Publications by authors named "Jun Xiao"

621 Publications

The response of anti-VEGF therapy and tamoxifen withdrawal of tamoxifen-induced cystoid macular edema in the same patient.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 May 7;21(1):201. Epub 2021 May 7.

Second affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Numerous cases with ocular toxicity secondary to tamoxifen have been reported, and became more apparent with keratopathy, cataract, optic neuritis, macular holes, crystalline retinopathy with or without cystoid macular edema (CME). Withdrawing tamoxifen with the approval of the oncologist is the major treatment for cases with tamoxifen-induced retinopathy.

Case Presentation: We herein reported a patient with a two-year history of painless and reduced visual acuity in both eyes who received tamoxifen therapy for 6 years. Tamoxifen-induced rentinopathy with CME showed significant development even though the patient has already discontinued tamoxifen treatment for 6 months. Anatomic improvements after intravitreal ranibizumab injection in both eyes were significant but were temporary. Surprisingly, CME in both eyes has been resolved spontaneously after 10 months in the penultimate visit without any therapy.

Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection temporarily improved the anatomy of the eyes in a case with tamoxifen-induced CME, and only tamoxifen withdrawal can bring a sustained effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01953-zDOI Listing
May 2021

8-hydroxypinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside from Valeriana officinalis L. Is a Novel Kv1.5 Channel Blocker.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 28;276:114168. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The Macrohard Institute of Health, 231 North Ave, Battle Creek, MI, 49017, USA; The American Academy of Tradition Chinese Medicine Inc., 1925 W County Rd B2, Roseville, MN, 55113, USA. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacology Relevance: In folkloric medicine of many cultures, one of the medical uses of Valeriana officinalis Linn is to treat heart-related disease. Recently, it was shown that the ethanol extracts from V. officinalis could effectively prevent auricular fibrillation, and 8-hydroxypinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (HPG) from the extracts is one of the two active compounds showing antiarrhythmia activities.

Aim Of The Study: The human Kv1.5 channel (hKv1.5) has potential antiarrhythmia activities, and this study arms at investigating the current blocking effects of HPG on hKv1.5 channel.

Material And Methods: HPG was obtained from V. officinalis extracts, and hKv1.5 channels were expressed in HEK 293 cells. HPG was perfused while recording the current through hKv1.5 channels. Patch-clamp recording techniques were used to study the effects of HPG at various concentrations (10 μM, 30 μM, and 50 μM) on hKv1.5 channels.

Results: The present study demonstrated that HPG inhibited hKv1.5 channel current in a concentration-dependent manner; the higher the concentration, the greater is the inhibition at each depolarization potential. During washout, the channels did not full recover indicating that the un-coupling between HPG and hKv1.5 channels is a slow process.

Conclusion: HPG may be an effective and safe active ingredient for AF having translational potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114168DOI Listing
April 2021

Long noncoding RNA as a biomarker for the prognosis of ischemic stroke: A protocol for meta-analysis and bioinformatics analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25596

Department of Neurology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: As the most common type of cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke is the disturbance of cerebrovascular circulation caused by various factors, with complex pathogenesis. At present, the molecular mechanism of ischemic stroke is still unclear, and there lacks early diagnostic markers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find effective preventive measures, active diagnostic methods and rapid treatment measures. In recent years, related studies have displayed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is related to the prognosis of ischemic stroke. However, the results are not supported by some evidence. Therefore, in this study, meta-analysis was used to analyze the relationship between lncRNAs and the prognosis of ischemic stroke. In addition, we carried out bioinformatics analysis to study the action mechanism and related pathways of lncRNAs in ischemic stroke.

Methods: Literature search was operated on databases up to March 2021, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical literature Database, Chinese Scientific and Journal Database, Wan Fang database, Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE. The relationship between lncRNAs expression and survival outcome was estimated by hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-analysis was conducted on the Stata 16.0. Starbase v2.0 software predicts microRNAs (miRNAs) that interacts with lncRNAs. In addition, HMDD v2.0 database filters out miRNAs related to ischemic stroke. Furthermore, Consite transcription factor database was used to predict the transcription factors of each lncRNAs and miRNA. At the same time, the transcription factors related to ischemic stroke were screened out after intersection. miRwalk online software was applied to predict the target mRNA of each miRNA, and the common target genes were screened by consistent method. The molecular regulatory network map of lncRNAs in ischemic stroke was drawn. Based on the overlapping target genes, gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were carried out to explore the possible mechanism.

Results: The results of this meta-analysis would be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication.

Conclusion: This study will provide evidence-based medical evidence for the relationship between lncRNA and the prognosis of ischemic stroke. What is more, bioinformatics analysis will provide ideas for the study of ischemic stroke mechanism.

Ethics And Dissemination: The private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also should not damage participants' rights. Ethical approval is not available. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated in relevant conferences.

