Publications by authors named "Jun Wen"

351 Publications

Metabolomics Based Comprehensive Investigation of Gardeniae Fructus Induced Hepatotoxicity.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 5:112250. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Gardeniae Fructus (Zhizi in Chinese, ZZ in brief), a commonly used herbal medicine, has aroused wide concern for hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains to be investigated. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of ZZ-induced liver injury in vivo and in vitro based on metabolomics and evaluating the hepatotoxicity prediction ability of the in vitro model. SD rats were administered with extracted ZZ and HepG2 cells were treated with genipin, the major hepatotoxic metabolite of ZZ. Liver, plasma, intracellular and extracellular samples were obtained for metabolomics analysis. As a result, ZZ caused plasma biochemical and liver histopathological alterations in rats, and induced purine and amino acid metabolism disorder in the liver and pyrimidine, primary bile acids, amino acid metabolism and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis disorder in the plasma. Pyrimidine, purine, amino acid metabolism and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis were also found to be disturbed in the genipin-treated HepG2 cells, which exhibited similarity with the result in vivo. This study comprehensively illustrates the underlying mechanism involved in ZZ-related hepatotoxicity from the aspect of metabolome, and provides evidence that identifying hepatotoxicity can be achieved in cells, representing a non-animal alternative for systemic toxicology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112250DOI Listing
May 2021

Backbone phylogeny and evolution of Apioideae (Apiaceae): New insights from phylogenomic analyses of plastome data.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 20;161:107183. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Traditional phylogenies inferred from chloroplast DNA fragments have not obtained a well-resolved evolutionary history for the backbone of Apioideae, the largest subfamily of Apiaceae. In this study, we applied the genome skimming approach of next-generation sequencing to address whether the lack of resolution at the tip of the Apioideae phylogenetic tree is due to limited information loci or the footprint of ancient radiation. A total of 90 complete chloroplast genomes (including 23 newly sequenced genomes and covering 20 major clades of Apioideae) were analyzed (RAxML and MrBayes) to provide a phylogenomic reconstruction of Apioideae. Dating analysis was also implemented using BEAST to estimate the origin and divergence time of the major clades. As a result, the early divergences of Apioideae have been clarified but the relationship among its distally branching clades (Group A) was only partially resolved, with short internal branches pointing to an ancient radiation scenario. Four major clades, Tordyliinae I, Pimpinelleae I, Apieae and Coriandreae, were hypothesized to have originated from chloroplast capture events induced by early hybridization according to the incongruence between chloroplast-based and nrDNA-based phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, the variable and nested distribution of junction positions of LSC (Large single copy region) and IR (inverted repeat region B) in Group A may reflect incomplete lineage sorting within this group, which possibly contributed to the unclear phylogenetic relationships among these clades inferred from plastome data. Molecular clock analysis revealed the chloroplast capture events mainly occurred during the middle to late Miocene, providing a geological and climate context for the evolution of Apioideae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107183DOI Listing
April 2021

Paris saponin VII, a direct activator of AMPK, induces autophagy and exhibits therapeutic potential in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Mar;19(3):195-204

Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Wudang Local Chinese Medicine Research and Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China; Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Biomedical Research Institute, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China. Electronic address:

Paris saponin VII (PSVII), a bioactive constituent extracted from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim., is cytotoxic to several cancer types. This study was designed to explore whether PSVII prevents non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) proliferation and to investigate its molecular target. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been implicated in the activation of autophagy in distinct tissues. In cultured human NSCLC cell lines, PSVII induces autophagy by activating AMPK and inhibiting mTOR signaling. Furthermore, PSVII-induced autophagy activation was reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Computational docking analysis showed that PSVII directly interacted with the allosteric drug and metabolite site of AMPK to stabilize its activation. Microscale thermophoresis assay and drug affinity responsive target stability assay further confirmed the high affinity between PSVII and AMPK. In summary, PSVII acts as a direct AMPK activator to induce cell autophagy, which inhibits the growth of NSCLC cells. In the future, PSVII therapy should be applied to treat patients with NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60021-3DOI Listing
March 2021

The combination of initial markers to predict refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Chinese children: a case control study.

Respir Res 2021 Mar 22;22(1):89. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neonatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 227, Yanta West Road, Yanta district, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 86-710061, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Thise study is aimed to identify the biomarkers for predicting refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Chinese children at the time of the hospital admission.

Methods: The case control study retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and laboratory results of Chinese pediatric patients presenting with common and refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (CMPP and RMPP). Overall, there were 216 cases in the CMPP group and 88 cases in the RMPP group. Venous blood was collected, and serum ferritin (SF), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil count/lymphocyte count (NLR), and other indexes were measured. A single factor analysis, an ROC curve analysis, and a logistic regression analysis were used to determine the independent risk factors of RMPP and find combination of initial markers for RMPP.

