Lagrangian control volume (CV) element integration method is used to establish a theoretical model describing the motion of the jet from the spray-holes of a shower head. The model also includes a method of calculation of the spraying force, considering the velocity distribution over the jet cross-section. The model can be used to predict jet parameters, spraying force, water temperature drop, and sprayed water volume distribution. To validate the predictions,experiments are conducted to measure the spraying force, temperature drop, and sprayed water volume distribution for the shower head. Comparisons between experiments and predictions show that the prediction accuracy of the model is satisfactory and the model can be adopted to evaluate the performance of the shower head. In addition, using the model, the salient jet parameters for the spraying hole are also simulated, and the influences of the flow rate and the size of the spraying hole on the motion of the jet can be assessed. These results guide research and development into water-conservation, energy-conservation, and comfort when showering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117436DOI Listing
July 2021

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in adults: preliminary report of an open-label and randomised phase 1 clinical trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths, and, since Aug 11, 2020, 20 intramuscular COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for use. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an aerosolised adenovirus type-5 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV) in adults without COVID-19 from China.

Method: This was a randomised, single-centre, open-label, phase 1 trial done in Zhongnan Hospital (Wuhan, China), to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Ad5-nCoV vaccine by aerosol inhalation in adults (≥18 years) seronegative for SARS-CoV-2. Breastfeeding or pregnant women and people with major chronic illnesses or history of allergies were excluded. Participants were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) into five groups to be vaccinated via intramuscular injection, aerosol inhalation, or both. Randomisation was stratified by sex and age (18-55 years or ≥56 years) using computer-generated randomisation sequences (block sizes of five). Only laboratory staff were masked to group assignment. The participants in the two aerosol groups received an initial high dose (2 × 10 viral particles; HDmu group) or low dose (1 × 10 viral particles; LDmu group) of Ad5-nCoV vaccine on day 0, followed by a booster on day 28. The mixed vaccination group received an initial intramuscular (5 × 10 viral particles) vaccine on day 0, followed by an aerosolised booster (2 × 10 viral particles) vaccine on day 28 (MIX group). The intramuscular groups received one dose (5 × 10 viral particles; 1Dim group) or two doses (10 × 10 viral particles; 2Dim group) of Ad5-nCoV on day 0. The primary safety outcome was adverse events 7 days after each vaccination, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor IgG antibody and SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody geometric mean titres at day 28 after last vaccination. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04552366.

Findings: Between Sept 28, 2020, and Sept 30, 2020, 230 individuals were screened for inclusion, of whom 130 (56%) participants were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned into one of the five groups (26 participants per group). Within 7 days after vaccination, adverse events occurred in 18 (69%) in the HDmu group, 19 (73%) in the LDmu group, 19 (73%) in the MIX group, 19 (73%) in the 1Dim group, and 15 (58%) in the 2Dim group. The most common adverse events reported 7 days after the first or booster vaccine were fever (62 [48%] of 130 participants), fatigue (40 [31%] participants), and headache (46 [35%] participants). More adverse events were reported in participants who received intramuscular vaccination, including participants in the MIX group (49 [63%] of 78 participants), than those who received aerosol vaccine (13 [25%] of 52 participants) after the first vaccine vaccination. No serious adverse events were noted within 56 days after the first vaccine. At days 28 after last vaccination, geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody was 107 (95% CI 47-245) in the HDmu group, 105 (47-232) in the LDmu group, 396 (207-758) in the MIX group, 95 (61-147) in the 1Dim group, and 180 (113-288) in the 2Dim group. The geometric mean concentrations of receptor binding domain-binding IgG was 261 EU/mL (95% CI 121-563) in the HDmu group, 289 EU/mL (138-606) in the LDmu group, 2013 EU/mL (1180-3435) in the MIX group, 915 EU/mL (588-1423) in the 1Dim group, and 1190 EU/mL (776-1824) in the 2Dim group.

Interpretation: Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is well tolerated, and two doses of aerosolised Ad5-nCoV elicited neutralising antibody responses, similar to one dose of intramuscular injection. An aerosolised booster vaccination at 28 days after first intramuscular injection induced strong IgG and neutralising antibody responses. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of aerosol vaccination should be evaluated in future studies.

Funding: National Key Research and Development Programme of China and National Science and Technology Major Project.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the Summary see Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00396-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Prenatal Exposure to Solar Radiation and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

BJOG 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To examine the association between prenatal exposure to solar radiation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP).

Design: A multicenter retrospective study.

Setting: 19 hospitals in the U.S.

Population: 205,888 women with singleton gestation from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002- 2008).

Main Outcome Measures: Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension.

Methods: Medical records of the participants were linked to solar radiation obtained from the National Solar Radiation Database. Average daily solar radiation of each woman was estimated over the entire pregnancy period and by three trimesters during pregnancy according to hospital sites. Generalized estimated equation was applied to investigate the relationship between quartiles of average daily solar radiation and HDP. Restricted cubic spline was applied to assess the nonlinear associations.