Osf Registration Number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/QBZW6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084069PMC
April 2021

Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Promotes Inflammation and Accelerates Osteoarthritis by Activating β-Catenin.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:646386. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic articular disease characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling and osteophyte formation. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) has not been fully investigated in the pathogenesis of OA. In this study, we found that SHP2 expression was significantly increased after interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treatment in primary mouse chondrocytes. Inhibition of SHP2 using siRNA reduced MMP3, MMP13 levels, but increased AGGRECAN, COL2A1, SOX9 expression . On the contrary, overexpression of SHP2 exerted the opposite results and promoted cartilage degradation. Mechanistically, SHP2 activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling possibly through directly binding to β-catenin. SHP2 also induced inflammation through activating Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways. Our studies showed that SHP2 knockdown effectively delayed cartilage destruction and reduced osteophyte formation in the mouse model of OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Altogether, our study identifies that SHP2 is a novel and potential therapeutic target of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.646386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063055PMC
April 2021

GEO data mining and TCGA analysis reveal altered branched chain amino acid metabolism in pancreatic cancer patients.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 21;13(8):11907-11918. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive tumor of the digestive system which has a less than 1% 5-year survival rate. The pathogenesis of PDAC development is incompletely understood. Genetic predisposition, disease history of chronic pancreatitis and diabetes elevate the risk of PDAC while environmental and dietary factors including smoking, alcohol abuse, high fat/protein intake as well as air pollution exacerbate PDAC progression. BCAAs, consisting of leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential amino acids that are obtained from food and play versatile roles in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that BCAA metabolism affects PDAC development but the results are controversial. To explore the possible engagement of BCAA metabolism in PDAC, we took advantage of the GEO and TCGA database and discovered that BCAA uptake is closely related to PDAC development while BCAA catabolism is down-regulated in PDAC tissue. Besides, NOTCH and MYC are differentially involved in BCAA metabolism in tumor and muscle, and enhanced lipid synthesis is independent of BCAA catabolism. Altogether, we highlight BCAA uptake as a promising target for PDAC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202892DOI Listing
April 2021

Two reactive behaviors of chondrocytes in an IL-1β-induced inflammatory environment revealed by the single-cell RNA sequencing.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 20;13(8):11646-11664. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China.

Objective: To investigate the heterogeneous responses of expanded chondrocytes, which were cultured in an interleukin (IL)-1β -induced inflammatory environment.

Method: Human articular chondrocytes were expanded, , for 13 days and treated with IL-1β for 0, 24, and 48 h. Cells were collected and subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing. Multiple bioinformatics tools were used to determine the signatures that define chondrocyte physiology.

Results: Two major cell clusters with distinct expression patterns were identified at the initial phase and were with heterogeneous variation that coincides with inflammation progress. They transformed into two terminal cell clusters one of which exhibited OA-phenotype and proinflammatory characteristics through two paths, "response-to-inflammation" and "atypical response-to-inflammation", respectively. The involved cell clusters exhibited intrinsic relationship with cell types within native cartilage from OA patients. Genes controlling cell transformation to OA-phenotype were relating to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway via NFKB, up-regulated KRAS signaling and the IL2/STAT5 signaling pathway and pathways relating to apoptosis and reactive oxygen species.

Conclusion: The expanded chondrocytes under IL-1β-induced inflammatory progression behave heterogeneously. One of the initial cell clusters could transform into a proinflammatory subpopulation through a termed response-to-inflammation path, which may serve as the core target to alleviate OA progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202857DOI Listing
April 2021

Directing photocatalytic pathway to exceedingly high antibacterial activity in water by functionalizing holey ultrathin nanosheets of graphitic carbon nitride.

Water Res 2021 Apr 8;198:117125. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 United States. Electronic address:

Metal-free polymeric carbon nitride (CN) photocatalysts offer attractive technological advantages over the conventional transition metal oxides or sulfides -based photocatalysts in water disinfection, but their antimicrobial activities are limited by their rapid charge carrier recombination and low specific surface areas. By controlling photocatalytic pathways, we obtained in amino-rich holey ultrathin g-CN nanosheets (AHUCN) a highly efficient inactivation rate against E-coli, which is the highest among the monolithic g-CN and exceeds the antibacterial performance of the most of the previously reported g-CN-based photocatalysts. Both the experiments and theoretical calculations demonstrated that the high photocatalytic disinfection performance of AHUCN was derived from the synergistic advantages of their unique holey ultrathin structure and the amino - rich surface in controlling the charge separation and transfer, and most importantly in increasing the photo-production of the dominant antibacterial species, HO. From the analysis of the reactive oxygen species and rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements, it was found that the presence of abundant surface amino groups enabled the switch of the oxygen-reduction pathway from the two-step single-electron indirect reduction on holey ultrathin g-CN nanosheets (HUCN) to the one-step two-electron direct reduction on AHUCN. The switch of the HO production pathway not only facilitated the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs but also promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species, greatly enhancing photocatalytic disinfection efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117125DOI Listing
April 2021

NLK suppresses MAVS-mediated signaling in black carp antiviral innate immunity.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 17;122:104105. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China. Electronic address:

Mammalian Nemo-like kinase (NLK) plays important roles in multiple biological processes including immune response; however, the roles of teleost NLK remain largely unknown. In the present study, the NLK homolog (bcNLK) of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized. The coding region of bcNLK consists of 1427 nucleotides and encodes 476 amino acid, including two low complexity region (LCR) domains at the N-terminus and a serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S-TKc) domain in the middle region. The transcription of bcNLK are promoted after spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection and poly (I:C) stimulation in host cells, but not post LPS treatment. bcNLK exhibits weak impact on the transcription of interferon (IFN) promoter in the reporter assay, however, black carp MAVS (bcMAVS)-mediated IFN promoter transcription is remarkably dampened by bcNLK. The interaction between bcNLK and bcMAVS is detected through the co-immunoprecipitation assay. Accordingly, the plaque assay results show that bcMAVS-mediated antiviral ability is impaired by bcNLK. Moreover, knockdown of bcNLK in host cells leads to the enhanced antiviral ability against SVCV. All these data support the conclusion that black carp NLK associates with MAVS and inhibited MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104105DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of Alprostadil in Preventing Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Angiology 2021 Apr 15:33197211004412. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiology, The 8th Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to determine the efficacy of alprostadil in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Eligible studies were searched using the keywords through the databases of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, China Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Vanfun. Quality evaluation of the included studies was conducted according to international evidence evaluation and recommended Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation standards. We included 29 studies with 5623 patients. Compared with hydration, 10 µg/d alprostadil or 20 µg/d alprostadil plus hydration significantly decreased the incidence of CIN. Compared with hydration, alprostadil plus hydration significantly reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen at 24, 48, and 72 hours and 7 days after coronary angiography (CAG). Alprostadil (20 µg/d) plus hydration significantly decreased serum cystatin versus hydration at 24, 48, and 72 hours after CAG. Compared with hydration, alprostadil plus hydration significantly increased glomerular filtration rate at 24 and 72 hours after CAG. Alprostadil plus hydration significantly decreased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels compared to hydration at 24, 48, and 72 hours after CAG. Alprostadil plus hydration significantly decreased urine macroglobulin versus hydration at 24 and 48 hours after CAG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00033197211004412DOI Listing
April 2021

Utilization of a Newly Designed Asymmetric Dorsal Gull Wing Flap for the Treatment of Postoperative Web Creep After Syndactyly Surgery.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

From the Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Background: Web creep is the most common long-term complication requiring revision after syndactyly surgery; however, few methods have been reported. The aim of this study was to introduce a newly designed asymmetric dorsal gull wing flap to reconstruct web for the postoperative web creep.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for 20 patients from January 2016 to May 2019. Sex, age, original malformations, original surgical procedure, complications, time between the 2 operations, operation records, preoperative and postoperative photographs, and Withey score were reviewed.

Results: Eleven boys and 9 girls with average age of 60.65 ± 44.76 months underwent revision. Twenty-nine web spaces were affected (web creep, 12 cases; web creep and scar contracture, 17 cases). The original surgical procedure consisted of syndactyly separation in 15 cases, syndactyly separation with a full-thickness skin graft in 5 cases. There was 1 case of postoperative infection. All patients received an asymmetric dorsal gull wing flap and a zigzag incision, 15 patients received an additional full-thickness skin graft. The average time interval between the 2 operations was 34.60 ± 35.94 months. The follow-up time was 34.30 ± 20.73 months. No complications were noted, none of the patients redeveloped web creep. The median values for web creep, flexion-extension deformity, total Withey scores in the postoperative period were significantly lower than the preoperative values. The appearance and function of all digits were good.

Conclusions: The asymmetric dorsal gull wing flap is a good choice for web reconstruction when web creep is caused by syndactyly surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002812DOI Listing
April 2021

NOX5 is expressed aberrantly but not a critical pathogenetic gene in Hirschsprung disease.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Mar 30;21(1):153. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the distal gastrointestinal tract (GI), which results in tonic contraction of the aganglionic gut segment and functional intestinal obstruction. Recent studies have suggested NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) as a candidate risk gene for HSCR. In this study, we examined the function of NOX5 to verify its role in the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS).

Methods: HSCR tissue specimens (n = 10) were collected at the time of pull-through surgery and control specimens (n = 10) were obtained at the time of colostomy closure in patients. The NOX5 expression in aganglionic and ganglionic segments of HSCR colon and normal colon were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The gene expression levels and spatiotemporal expression spectrum of NOX5 in different development stages of zebrafish embryo were determined using qPCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH). The enteric nervous system in NOX5 Morpholino (MO) knockdown and wild type (WT) zebrafish embryo was analyzed by whole-mount immunofluorescence (IF). Intestinal transit assay was performed to analyze the gastrointestinal motility in NOX5 knockdown and control larvae.

Results: NOX5 is strongly expressed in the ganglion cells in the proximal segment of HSCR colons and all segments of normal colons. Moreover, the expression of NOX5 is markedly decreased in the aganglionic segment of HSCR colon compared to the ganglionic segment. In zebrafish, NOX5 mRNA level is the highest in the one cell stage embryos and it is decreased overtime with the development of the embryos. Interestingly, the expression of NOX5 appears to be enriched in the nervous system. However, the number of neurons in the GI tract and the GI motility were not affected upon NOX5 knockdown.