Results: There were significant differences between the RMPP group and the CMPP group in mean SF (529.82 [357.86] vs. 147.22 [122.68] ng/mL), LDH (522.08 [389.08] vs. 286.85 [101.02] U/L), D-dimer (6.65 [5.66] vs. 1.46 [2.45] μg/mL), CRP (62.80 [52.15] vs. 19.03 [24.50] mg/L), PCT (0.80 [2.61] vs. 0.16 [0.44]) ng/mL, and NLR (4.14 [2.52] vs. 2.62 [1.55]), with P < 0.05 for each comparison. ROC cut-off values of the above indexes were 329.01 ng/mL, 375.50 U/L, 2.10 μg/mL, 43.08 mg/L, 0.08 ng/mL, and 2.96, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that SF, D-dimer, and CRP are independent risk factors to predict RMPP.

Conclusion: SF, D-dimer, and CRP are statistically significant biomarkers to predict RMPP in Chinese children patients in the settings of pediatric emergency department.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01577-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983087PMC
March 2021

The complete chloroplast genome of (Rosaceae: Colurieae).

Authors:
Qin-Qin Li Jun Wen

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Feb 3;6(2):297-298. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

The complete chloroplast genome of is reported and characterized in this study. The chloroplast genome of was a circular form with a size of 155,940 bp in length. The genome presented a typical quadripartite structure composed of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,152 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 85,307 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,329 bp. The genome contained a set of 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes, in which 17 were duplicated and 112 were unique. Phylogenetic analysis placed as sister to based on current sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1861562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872518PMC
February 2021

Construction of biological factor-coated stent and its effect on promoting endothelialization.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Mar 5;122:111943. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China. Electronic address:

Recently, just taking endothelialization of stent as an interventional treatment of aneurysms is unsatisfactory. This treatment also has impacts the occlusion rate of the aneurysm. In accordance with that, the authors aims to construct a novel biological factor-coated stent with dual biological effects of anticoagulation and endothelialization for the improvement of the occlusion rate of aneurysms and reduction of the risk for treatment of aneurysm with intravascular interventional therapy. The Ni-Ti alloy sheets loaded with VEGF and anti-CD34 antibody were put into use for stimulating the construction of the biological factor-coated stents, for the Ni-Ti alloy sheets could help improve the proliferation of endothelial cell (EC), recognize effectively and adhere to endothelial progenitor cell (EPC). Blood compatibility characterization methods (water contact angle, platelet activation test, clotting time evaluation and protein adsorption test) were applied for study the influence of the interaction between the Ni-Ti alloy sheets and blood. Cell experiments (HUVEC proliferation experiment, migration experiment and EPC capture experiment) were resorted to investigate the ability of the sheets to promote the proliferation of HUVEC and to capture EPCs. With the mature of the construction technology, the Enterprise stent with the biological factors were optimized accordingly, the biological function of that were verified by cell experiments. Studies showed that Ni-Ti alloy sheets and enterprise stents can successfully load with VEGF and anti-CD34 antibody. The below achievements can be realized including a better blood compatibility and effects of the constructed sheets and enterprise stents on promoting HUVEC proliferation and adhesion of EPC. It was meaningful of conversion to clinical application to improve the cure rate of the aneurysm and the safety of the intravascular treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.111943DOI Listing
March 2021

Periodic mesoporous organosilica-coated magnetite nanoparticles combined with lipiodol for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization to inhibit the progression of liver cancer.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 10;591:211-220. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Interventional Therapy, Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is standard locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that involves the injection of chemotherapeutic drugs with embolic agents into tumor tissues through intra-arterial transcatheter infusion. TACE technology using lipiodol emulsion has been most widely used in the treatment of human HCC. However, lipiodol emulsions with anticancer drugs do not stably maintain high drug concentrations at tumor sites. Herein, we developed a dual-modality imaging nanoplatform for the TACE treatment of liver cancer by integrating periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with magnetite (FeO) nanoparticles and Cy5.5 molecules (denoted as FeO@PMO-Cy5.5). FeO@PMO-Cy5.5 showed an excellent doxorubicin (Dox)-loading capacity, sensitive drug release behavior under acidic conditions, and good biocompatibility. Moreover, Cy5.5-mediated optical imaging showed that Dox-loaded FeO@PMO-Cy5.5 (FeO@PMO-Cy5.5-Dox) could enter liver cancer cells and effectively inhibit their growth. In addition, FeO@PMO-Cy5.5-Dox was used in combination with transarterial embolization for the treatment of in situ VX2 liver tumors in rabbits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation showed that FeO@PMO-Cy5.5-Dox perfused through arteries was deposited into liver tumors, and FeO@PMO-Cy5.5-Dox combined with lipiodol to control liver tumors yielded the optimal therapeutic effect. In addition, histological analysis showed that compared with both lipiodol embolization and traditional lipiodol combined with Dox chemoembolization, FeO@PMO-Cy5.5-Dox combined with lipiodol chemoembolization induced more complete tumor tissue necrosis. In summary, these results indicate that the FeO@PMO-Cy5.5-Dox platform has the potential to become an advanced tool for the transarterial treatment of unresectable liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.02.022DOI Listing
June 2021