Results: Higher average solar radiation during the entire pregnancy was associated with reduced risks of HDP. Compared to the 1st quartile of solar radiation during the entire pregnancy, ORs of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72, 0.90), 0.63 (95% CI, 0.55, 0.73), 0.65 (95% CI, 0.54, 0.78) for gestational hypertension; 0.66 (95% CI, 0.57, 0.76), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.51, 0.73), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62, 0.95) for preeclampsia, and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.55), 0.42 (95% CI, 0.35, 0.49), 0.60 (95% CI, 0.46, 0.78) for superimposed preeclampsia.

Conclusion: Exposure to higher daily solar radiation during pregnancy is associated with a decreased risk of HDP. The protective effect was stronger for superimposed preeclampsia than for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16851DOI Listing
July 2021

Incidence rates of influenza illness during pregnancy in Suzhou, China, 2015-2018.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Suzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Suzhou, China.

Background: Data on influenza incidence during pregnancy in China are limited.

Methods: From October 2015 to September 2018, we conducted active surveillance for acute respiratory illness (ARI) among women during pregnancy. Nurses conducted twice weekly phone and text message follow-up upon enrollment until delivery to identify new episodes of ARI. Nasal and throat swabs were collected ≤10 days from illness onset to detect influenza.

Results: In total, we enrolled 18 724 pregnant women median aged 28 years old, 37% in first trimester, 48% in second trimester, and 15% in third trimester, with seven self-reported influenza vaccination during pregnancy. In the 18-week epidemic period during October 2015 to September 2016, influenza incidence was 0.7/100 person-months (95% CI: 0.5-0.9). In the cumulative 29-week-long epidemic during October 2016 to September 2017, influenza incidence was 1.0/100 person-months (95% CI: 0.8-1.2). In the 11-week epidemic period during October 2017 to September 2018, influenza incidence was 2.1/100 person-months (95% CI: 1.9-2.4). Influenza incidence was similar by trimester. More than half of the total influenza illnesses had no elevated temperature and cough. Most influenza-associated ARIs were mild, and <5.1% required hospitalization.

Conclusions: Influenza illness in all trimesters of pregnancy was common. These data may help inform decisions regarding the use of influenza vaccine to prevent influenza during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12888DOI Listing
July 2021

Decompression Using Minimally Invasive Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Associated with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: A Review.

Pain Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Integrative Medicine, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xixian District, Xi'an, 712046, Shaanxi, China.

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), which often occurs concurrently with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), is a common disease in the elderly population, affecting the quality of life of aged people significantly. Notwithstanding the frequently good effect of conservative therapy on LSS, a minority of the patients ultimately require surgery. Surgery for LSS aims to decompress the narrowed spinal canals with preservation of spinal stability. Traditional open surgery, either pure decompression or decompression with fusion, was considered effective for the treatment of LSS with or without DS. However, the long-term clinical outcomes of traditional open surgery are still unclear. Moreover, the disadvantages of conventional open surgery are extensive, examples including tissue injuries or secondary instability, with limited outcomes and significant reoperation rates. With the development and improvement of surgical tools, various minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) methods, including indirect decompression techniques of interspinous process devices (IPDs) and direct decompression techniques such as microscopic spine surgery or endoscopic spine surgery (ESS), have been updated with enhancement. IPDs, such as Superion devices, were reported to behave with comparable physical function, disability, and symptoms outcomes to laminectomy decompression. As an emerging technique of MISS, ESS has beneficial hallmarks including minimal tissue injuries, reduced complication rates, and shortened recovery periods, thus gaining popularity in recent years. ESS can be classified in terms of endoscopic hallmarks and approaches. Predictably, with the continuous development and gradual maturity, MISS is expected to replace traditional open surgery widely in the surgical treatment of LSS associated with DS in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-021-00293-6DOI Listing
July 2021

The Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Health in North China From 2006 to 2011: Results From the KaiLuan Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:683416. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Cardiology, Kailuan General Hospital, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, China.

The American Heart Association (AHA) defined cardiovascular health in terms of four behaviors (smoking, diet, physical activity, body weight) and three factors (plasma glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure). By this definition, the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors is negatively correlated with all-cause mortality and risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and malignancy. We analyzed the trends in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health behaviors and factors in the population of the KaiLuan study for 2006-2011, reported the results, and provided evidence for prevention. We calculated the prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health behaviors and factors from KaiLuan data for 2006-2007, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health behaviors and factors is low in the KaiLuan population. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health behaviors and factors is low in the KaiLuan population. http://www.chictr.org/cn/proj/show.aspx?proj=1441, unique identifier: ChiCTR-TNC-11001489.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.683416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310945PMC
July 2021

Hyperoside prevents sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction through regulating cardiomyocyte viability and inflammation via inhibiting miR-21.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 1;138:111524. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gynecology, Weifang Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Weifang 261011, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction results in increased mortality. Hyperoside (Hyp) is a flavonoid, showing significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, its pharmacological effects on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction remain unknown. In this study, we attempted to explore whether Hyp could prevent cardiac dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms.