Conclusions: Our study shows that NOX5 markedly decreased in the aganglionic segment of HSCR but didn't involve in the ENS development of zebrafish. It implies that absence of intestinal ganglion cells may lead to down-regulation of NOX5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02611-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008622PMC
March 2021

MAL2 interacts with IQGAP1 to promote pancreatic cancer progression by increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 26;554:63-70. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Digestive Surgical Oncology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China; Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Pancreatic cancer is a digestive tract malignancy characterized by an occult onset and rapid progression. The genetic heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer is closely related to its highly malignant biological behavior. The myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) is upregulated in multiple cancers at the transcriptional level. However, the exact role of MAL2 in pancreatic cancer remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that MAL2 protein and mRNA levels were upregulated in pancreatic cancer. MAL2 overexpression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer. We further showed that MAL2 interacted with IQGAP1 to increase ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels, which promoted pancreatic cancer progression. Therefore, these results suggest that MAL2 could be a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.146DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibiting Monoacylglycerol Lipase Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Alleviates Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:640867. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Osteoporosis is a common chronic metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced trabecular bone and increased bone fragility. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a lipolytic enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of monoglycerides and specifically degrades the 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Previous studies have identified that 2-AG is the mainly source for arachidonic acid and the most abundant endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors. Considering the close relationship between inflammatory mediators/cannabinoid receptors and bone metabolism, we speculated that MAGL may play a role in the osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we found that MAGL protein expression increased during osteoclast differentiation. MAGL knockdown by adenovirus-mediated shRNA in bone marrow-derived macrophages demonstrated the suppressive effects of MAGL on osteoclast formation and bone resorption. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of MAGL by JZL184 suppressed osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and osteoclast-specific gene expression. Activation of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways was inhibited by JZL184 and deletion of MAGL. Our study indicated that JZL184 ameliorated bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model. Furthermore, overexpressing H1 calponin partially alleviated the inhibition caused by JZL184 or MAGL deletion on osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, we conclude that targeting MAGL may be a novel therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.640867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994615PMC
March 2021

Resource and environmental assessment of pyrolysis-based high-value utilization of waste passenger tires.

Waste Manag 2021 Mar 24;126:201-208. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China. Electronic address:

Carbon black and fuel oil as the products of conventional pyrolysis are limited in application owing to their low quality. This paper presents a pyrolysis-based high-value utilization process of waste passenger tires (WPTs). A comparison of the life cycle assessment (LCA) between this process and a conventional pyrolysis process was carried out. Moreover, a comprehensive evaluation index of the ratio of economic profit to environmental cost (PCR) was established. The results show that the increase in economic profits brought about by the high-value utilization process is higher than the increase in environmental costs, and the pyrolysis-based high-value utilization of WPTs has more positive benefits than conventional pyrolysis. Reducing the consumption of electricity and natural gas in the high-value utilization process has a significant effect on the decline of the main environmental impacts. Compared with the production of conventional pyrolytic products, this has the dual advantages of resource saving and environmental protection. Also, the environmental loads of ozone layer depletion (ODP) and human toxicity (HTP) are reduced by over 90%, and the loads of abiotic depletion (ADP) of minerals and fossil fuels are reduced by over 84%. Sensitivity analyses show that both the production cost and the price of carbon black significantly influence the PCR. The replacement of coal-fired power generation with renewable energy generation has a positive effect on improving the resource and environmental performance for the high-value utilization process of WPTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.03.008DOI Listing
March 2021

TRIF-mediated antiviral signaling is differentially regulated by TRAF2 and TRAF6 in black carp.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 22;121:104073. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China. Electronic address:

TRIF is an antiviral adaptor downstream of Toll-like receptors, the roles of teleost TRIF and their regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, a TRIF homologue (bcTRIF) of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned, and the transcription of bcTRIF in vivo and ex vivo increased in response to different stimuli. Overexpressed bcTRIF induced the transcription of interferon promoter in the EPC cells and enhanced protection of cells against infection of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). The previous study has identified that black carp TRAF2 (bcTRAF2) and TRAF6 (bcTRAF6) functioned positively in RIG-I/MAVS signaling. When co-expressed with bcTRAF2, bcTRIF-induced the transcription of interferon promoter in EPC cells was decreased, and the antiviral activity of bcTRIF was dampened accordingly. On the contrary, co-expressed bcTRAF6 enhanced both bcTRIF-mediated interferon promoter transcription and antiviral activity. The subsequent co-immunoprecipitation identified the interaction between bcTRAF2/6 and bcTRIF. Thus, bcTRIF-mediated antiviral signaling is up-regulated by bcTRAF6 and down-regulated by bcTRAF2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104073DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of serum vaspin, apelin, and visfatin levels and stroke risk in a Chinese case-control study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25184

Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Abstract: Adipose tissue acts as an active endocrine organ secreting a number of adipokines and may be involved in biological mechanism of stroke. Vaspin, apelin, and visfatin play important roles in the regulation of vascular disorders.Our aim was to evaluate whether the concentrations of vaspin, apelin, and visfatin were associated with stroke risk.A total of 235 patients with stroke (156 patients with ischemic stroke and 79 patients with hemorrhagic stroke) and 235 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. A sandwich ELISA was developed to measure the serum vaspin, apelin, and visfatin levels.There was a statistically significant difference in the median levels of serum vaspin, apelin, and visfatin levels between stroke cases and controls (vaspin: 1.50 vs 1.07 ng/ml; apelin: 1.56 vs 1.32 pg/ml; visfatin: 23.40 vs 19.65 ng/ml; all P values <.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, serum vaspin and visfatin levels were significantly inversely associated with increased risk of stroke, and the odds ratios (ORs) in the highest tertile were 2.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-3.67; P for trend <.001] for vaspin and 2.56 (95% CI 1.46-4.47; P for trend <.001) for visfatin, respectively, compared with the lowest tertile. Higher apelin levels were marginally associated with lower stroke risk (P for trend =.060).Our study indicated that higher vaspin, apelin, and visfatin levels might be associated with increased stroke risk. Necessary prospective cohort studies should be conducted to confirm this association in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025184DOI Listing
March 2021