A phylogenomic approach resolves the backbone of Prunus (Rosaceae) and identifies signals of hybridization and allopolyploidy.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jul 18;160:107118. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, MRC 166, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA.

The genus Prunus, which contains 250-400 species, has ample genomic resources for the economically important taxa in the group including cherries, peaches, and almonds. However, the backbone of Prunus, specifically the position of the racemose group relative to the solitary and corymbose groups, remains phylogenetically uncertain. Surprisingly, phylogenomic analyses to resolve relationships in the genus are lacking. Here, we assemble transcriptomes from 17 Prunus species representing four subgenera, and use existing transcriptome assemblies, to resolve key relationships in the genus using a phylogenomic approach. From the transcriptomes, we constructed 21-taxon datasets of putatively single-copy nuclear genes with 591 and 379 genes, depending on taxon-occupancy filtering. Plastome sequences were obtained or assembled for all species present in the nuclear data set. The backbone of Prunus was resolved consistently in the nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies, but we found substantial cytonuclear discord within subgenera. Our nuclear phylogeny recovered a monophyletic racemose group, contrasting with previous studies finding paraphyly that suggests repeated allopolyploidy early in the evolutionary history of the genus. However, we detected multiple species with histories consistent with hybridization and allopolyploidy, including a deep hybridization event involving subgenus Amygdalus and the Armeniaca clade in subgenus Prunus. Analyses of gene tree conflict revealed substantial discord at several nodes, including the crown node of the racemose group. Alternative gene tree topologies that conflicted with the species tree were consistent with a paraphyletic racemose group, highlighting the complex reticulated evolutionary history of this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107118DOI Listing
July 2021

Predicting a Potential Link to Antidepressant Effect: Neuroprotection of Zhi-zi-chi Decoction on Glutamate-induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

Front Pharmacol 2020 25;11:625108. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Zhi-zi-chi Decoction (ZZCD), composed of (Zhizi in Chinese, ZZ in brief) and (Dandouchi in Chinese, DDC in brief), has been used as a drug therapy for depression for thousands of years in China. However, the antidepressant mechanism of ZZCD still remains unknown. This study was aimed at exploring antidepressant effects of ZZCD from the aspect of neuroprotection based on herb compatibility. Glutamate-treated PC12 cells and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rats were established as models of depression and respectively. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), apoptosis rate, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (CREB) were measured to compare neuroprotection among single herbs and the formula . Behavior tests were conducted to validate antidepressant effects of ZZCD . Results showed that the compatibility of ZZ and DDC increased cell viability and activities of GR and SOD, and decreased the levels of LDH, apoptosis cells and ROS. Besides, the expressions of Bcl-2 and CREB were up-regulated while that of Bax was down-regulated by ZZCD. Furthermore, the compatibility of ZZ and DDC reversed abnormal behaviors in CUMS-induced rats and displayed higher efficacy than any of the single herbs. This study revealed that the antidepressant effects of ZZCD were closely associated with neuroprotection and elucidated synergistic effects of the compatibility of ZZ and DDC based on it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.625108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868552PMC
January 2021

Does the adaptation of climate-smart agricultural practices increase farmers' resilience to climate change?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

School of Economics and Finance, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an, 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Traditional agricultural practices, extensive use of inputs, and abrupt changes in climate have been of great concern to agriculture production around the world, especially in developing countries. Therefore, it is very vital to adopt and expand Climate-Smart agricultural (CSA) practices. By the cross-sectional data of 350 cotton farmers from major cotton-growing districts of Punjab Pakistan, adoption of CSA practices such as irrigation and soil and crop management practices is evaluated, and factors which affect farmer adoption decision and its impact on poverty, income, and yield are estimated by using logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) respectively. The results found that education, access to credit, tubewell ownership, farming experience, and access to extension services positively influenced farmers' adoption behavior. Further, PSM results revealed that adoption of CSA practices is economical, financially, environmentally desirable, and pro-poor. According to these findings, ultimately adoption would help in reducing the negative impact of climate change on the cotton crop by ensuring profits, removing the barriers in the adoption, disseminating the information about CSA, and strictly enforcing the regulations for CSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12425-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Vaccines are not yet a silver bullet: The imperative of continued communication about the importance of COVID-19 safety measures.