Methods: We established a mice mode of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) treatment, and constructed a cell model of myocardial injury by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The cardiac function indicators and the inflammatory cytokine levels were measured. Effect of Hyp on cardiomyocyte viability was evaluated using MTT assay. The expression and functional role of microRNA-21 (miR-21), a documented molecule that regulated by Hyp, was evaluated in the constructed models, and the potential targets of miR-21 were predicted.

Results: Hyp alleviated the impaired cardiac function and stimulated inflammation caused by CLP in the in vivo sepsis model, and alleviated the LPS-induced decrease in cell viability and increase in inflammation of cardiomyocytes. Additionally, Hyp significantly inhibited the expression of miR-21 in LPS-induced cardiomyocytes, and the increased cell viability and decreased inflammation caused by Hyp in the in vitro model could be reversed by miR-21 overexpression. In animal model of sepsis, the protective influence of Hyp against sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction was attenuated by miR-21 upregulation.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that Hyp may serve as a promising natural drug for the treatment of sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction, and its protective role may exerted through regulating cardiomyocyte viability and inflammation by suppressing miR-21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111524DOI Listing
June 2021

Signal Extraction, Transformation, and Magnification for Ultrasensitive and Specific Detection of Nucleic Acids.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, China.

Nucleic acid noises caused by the background and nonspecificity amplifications can jeopardize accurate polymerization and detection of nucleic acids, especially when they are analyzed in low copies. We hypothesize to reduce the noises by designing a system for specific signal extraction, transformation, and magnification to improve the specificity and sensitivity. Herein, by developing an extractor-trigger complex (ET-Combo) for the system, we have established isothermal and hybridizing combined amplifications: a one-pot detection system with two-step amplification coupled by ET-Combo. To our surprise, the signal extraction is only successful when ET-Combo is included in the first amplification. Our signal extracting, filtering, and relaying system with ET-Combo is rapid and specific, removing the noises generated during the isothermal amplification under elevated temperatures. To match the first amplification, we have designed and established a hybridizing chain reaction at high temperature. This one-pot system can resist disruption of background noises and allow detection of DNA up to five copies (single digit). With the high sensitivity, specificity, and noise resistance, our system has been successfully used to diagnose clinical samples of human papillomavirus (HPV) with the genotyping specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01812DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and Validation of Noninvasive MRI-Based Signature for Preoperative Prediction of Early Recurrence in Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

Background: Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of hepatobiliary tumor. For perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA), patients who experience early recurrence (ER) have a poor prognosis. Preoperative accurate prediction of postoperative ER can avoid unnecessary operation; however, prediction is challenging.

Purpose: To develop a novel signature based on clinical and/or MRI radiomics features of pCCA to preoperatively predict ER.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: One hundred eighty-four patients (median age, 61.0 years; interquartile range: 53.0-66.8 years) including 115 men and 69 women.

Field Strength/sequence: A 1.5 T; volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequence.

Assessment: The models were developed from the training set (128 patients) and validated in a separate testing set (56 patients). The contrast-enhanced arterial and portal vein phase MR images of hepatobiliary system were used for extracting radiomics features. The correlation analysis, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression (LR), backward stepwise LR were mainly used for radiomics feature selection and modeling (Model ). The univariate and multivariate backward stepwise LR were used for preoperative clinical predictors selection and modeling (Model ). The radiomics and preoperative clinical predictors were combined by multivariate LR method to construct clinic-radiomics nomogram (Model ).

Statistical Tests: Chi-squared (χ ) test or Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U-test or t-test, Delong test. Two tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Based on the comparison of area under the curves (AUC) using Delong test, Model and Model had significantly better performance than Model and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system in training set. In the testing set, both Model and Model had significantly better performance than TNM system, whereas only Model was significantly superior to Model . However, the AUC values were not significantly different between Model and Model (P = 0.156 for training set and P = 0.439 for testing set).

Data Conclusion: A noninvasive model combining the MRI-based radiomics signature and clinical variables is potential to preoperatively predict ER for pCCA.

Level Of Evidence: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27846DOI Listing
July 2021

The bioequivalence of a single dose of a generic solifenacin succinate tablet or vesicare in fasting or postprandial healthy Chinese adults.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Objective: The present study evaluated the bioequivalence of the test preparation (5 mg generic solifenacin succinate tablet, produced by Jiangsu Deyuan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) or the reference preparation (5 mg solifenacin succinate tablets with the trade name vesicare, produced by Astellas Pharma Europe B.V.) in either fasting or postprandial states in healthy Chinese subjects.

Materials And Methods: The present study was designed as an open-label, randomized, single-center, single-dose, dual-cycle, dual-crossover, fasting/postprandial study. 56 healthy Chinese subjects (28 each in the fasting and postprandial groups) were enrolled. WinNolin software (version 7.0 or above) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters.

Results: In the fasting and postprandial group, pharmacokinetic analysis and bioequivalence analysis were carried out based on the blood concentration-time data. The 90% confidence interval of the geometric mean ratio of C, AUC, and AUC of the test preparation and the reference preparation were both within the acceptance range of 80.00 - 125.00%.