A Modified Approach with Caval Transection for Supracardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection: Comparison Between Conventional and Sutureless Surgery in 173 Patients.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350001, Fujian, China.

The efficacy of primary sutureless repair for supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) needs to be confirmed. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes between the conventional surgery and the sutureless technique with a modified approach in superior TAPVC. Between January 2008 and December 2018, 173 patients with supracardiac TAPVC underwent surgery either with the conventional procedure (n = 130) or the sutureless repair (n = 43). Multivariate analysis and competing-risk analysis were used to identify risk factors for early death and postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO), respectively. Among 173 patients who underwent repair of supracardiac TAPVC, 46 (28%) had preoperative PVO, and 22 (12.7%) had postoperative PVO. The sutureless group had a lower postoperative PVO rate compared with the conventional group (p = 0.027). The risk factors for death were age ≤ 28 days [odds ratio (OR), 11.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-100.47, p = 0.015], weight ≤ 3 kg (OR 9.57; 95% CI 1.58-58.09, p = 0.009), emergency operation (OR 19.24; 95% CI 3.18-116.35, p = 0.002), cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.36-3.43, p = 0.003), cross-clamp time (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.20-2.50, p = 0.022), and duration of ventilation (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21, p = 0.027). Age ≤ 28 days [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.92; 95% CI 1.92-11.02, p < 0.001] and preoperative PVO (HR 41.70; 95% CI 8.15-213.5, p < 0.001) were associated with postoperative PVO. The sutureless repair is a reliable technique for supracardiac TAPVC. Age ≤ 28 days is associated with 30-day mortality and postoperative PVO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-021-02573-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Longtime Vision Function Prediction in Childhood Cataract Patients Based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 5;9:646479. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The results of visual prediction reflect the tendency and speed of visual development during a future period, based on which ophthalmologists and guardians can know the potential visual prognosis in advance, decide on an intervention plan, and contribute to visual development. In our study, we developed an intelligent system based on the features of optical coherence tomography images for long-term prediction of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 3 and 5 years in advance. Two hundred eyes of 132 patients were included. Six machine learning algorithms were applied. In the BCVA predictions, small errors within two lines of the visual chart were achieved. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) between the prediction results and ground truth were 0.1482-0.2117 logMAR for 3-year predictions and 0.1198-0.1845 logMAR for 5-year predictions; the root mean square errors (RMSEs) were 0.1916-0.2942 logMAR for 3-year predictions and 0.1692-0.2537 logMAR for 5-year predictions. This is the first study to predict post-therapeutic BCVAs in young children. This work establishes a reliable method to predict prognosis 5 years in advance. The application of our research contributes to the design of visual intervention plans and visual prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.646479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973224PMC
March 2021

Groundwater hydrochemistry, source identification and pollution assessment in intensive industrial areas, eastern Chinese loess plateau.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 10;278:116930. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water- and Waste-Management, Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285, Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment, Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Republic of Korea.

Groundwater is essential for regional ecological-economic system and is an important resource of drinking water, especially in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), where is a typical water-limited ecosystem. Groundwater quality deterioration will affect water security and exacerbate the water shortages. Groundwater hydrochemistry, pollution source apportionment, quality and health risks were evaluated based on analysis of major ions and selected trace elements in seasonal samples of the Fen River Basin (FRB) in the eastern CLP. Groundwaters in the FRB were mainly HCO-Ca-Na water type with low dissolved solutes in upstream samples, high values in midstream samples and medium values in downstream samples. Solutes in upstream samples were mainly derived from carbonate weathering, while those in midstream and downstream samples came from silicate weathering, evaporites dissolution and anthropogenic sources. Self-organizing map (SOM) showed the hydrochemistry remained unchanged from dry to wet season for most sampling points. The seasonal variations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Tl were significant due to anthropogenic input. High NO in upstream and downstream samples resulted primarily from sewage discharge, and high SO in midstream and downstream samples was from gypsum- and coal-related industries. In addition, anthropogenic input related to coal industries significantly aggravates pollution of As, Ni, Ag, Fe, and Mn. Influenced by evaporites and anthropogenic input, midstream samples had high salinity, total hardness and water quality indices (WQIs) and were unsuitable for irrigation or drinking purposes. Seasonal variation of WQI in the FRB was unsignificant except Jiaokou River sub-basin, where groundwater quality was worse in the wet season than the dry season due to coal mining. Great attention should be paid to the high non-carcinogenic risks of exposure to F, V, Mn, and Cr via dermal absorption, particularly for children. Overall, groundwater quality in the FRB was best in upstream, medium in midstream and worst in midstream based on different index. Groundwater quality is deteriorated by anthropogenic input and the sewage discharge in the FRB should be strictly controlled. Our report provides a reference for groundwater pollution evaluation and source identification in similar areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116930DOI Listing
June 2021

Transcriptome sequencing and analysis for the pigmentation of scale and skin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Mar 19;48(3):2399-2410. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing Key Laboratory of Fishery Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing, 100141, China.

Background: Teleost scale not only provides a protective layer resisting penetration and pathogens but also participate in coloration. It is interesting to study the mechanism of teleost scale formation. Furthermore, whether there existed consensus genes between scale coloration and skin coloration has not been examined yet.

Methods And Results: We analyzed the transcriptome profiles of red scale, white scale, red skin, and white skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Pair-wise comparison identified 3391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between scale and skin, respectively. The 1765 up-regulated genes (UEGs) in scale, as the down-regulated genes in skin, preferred mineralization and other scale development-related processes. The 1626 skin UEGs were enriched in the morphogenesis of skin and appendages. We also identified 195 UEGs in white scale and 223 UEGs in red scale. The white scale UEGs primarily participated in regulation of growth and cell migration. The UEGs in red scale preferred pigment cell differentiation and retinoid metabolic process. A total of 22 DEGs had consensus expression patterns in skin and scale of the same coloration. The expression levels of these DEGs clearly grouped skin and scale of the same coloration together with principle component analysis and correlation analysis. Eleven consensus DEGs were homologous to the orthologs of Poropuntius huangchuchieni, 82% of which were under strong purifying selection. Eight processes including lipid storage and lipid catabolism were shared in both scale pigmentation and skin pigmentation.

Conclusions: We identified consensus DEGs and biological processes in scale and skin pigmentation. Our transcriptome analysis will contribute to further elucidation of mechanisms of teleost scale formation and coloration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06273-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Hybrid asynchronous brain-computer interface for yes/no communication in patients with disorders of consciousness.

J Neural Eng 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

South China Normal University, School of Software, Guangzhou, 510631, CHINA.

For patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS), communication is challenging. Currently, the communication methods of DOC patients are limited to behavioral responses. However, DOC patients cannot provide sufficient behavioral responses due to motor impairments and limited attention. In this study, we proposed a hybrid asynchronous brain-computer interface (BCI) system that provides a new communication channel for DOC patients.Seven DOC patients (3 VS and 4 MCS) and eleven healthy subjects participated in our experiment. Each subject was instructed to focus on the square with the Chinese words 'Yes' and 'No'. Then, the BCI system determined the target square with both P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) detections. For the healthy group, we tested the performance of the hybrid system and the single-modality BCI system.All healthy subjects achieved significant accuracy (range from 72% to 100%) in both the hybrid system and the single-modality system. The hybrid asynchronous BCI system outperformed the P300-only and SSVEP-only systems. Furthermore, we employed the asynchronous approach to dynamically collect the EEG signals. Compared with the synchronous system, there was a 21% reduction in the average required rounds and a reduction of 105 s in the online experiment time. This asynchronous system was applied to detect the 'yes/no' communication function of seven DOC patients, and the results showed that three of the patients (3 MCS) showed significant accuracies (67 ± 3%) in the online experiment, and their Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scores were also improved compared with the scores before the experiment. This result demonstrated that 3 of 7 patients were able to communicate using our hybrid asynchronous BCI system.This hybrid asynchronous BCI system represents a useful auxiliary bedside tool for simple communication with DOC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abf00cDOI Listing
March 2021

M-CSF, IL-6, and TGF-β promote generation of a new subset of tissue repair macrophage for traumatic brain injury recovery.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 12;7(11). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Neurosurgical Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to high mortality rate. We aimed to identify the key cytokines favoring TBI repair and found that patients with TBI with a better outcome robustly increased concentrations of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-β (termed M6T) in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma. Using TBI mice, we identified that M2-like macrophage, microglia, and endothelial cell were major sources to produce M6T. Together with the in vivo tracking of mCherry+ macrophages in zebrafish models, we confirmed that M6T treatment accelerated blood-borne macrophage infiltration and polarization toward a subset of tissue repair macrophages that expressed similar genes as microglia for neuroprotection, angiogenesis and cell migration. M6T therapy in TBI mice and zebrafish improved neurological function while blocking M6T-exacerbated brain injury. Considering low concentrations of M6T in some patients with poor prognostic, M6T treatment might repair TBI via generating a previously unidentified subset of tissue repair macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb6260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954455PMC
March 2021

Supraventricular arrhythmia, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin T concentration in relation to incidence of atrial fibrillation: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Mar 12;21(1):134. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, CRC 60:13, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Frequent supraventricular arrhythmia is associated with increased incidence of atrial fibrillation. However, it is unknown whether the prognostic significance of supraventricular arrhythmia is modified by plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or troponin T (TnT). This study examined the interrelationships between NT-proBNP, TnT levels and frequent supraventricular arrhythmia, and whether these biomarkers and a measure of frequent supraventricular arrhythmia could improve risk assessment for incidence of AF.