Conclusion: A single administration of a 5-mg tablet of either the test preparation, generic solifenacin succinate, or the reference preparation, solifenacin succinate with the brand-name vesicare, was safe and bioequivalent in healthy Chinese subjects in either fasting or postprandial states according to the criteria of bioequivalence of the State Drug Administration of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP203860DOI Listing
July 2021

The effect of metformin on mortality and severity in COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 21:108977. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Forensic Pathology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Aim: COVID-19 has spread globally with heavy impact on most countries and our therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 patients with diabetes are still limited. Recently, some new information was added to this field. We performed this updated meta-analysis to reveal the underlying effect of metformin on COVID-19 patients with diabetes.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases for all articles. The odds ratio (OR) corresponding to the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the effect of metformin on COVID-19 patients with diabetes. The statistical heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the Q-test and I statistics.

Results: we collected 17 studies including 20,719 COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Our results found that metformin was associated with significantly decreased mortality and severity in COVID-19 patients with diabetes (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.51 - 0.79 for mortality, and OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 - 0.99 for severity).

Conclusions: our meta-analysis indicated that following metformin treatment might benefit the patients with T2DM, both the mortality and severity. However, patients with severe COVID-19 should be monitored closely for the development of lactic acidosis, acidosis, and decreased kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295100PMC
July 2021

Oxygen-Independent Photocleavage of Radical Nanogenerator for Near-IR-Gated and H O-Mediated Free-Radical Nanotherapy.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 24:e2100129. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, P. R. China.

The oxygen-dependent nature and limited penetration capacity of visible light render the low efficiency of photodynamic therapy in hypoxic and deep-seated tumors. Therefore, the development of oxygen-free photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species by near-IR (NIR) light-cleavable photocages is in high demand. Here, an oxygen-irrelevant PACT strategy based on NIR light-triggered hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generation is developed for free-radical nanotherapy. Blebbistatin-loaded upconversion of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (UCSNs-B) is established to facilitate the high loading efficiency of blebbistatin and implement the efficient transformation of NIR light into blue light for unprecedented direct photorelease of oxygen-independent •OH. Under NIR laser irradiation, UCSNs-B converted NIR light into blue light, thus enabling the photocleavage of blebbistatin to induce the burst of •OH. The •OH burst under NIR laser irradiation further induces cancer cell apoptosis and significant suppression of hypoxic tumors. In addition, the gadolinium ion (Gd )-doped UCSNs-B are used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging to facilitate real-time monitoring of the therapeutic processes. This study effectively demonstrates that the UCSNs-B act as NIR light-triggered photocages to facilitate oxygen-irrelevant •OH bursts, thus providing insights into the development of efficient PACT nanoagents for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100129DOI Listing
July 2021

The Bidirectional Relationship between Body Weight and Depression across Gender: A Simultaneous Equation Approach.

Authors:
Jun Zhang

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 19;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Renmin University of China, No. 59 Zhongguancun Ave., Beijing 100872, China.

Purpose: This study investigates the bidirectional relationship between body weight and depression for both males and females in the U.S.

Methods: Data are drawn from the 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and a simultaneous ordered probability system is estimated with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to accommodate the two-way causality between depression and body weight categories. The variable of depression is measured by individuals' past depressive records and current mental health status.

Results: Depression and body weight are found to affect each other positively for both males and females on average. In a randomized population, the results of average treatment effects suggest significant body weight differences between depressed and non-depressed individuals. Age and other sociodemographic factors affect body weight differently between genders and between the people with depression and those without.

Conclusion: The positive bidirectional relationship between body weight and depression is found. The effect of depression on body weight is significant among both males and females in a randomized population, and females who experience depression are most likely to be obese and less likely to have normal weight compared to females without depression. The risks of overweight and obesity are high among people who are less educated or unable, who have poor health statuses, and who had high blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304982PMC
July 2021

How Energy Supports Our Brain to Yield Consciousness: Insights From Neuroimaging Based on the Neuroenergetics Hypothesis.

Authors:
Yali Chen Jun Zhang

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 6;15:648860. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Consciousness is considered a result of specific neuronal processes and mechanisms in the brain. Various suggested neuronal mechanisms, including the information integration theory (IIT), global neuronal workspace theory (GNWS), and neuronal construction of time and space as in the context of the temporospatial theory of consciousness (TTC), have been laid forth. However, despite their focus on different neuronal mechanisms, these theories neglect the energetic-metabolic basis of the neuronal mechanisms that are supposed to yield consciousness. Based on the findings of physiology-induced (sleep), pharmacology-induced (general anesthesia), and pathology-induced [vegetative state/unresponsive wakeful syndrome (VS/UWS)] loss of consciousness in both human subjects and animals, we, in this study, suggest that the energetic-metabolic processes focusing on ATP, glucose, and γ-aminobutyrate/glutamate are indispensable for functional connectivity (FC) of normal brain networks that renders consciousness possible. Therefore, we describe the energetic-metabolic predispositions of consciousness (EPC) that complement the current theories focused on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2021.648860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291083PMC
July 2021