Methods: Supraventricular extrasystoles (SVEs) and supraventricular tachycardias were assessed from 24-h electrocardiograph recordings in 373 individuals initially without AF. Elevated NT-pro-BNP, TnT and SVEs was defined as a measurement in the top quartile of the study population distribution. Incident cases of AF were retrieved by linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 15.4 years, 88 subjects had a diagnosis of AF. After multivariable adjustment, individuals with both elevated NT-proBNP and frequent SVEs had a significantly increased incidence of AF, compared to subjects without elevated NT-proBNP or frequent SVEs (hazard ratio (HR) 4.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.45-8.69), and compared to individuals with either elevated NT-proBNP or frequent SVEs (both P < 0.05). HRs for frequent SVEs alone or elevated NT-proBNP alone were 2.32 (95% CI 1.33-4.06) and 1.52 (95% CI 0.76-3.05), respectively. The addition of NT-pro-BNP and SVEs to a validated risk prediction score for AF, CHARGE-AF, resulted in improved prediction (Harrell's C 0.751 (95% CI 0.702-0.799) vs 0.720 (95% CI 0.669-0.771), P = 0.015).

Conclusion: Subjects with both elevated NT-proBNP and frequent SVEs have substantially increased risk of AF, and the use of these variables could improve long-term prediction of incident AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-01942-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953799PMC
March 2021

Polyotia: the Confusing Auricular Malformation.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):652-654

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 136, Zhongshan 2nd Road; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing (CSTC2009CA5002), Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Polyotia is a very rare auricular malformation, and only few cases have been reported to date. Polyotia has been ambiguously defined, and due to the instability of its shape and condition, no uniform surgical technique has been established up to now. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the diagnosis and treatment of polyotia. The aim of the present study was to present a new set of objective diagnostic criteria for discussion, and introduce our surgical design for polyotia.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 34 cases of polyotia, which were diagnosed and treated in our Plastic Surgery Department during a 3-year period from January 2016 to March 2019. The preoperative photographs, manifestations and operation records of these 34 cases were reviewed.

Results: On the basis of the new set of objective diagnostic criteria, only 12 of 34 cases were diagnosed as polyotia, while the remaining 22 cases were diagnosed as accessory tragus. Polyotia was redefined as the presence of a broad-based accessory auricle in the tragus area along with accessory cavitas conchae similar to cavitas conchae. The new surgical design emphasized the use of cartilage and skin to fill up the concavity and reconstruct the tragus.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of polyotia was presented on the basis of a new set of objective criteria, which include an accessory auricle and accessory cavitas conchae. The use of cartilage and skin to fill up the concavity and reconstruct the tragus were the emphases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007100DOI Listing
March 2021

Treadmill Hand Injuries Among Children: A Retrospective Case Series From Hospitalized Patients.

Front Pediatr 2021 17;9:633091. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

With the progress of modernization, treadmill hand injury in pediatric population is taking on a global trend in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features in a developing country, thereby providing some experience in the treatment and prevention of this particular type of injury. A 5-year retrospective review of patients with treadmill hand injury in Burn and Plastic Surgery ward at Children' Hospital of Chongqing Medical University was conducted. Demographics, injury details, therapy performed, length of hospital stay, complications, and outcome were analyzed. Forty-six patients were surveyed, with a mean age of 3.5 ± 2.0 years old, including 24 males and 22 females. Injuries (77.8%) occurred between dinner to bedtime, and 95.7% happened indoors. Fingers were the most vulnerable part, of which the middle finger, ring finger, and index finger were the top three ones. The mean body surface area (BSA%) was 0.3 ± 0.2, but at least in deep dermal. Dressing changes, full-thickness skin grafts (FTSG), and Negative Pleasure Wound Therapy (NPWT) assisted FTSG were performed. The scar contracture, as the most severe complication, occurred in 26 patients, of which 22 originally received dressing changes at the time of injury. Treadmill hand injury in children should be highly regarded. Compared with conservative dressing changes, surgical intervention from a professional team may achieve more satisfactory prognosis and fewer complications. A prevention strategy based on "Time-Space-Person" was summarized according to its epidemiological characteristics, may help to decrease the incidence of this specific type of injury theoretically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.633091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928388PMC
February 2021

Soil carbon accumulation with increasing temperature under both managed and natural vegetation restoration in calcareous soils.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 22;767:145298. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China; Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100, China. Electronic address:

Vegetation restoration has been proposed as an effective strategy for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, the responses of SOC to managed and natural vegetation restoration strategies at a large scale are poorly understood due to the varying SOC components and changing climatic conditions. Here, we measured bulk SOC, particulate organic carbon (POC), and mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC) after 15 years of vegetation restoration along an elevation gradient with a corresponding temperature gradient in the calcareous soils of karst region, Southwest China. We compared managed plantation forest and naturally recovered shrubland vegetation restoration strategies, using cropland and mature forest as references. Overall, we found that the SOC and POC densities in both plantation forest and shrubland were significantly higher than in the cropland but lower than in the mature forest. There were no significant differences in the SOC pool between the plantation forest and shrubland. Furthermore, the relative changes in the SOC and POC densities increased with increasing mean annual temperature in the plantation forest and shrubland. Our results showed that both vegetation restoration strategies, characterized by higher soil microbial abundance and exchangeable Ca concentration, were beneficial to POC but not MOC accumulation, and sufficiently compensated SOC decomposition at lower elevation with higher MAT. Our results highlight the potential of both vegetation restoration strategies for promoting SOC accumulation in warmer karst regions and emphasize the necessity to understand soil carbon stabilization mechanisms in calcareous soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145298DOI Listing
May 2021

Pristimerin Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

Front Pharmacol 2020 15;11:621110. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Osteoporosis is characterized by bone loss and destruction of trabecular architecture, which greatly increases the burden on the healthcare system. Excessive activation of osteoclasts is an important cause of osteoporosis, and suppression of osteoclastogenesis is helpful for the treatment of osteoporosis. Pristimerin, a natural compound, possesses numerous pharmacological effects via inactivating the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, which are closely related to osteoclastogenesis process. However, the relationship between Pristimerin and osteoclastogenesis requires further investigation. In this research, we examined the effect of Pristimerin on osteoclastogenesis and investigated the related mechanisms. Our results showed Pristimerin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and osteoclastic bone resorption , with decreased expression of osteoclastogenesis-related markers including c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP, Cathepsin K, and MMP-9 at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, Pristimerin suppressed NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling during osteoclastogenesis. Our experiments showed that Pristimerin remarkably ameliorated ovariectomy-induced bone loss, reduced serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and RANKL, and increased serum level of osteoprotegerin (OPG). Therefore, our research indicated that Pristimerin is a potential chemical for the treatment of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.621110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898668PMC
January 2021

Differences in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the epicenter and peripheral areas of the pandemic from China: a retrospective, large-sample, comparative analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Feb 24;21(1):206. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the peripheral area) in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to investigate the differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 between the epicenter and peripheral areas of pandemic and thereby generate information that would be potentially helpful in formulating clinical practice recommendations to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The Sichuan & Wuhan Collaboration Research Group for COVID-19 established two retrospective cohorts that separately reflect the epicenter and peripheral area during the early pandemic. The epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients in the two groups were compared. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with regard to the outcomes.

Results: The Wuhan (epicenter) cohort included 710 randomly selected patients, and the peripheral (Sichuan) cohort included 474 consecutive patients. A higher proportion of patients from the periphery had upper airway symptoms, whereas a lower proportion of patients in the epicenter had lower airway symptoms and comorbidities. Patients in the epicenter had a higher risk of death (aOR=7.64), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR=1.66), delayed time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission (aOR=6.29 and aOR=8.03, respectively), and prolonged duration of viral shedding (aOR=1.64).

Conclusions: The worse outcomes in the epicenter could be explained by the prolonged time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission. This could potentially have been associated with elevated systemic inflammation secondary to organ dysfunction and prolonged duration of virus shedding independent of age and comorbidities. Thus, early supportive care could achieve better clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05728-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903397PMC
February 2021

New developments in anti-biofilm intervention towards effective management of orthopedic device related infections (ODRI's).

Biofouling 2021 01 22;37(1):1-35. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Orthopedics, Three Gorges Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Orthopedic device related infections (ODRI's) represent a difficult to treat situation owing to their biofilm based nature. Biofilm infections once established are difficult to eradicate even with an aggressive treatment regimen due to their recalcitrance towards antibiotics and immune attack. The involvement of antibiotic resistant pathogens as the etiological agent further worsens the overall clinical picture, pressing on the need to look into alternative treatment strategies. The present review highlightes the microbiological challenges associated with treatment of ODRI's due to biofilm formation on the implant surface. Further, it details the newer anti-infective modalities that work either by preventing biofilm formation and/or through effective disruption of the mature biofilms formed on the medical implant. The study, therefore aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the newer anti-biofilm interventions (non-antibiotic approaches) and a better understanding of their mechanism of action essential for improved management of orthopedic implant infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2020.1869725DOI Listing
January 2021

The fate and long-term toxic effects of NiO nanoparticles at environmental concentration in constructed wetland: Enzyme activity, microbial property, metabolic pathway and functional genes.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 3;413:125295. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211189, PR China.

Although the potential threats of metallic oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) to constructed wetland (CW) have been broadly reported, limited information is available regarding the long-term impact of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) on CWs at the environmentally relevant concentrations. Here, we comprehensively elucidated the responses in the treatment performance, enzyme activities, microbial properties, metabolic pathways and functional genes of CWs to chronic exposure of NiO NPs (0.1 and 1 mg/L) for 120 days, with a quantitative analysis on the fate and migration of NiO NPs within CWs. Nitrogen removal evidently declined under the long-term exposure to NiO NPs. Besides, NiO NPs induced a deterioration in phosphorus removal, but gradually restored over time. The activities of dehydrogenase (DHA), phosphatase (PST), urease (URE), ammonia oxygenase (AMO) and nitrate reductase (NAR) were inhibited to some extent under NiO NPs stress. Furthermore, NiO NPs exposure reduced bacterial diversity, shifted microbial composition and obviously inhibited the transcription of the ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying functional genes. The results of nickel mass balance indicated that the major removal mechanism of NiO NPs in CWs was through substrate adsorption and plants uptake. Thus, the ecological impacts of prolonged NiO NPs exposure at environmental concentrations should not be neglected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125295DOI Listing
July 2021