Associations between prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain and weight catch-up in small-for-gestational-age children.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 Jul 22:e13235. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Xinhua Hospital, MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Department of Child and Adolescent Healthcare, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) was related with a higher incidence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births than appropriate GWG; however, the long-term association of maternal GWG with weight catch-up growth in SGA children remains unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the associations between prepregnancy body mass index (pBMI), GWG and weight catch-up patterns in SGA children. Data were from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, an American multicentre prospective cohort study. A total of 56,990 gravidas were recruited at the first prenatal visit, and children were followed up until school age. Maternal pBMI, GWG and physical growth of the offspring at birth, 4 months, 1 year, 4 years and 7 years old were recorded. The latent class analysis was employed to form weight catch-up growth patterns (appropriate, excessive, slow, regression and no catch-up patterns) in SGA children. SGA children who developed the 'appropriate catch-up growth' pattern and whose mothers had appropriate pBMI and GWG were chosen as the reference. Associations between GWG for different pBMI and weight catch-up patterns were analysed by multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 1619 infants (9.45%) were born term SGA. After adjusting for relevant confounders, compared with SGA children whose mothers had appropriate pBMI and GWG, SGA children with maternal prepregnancy underweight (for inadequate GWG, GWG below recommendations, adjusted OR: 2.88, 95% CI: 1.13-7.31; for appropriate/excessive GWG, adjusted OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.74-5.42) or with prepregnancy normal weight but inadequate GWG (adjusted OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.36-3.38) were at a higher risk of having the 'no catch-up growth' pattern. We suggest that SGA children with maternal prepregnancy underweight or inadequate GWG tend to have a poor weight catch-up growth at least until school age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13235DOI Listing
July 2021

Metabolic iron detection through divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin mediated cocktail fluorogenic probes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

A cocktail [1 + 2] dual-fluorescent probe system was developed to realize the real-time visualization of dynamic iron state changes between Fe2+ and Fe3+ at the cellular level and in multicellular organisms, providing insights into the effect of DMT1 and ferroportin on iron regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03150cDOI Listing
July 2021

A recombinant spike protein subunit vaccine confers protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in hamsters.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences & School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, P. R. China.

Multiple safe and effective vaccines that elicit immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are necessary to respond to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we developed a protein subunit vaccine comprised of spike ectodomain protein (StriFK) plus a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH002C). StriFK-FH002C generated substantially higher neutralizing antibody titers in mice, hamsters, and cynomolgus monkeys than those observed in plasma isolated from COVID-19 convalescent individuals. StriFK-FH002C also induced both Th1- and Th2-polarized helper T cell responses in mice. In hamsters, StriFK-FH002C immunization protected animals against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, as shown by absence of virus-induced weight loss, fewer symptoms of disease, and reduced lung pathology. Vaccination of hamsters with StriFK-FH002C also reduced within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated, cohoused hamsters. In summary, StriFK-FH002C represents an effective, protein subunit-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abg1143DOI Listing
July 2021

Diffuse Linear Pattern of Pericardial FDG Activity in Pericardial Metastasis From Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

From the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Navy Medical University Department of Pathology, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Abstract: Pericardial metastasis usually shows focal pericardial FDG activity. Diffuse linear pattern of pericardial FDG activity is uncommon. We present a case of pericardial metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma showing diffuse linear pericardial FDG activity mimicking tuberculous pericarditis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003824DOI Listing
July 2021

Species-specific gamete recognition initiates fusion-driving trimer formation by conserved fusogen HAP2.

Nat Commun 2021 07 19;12(1):4380. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Recognition and fusion between gametes during fertilization is an ancient process. Protein HAP2, recognized as the primordial eukaryotic gamete fusogen, is a structural homolog of viral class II fusion proteins. The mechanisms that regulate HAP2 function, and whether virus-fusion-like conformational changes are involved, however, have not been investigated. We report here that fusion between plus and minus gametes of the green alga Chlamydomonas indeed requires an obligate conformational rearrangement of HAP2 on minus gametes from a labile, prefusion form into the stable homotrimers observed in structural studies. Activation of HAP2 to undergo its fusogenic conformational change occurs only upon species-specific adhesion between the two gamete membranes. Following a molecular mechanism akin to fusion of enveloped viruses, the membrane insertion capacity of the fusion loop is required to couple formation of trimers to gamete fusion. Thus, species-specific membrane attachment is the gateway to fusion-driving HAP2 rearrangement into stable trimers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24613-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289870PMC
July 2021

Delineation of the Urban-Rural Boundary through Data Fusion: Applications to Improve Urban and Rural Environments and Promote Intensive and Healthy Urban Development.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 5;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

School of Architecture and Planning, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China.

As one of the most important methods for limiting urban sprawl, the accurate delineation of the urban-rural boundary not only promotes the intensive use of urban resources, but also helps to alleviate the urban issues caused by urban sprawl, realizing the intensive and healthy development of urban cities. Previous studies on delineating urban-rural boundaries were only based on the level of urban and rural development reflected by night-time light (NTL) data, ignoring the differences in the spatial development between urban and rural areas; so, the comprehensive consideration of NTL and point of interest (POI) data can help improve the accuracy of urban-rural boundary delineation. In this study, the NTL and POI data were fused using wavelet transform, and then the urban-rural boundary before and after data fusion was delineated by multiresolution segmentation. Finally, the delineation results were verified. The verification result shows that the accuracy of delineating the urban-rural boundary using only NTL data is 84.20%, and the Kappa value is 0.6549; the accuracy using the fusion of NTL and POI data on the basis of wavelet transform is 93.2%, and the Kappa value is 0.8132. Therefore, we concluded that the proposed method of using wavelet transform to fuse NTL and POI data considers the differences between urban and rural development, which significantly improves the accuracy of the delineation of urban-rural boundaries. Accurate delineation of urban-rural boundaries is helpful for optimizing internal spatial structure in both urban and rural areas, alleviating environmental problems resulting from urban development, assisting the formulation of development policies for urban and rural fringes, and promoting the intensive and healthy development of urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296865PMC
July 2021

Can AI-assisted microscope facilitate breast HER2 interpretation? A multi-institutional ring study.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pathology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 12 Jiankang Road, Shijiazhuang, 050011, Hebei, China.

The level of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) protein and gene expression in breast cancer is an essential factor in judging the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Several investigations have shown high intraobserver and interobserver variability in the evaluation of HER2 staining by visual examination. In this study, we aim to propose an artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted microscope to improve the HER2 assessment accuracy and reliability. Our AI-assisted microscope was equipped with a conventional microscope with a cell-level classification-based HER2 scoring algorithm and an augmented reality module to enable pathologists to obtain AI results in real time. We organized a three-round ring study of 50 infiltrating duct carcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS) cases without neoadjuvant treatment, and recruited 33 pathologists from 6 hospitals. In the first ring study (RS1), the pathologists read 50 HER2 whole-slide images (WSIs) through an online system. After a 2-week washout period, they read the HER2 slides using a conventional microscope in RS2. After another 2-week washout period, the pathologists used our AI microscope for assisted interpretation in RS3. The consistency and accuracy of HER2 assessment by the AI-assisted microscope were significantly improved (p < 0.001) over those obtained using a conventional microscope and online WSI. Specifically, our AI-assisted microscope improved the precision of immunohistochemistry (IHC) 3 + and 2 + scoring while ensuring the recall of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-positive results in IHC 2 + . Also, the average acceptance rate of AI for all pathologists was 0.90, demonstrating that the pathologists agreed with most AI scoring results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03154-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Rationally Constructed Surface Energy and Dynamic Hard Domains Balance Mechanical Strength and Self-Healing Efficiency of Energetic Linear Polymer Materials.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Polymeric materials that simultaneously possess excellent mechanical properties and high self-healing ability at room temperature, convenient healing, and facile fabrication are always a huge challenge. Herein, we report on surface-energy-driven self-healing energetic linear polyurethane elastomers (EPU) that were facilely fabricated by two-step methods to acquire high healing efficiency and mechanical properties. By constructing surface energy and dynamic hard domains, energetic linear polyurethane elastomers not only obtained high healing ability and mechanical properties at high or room temperature but also avoid the use of some assisted healing conditions and complex chemical structure design and decrease manufacturing difficulty. Based on the interfacial healing physical model, various trends of surface tension, radius, and depth of the crack bottom were calculated to analyze the healing mechanism. We propose that polyurethane elastomers with low junction density could generate excess surface energy resulting from damage and drive self-healing, and incorporating a small amount of disulfide bonds increases the slightly packed hard phase and decreases the healing energy barrier. This work may offer a novel strategy for improving mechanical tensile and healing ability in the field of self-healing material application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00939DOI Listing
July 2021

Detrimental or beneficial: Role of endothelial ENaC in vascular function.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Departments of Pharmacy and Cardiology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Institute of Metabolic Disease, Heilongjiang Academy of Medical Science, Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Metabolic Disorder & Cancer Related Cardiovascular Diseases, NHC Key Laboratory of Cell Transplantation, Harbin Medical University & Key Laboratories of Education Ministry for Myocardial Ischemia Mechanism and Treatment, Harbin, China.

In the past, it was believed that the expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) was restricted to epithelial tissues, such as the distal nephron, airway, sweat glands, and colon, where it is critical for sodium homeostasis. Over the past two decades, this paradigm has shifted due to the finding that ENaC is also expressed in various nonepithelial tissues, notably in vascular endothelial cells. In this review, the recent findings of the expression, regulation, and function of the endothelial ENaC (EnNaC) are discussed. The expression of EnNaC subunits is reported in a variety of endothelial cell lines and vasculatures, but this is controversial across different species and vessels and is not a universal finding in all vascular beds. The expression density of EnNaC is very faint compared to ENaC in the epithelium. To date, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of EnNaC. Through it can be regulated by aldosterone, the detailed downstream signaling remains elusive. EnNaC responds to increased extracellular sodium with the feedforward activation mechanism, which is quite different from the Na self-inhibition mechanism of ENaC. Functionally, EnNaC was shown to be a determinant of cellular mechanics and vascular tone as it can sense shear stress, and its activation or insertion into plasma membrane causes endothelial stiffness and reduced nitric oxide production. However, in some blood vessels, EnNaC is essential for maintaining the integrity of endothelial barrier function. In this context, we discuss the possible reasons for the distinct role of EnNaC in vasculatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30505DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification and comparison of novel circular RNAs with associated co-expression and competing endogenous RNA networks in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jul 16;16(1):459. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road No. 79, Hangzhou, 310001, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulators in various human diseases. So far, the expression profile and regulatory mechanism of circRNAs in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) are less studied and should be deciphered urgently. Herein, we aimed to reveal key circRNAs affecting PMOP and clarify their compounding regulatory actions.

Methods: To reveal key circRNAs affecting PMOP and clarify their compounding regulatory actions, whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs). The expression pattern and regulatory networks of DECs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were unearthed.

Results: A total of 373 DECs comprising 123 intronic, 100 antisense, 70 exonic, 55 intergenic, and 25 sense-overlapping circRNAs were identified. Among these, 73 circRNAs were upregulated and 300 were downregulated. These DECs exerted pivotal functions in the pathogenesis of PMOP as demonstrated by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA co-expression network comprising 28 DECs, 145 miRNAs, and 175 differentially expressed mRNAs predicted the possible mechanism of the pathogenesis and progression of PMOP.

Conclusion: The results of the present study provided a further comprehension of circRNA-associated competing endogenous RNA regulatory mechanism in PMOP. The steadily expressed and disease-specific DECs may serve as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for PMOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02604-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285836PMC
July 2021

Insight into the Improvement Effect of Nitrogen Dopant in Ag/CoO Nanocubes for Soot Oxidation: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 8;420:126604. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment and Pollution Control (SCUT), Guangzhou 510640, China; National Engineering Laboratory for VOCs Pollution Control Technology and Equipment (SCUT), Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

Different doping amounts of N-doped Ag/CoO nanocubes were synthesized for the first time for catalytic soot oxidation. The N-doped sample exhibited remarkably improved catalytic activity, of which the maximum decrease in temperature for 90% soot conversion was almost 40 ℃. Characterization results analyzed by TEM, XPS, EPR, H-TPR, O-TPD, etc. revealed that the incorporation of N atoms can alter the electronic structure, leading to the generation of more oxygen vacancies and enhancement of lattice oxygen mobility. Meanwhile, larger surface area, rugged morphology and promoted reducibility also contribute to the performance improvement. DFT calculations on the differential charge density, Gibbs free energy, etc. were performed to investigate the intrinsic reasons on an atomic level. Due to the relatively higher electronegativity, N dopant could be an electron-appealing center to promote efficient electron transfer, resulting in the redistribution of charge density and formation of conductive Co-N bonds. This variation in electronic structure favors lowering the formation energy of oxygen vacancies and facilitating the activation of the lattice oxygen originated from the highly hybridized Co-O bonds, which ultimately reduces the activation barriers for reactants/intermediates and accelerates the reaction kinetics. This study evidenced that N doping could be an effective strategy to promote catalytic soot oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126604DOI Listing
July 2021

Predictive factors associated with the clinical outcome of intertrochanteric hip fracture in high-risk elderly patients treated with total hip arthroplasty versus percutaneous external fixation.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):740

Joint Disease & Sport Medicine Center, Department of Orthopedics, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Little is known regarding the survival and functional recovery of elderly intertrochanteric hip fracture (IHF) patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA) versus percutaneous external fixation (PEF). This study aims to analyze the prognostic factors of THA and PEF in elderly IHF patients.

Methods: A total of 155 consecutive elderly patients (mean age of 80 years) diagnosed with IHF were retrospectively reviewed from our database between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2018. The preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative covariates were analyzed by two independent surgical cohorts: THA and PEF. The main outcomes included the hip function score, all-cause mortality within 1 year after surgery, and overall survival. Covariables and their influence on independent outcomes were analyzed using multivariate regression models.

Results: The median follow-up period was 5.1 years, and 6 patients were lost to follow-up. At the endpoint, 70 of 85 patients treated with THA and 37 of 70 patients treated with PEF survived, exhibiting mean Harris hip scores of 84.4 and 69.0, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests showed no significant difference in overall survival. After adjusting for the covariates, the surgical mode was a unique prognostic factor affecting hip function recovery, and two prognostic factors (leukocyte count and D-dimer) were correlated with 1-year all-cause mortality. Age at admission, fracture classification, D-dimer level and surgical mode were identified as prognostic factors affecting overall survival. After adjusting for the former three covariates, THA reduced the risk of death by 67.20% compared with PEF (HR 0.328, 95% CI, 0.121-0.890).

Conclusions: Despite the nonsignificant difference in 1-year all-cause mortality, THA demonstrated superior midterm survival and hip function recovery in elderly IHF patients compared with PEF. Predictive factors, including age at admission, fracture classification, D-dimer level and surgical mode, are associated with the overall survival of IHF in high-risk elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-8037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246164PMC
May 2021

Graphic-processable deep neural network for the efficient prediction of 2D diffractive chiral metamaterials.

Appl Opt 2021 Jul;60(19):5691-5698

We propose a novel, to the best of our knowledge, graphic-processable deep neural network (DNN) to automatically predict and elucidate the optical chirality of two-dimensional (2D) diffractive chiral metamaterials. Four classes of 2D chiral metamaterials are studied here, with material components changing among Au, Ag, Al, and Cu. The graphic-processable DNN algorithm can not only handle arbitrary 2D images representing any metamaterials that may even go beyond human intuition, but also capture the influence of other parameters such as thickness and material composition, which are rarely explored in the field of metamaterials, laying the groundwork for future research into more complicated nanostructures and nonlinear optical devices. Notably, the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm is first deployed to calculate circular dichroism (CD) in the higher-order diffraction beams and simultaneously promote the training of DNN. For the first time we creatively encode the material component and thickness of the metamaterials into the color images serving as input of the graphic-processable DNN, in addition to arbitrary graphical parameters. Especially, the smallest intensity is found in the third-order diffraction beams of E-like metamaterials, whose CD response turns out to be the largest. A comprehensive study is conducted to capture the influence of shape, unit period, thickness, and material component of arrays on chiroptical response. As expected, a satisfied precision and an accelerated computing speed that is 4 orders of magnitude quicker than RCWA are both achieved using DNN. This work belongs to one of the first attempts to thoroughly examine the generalization ability of the graphic-processable DNN for the study of arbitrary-shaped nanostructures and hypersensitive nanodevices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.428581DOI Listing
July 2021

Interaction between antibiotic use and MS4A2 gene polymorphism on childhood eczema: a prospective birth cohort study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jul 14;21(1):314. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Xin Hua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: Eczema is usually the first allergic manifestation to appear in life attributed to gene-environment interactions. IL13, IL4, MS4A2 and ILR4A are four key inflammatory genes associated with atopy. This study aimed to explore gene-environment interactions on eczema in early life among the above four genes and environmental factors in Chinese Han children.

Methods: Five hundred ninety-seven children from a birth cohort who completed two-year follow-up were enrolled and their cord blood was collected. Subjects were genotyped for six polymorphisms in the aforementioned four genes. The children were followed at 6, 12 and 24 months, with epidemiologic information and medical history of eczema collected by questionnaire and eczema assessed by dermatologists.

Results: Among the 597 children, 168 were diagnosed with eczema and the others were not after 2 years of follow-up. MS4A2 rs569108 GG genotype (P = 1.68E-02, odds ratio (OR) = 4.66) and antibiotic use (P = 3.75E-4, OR = 2.02) were found independently associated with development of childhood eczema. Children with both antibiotic use and MS4A2 rs569108 GG genotype were more likely to develop eczema than those with only antibiotic use or GG homozygote (OR = 6.24 VS. 2.04 or 4.68).

Conclusions: MS4A2 rs569108 polymorphism and antibiotic use were solely associated with eczema, and they interacted with each other to increase the risk of developing the disease in Chinese Han toddlers. Long-term follow-up along with functional and replication studies are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02786-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278718PMC
July 2021

Assembling BH3-mimic peptide into a nanocluster to target intracellular Bcl2 towards the apoptosis induction of cancer cell.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Xi'an Jiaotong University, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 7100004, China, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 7100004, CHINA.

Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, is always overexpressed in tumor cells to suppress the pro-apoptotic function of Bax, thereby prolonging the life of tumor. However, BH3 proteins could directly activate Bax via antagonizing Bcl-2 to induce apoptosis in response to the stimulation. Thus, mimicking BH3 proteins with a peptide is a potential strategy for anti-cancer therapy. Unfortunately, clinical translation of BH3-mimic peptide is hindered by its inefficacious cellular internalization and proteolysis resistance. Herein, we translated a BH3-mimic peptide into a peptide-auric spheroidal nanocluster (BH3-AuNp), in which polymeric BH3-Auric precursors [Au1+-S-BH3]n are in-situ self-assembled on the surface of gold nanoparticles by a one-pot synthesis. Expectedly, this strategy could improve the anti-proteolytic ability and cytomembrane penetrability of the BH3 peptide. As a result, BH3-AuNp successfully induced the apoptosis of two cancer cell lines by an order of magnitude compared to BH3. This therapeutic and feasible peptide nano-engineering strategy will help peptides overcome the pharmaceutical obstacles, awaken its biological functions, and possibly revive the research about peptide-derived nanomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac146dDOI Listing
July 2021
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