Brain Behav Immun Health 2021 Mar 20;12:100204. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Unit of Psychiatry, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Center for Cognition and Brain Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

COVID-19 vaccines are by no means a silver bullet. With more COVID-19 vaccines expecting approval in the coming months, it is necessary to note that vaccine availability does not equate to vaccine accessibility, nor vaccine efficacy. Some research suggests that approximately 9 out of 10 individuals living in lower-income countries will not have access to COVID-19 vaccines until 2023 or later. For higher-income countries, such as the United States, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy may further compound the situation. These insights combined, in turn, emphasize the fact that even though COVID-19 vaccines are becoming more available, safety measures (e.g., face masks, personal hygiene, and social distancing) are still of pivotal importance in protecting personal and public health against COVID-19. Furthermore, this paper argues for the continued imperative for health experts and government officials to communicate and emphasize the importance of COVID-19 safety measures with the public, to make sure people are protected against COVID-19 till the pandemic ceases to pose a threat to personal or public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2021.100204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817456PMC
March 2021

Isoflavones' effects on pharmacokinetic profiles of main iridoids from in rats.

J Pharm Anal 2020 Dec 14;10(6):571-580. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

(GF) and Praeparatum (SSP) are both medicine food homologies and widely used in Chinese clinical prescriptions together. The research investigated the pharmacokinetics of four iridoids in normal rats and isolfavones-fed rats, which were administered with isolfavones from SSP for 7, 14, 21 and 28 consecutive days. A validated LC-MS/MS method was developed for determining shanzhiside, genipin-1-gentiobioside, geniposide and their metabolite genipin in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction using paeoniflorin as the internal standard. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Atlantis T3 (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 3 μm) column using a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitril and water (containing 0.06% acetic acid). The mass detection was under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via polarity switching between negative and positive ionization modes. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity ( > 0.997) for all components. The lower limit of quantitation was in the range of 1-10 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD) at three different levels were both less than 12.2% and the accuracies (RE) ranged from -10.1% to 16.4%. The extraction recovery of them ranged from 53.8% to 99.7%. Pharmacokinetic results indicated the bioavailability of three iridoid glycosides and the metabolite, genipin in normal rats was higher than that in rats exposed to isoflavones. With the longer time of administration of isoflavones, plasma concentrations of iridoids decreased, while genipin sulfate, the phase Ⅱ metabolite of genposide and genipin-1-gentiobioside, appeared the rising exposure. The pharmacokinetic profiles of main iridoids from GF were altered by isoflavones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2019.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775847PMC
December 2020

Public health lessons from crisis-related travel: The COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors:
Jun Wen Zhaohui Su

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jan 15;14(1):158-159. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Center on Smart and Connected Health Technologies, Mays Cancer Center, School of Nursing, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832211PMC
January 2021

Mental health consequences of COVID-19 media coverage: the need for effective crisis communication practices.

Global Health 2021 01 5;17(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Unit of Psychiatry, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences; & Center for Cognition and Brain Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

During global pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), crisis communication is indispensable in dispelling fears, uncertainty, and unifying individuals worldwide in a collective fight against health threats. Inadequate crisis communication can bring dire personal and economic consequences. Mounting research shows that seemingly endless newsfeeds related to COVID-19 infection and death rates could considerably increase the risk of mental health problems. Unfortunately, media reports that include infodemics regarding the influence of COVID-19 on mental health may be a source of the adverse psychological effects on individuals. Owing partially to insufficient crisis communication practices, media and news organizations across the globe have played minimal roles in battling COVID-19 infodemics. Common refrains include raging QAnon conspiracies, a false and misleading "Chinese virus" narrative, and the use of disinfectants to "cure" COVID-19. With the potential to deteriorate mental health, infodemics fueled by a kaleidoscopic range of misinformation can be dangerous. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of research on how to improve crisis communication across media and news organization channels. This paper identifies ways that legacy media reports on COVID-19 and how social media-based infodemics can result in mental health concerns. This paper discusses possible crisis communication solutions that media and news organizations can adopt to mitigate the negative influences of COVID-19 related news on mental health. Emphasizing the need for global media entities to forge a fact-based, person-centered, and collaborative response to COVID-19 reporting, this paper encourages media resources to focus on the core issue of how to slow or stop COVID-19 transmission effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00654-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784222PMC
January 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of DC. (Magnoliaceae) from Central America.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jan 24;5(1):798-799. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Regional Plant Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement (CTGU)/Biotechnology Research Center, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

The chloroplast genome of the species from Central America has never been reported. With its local use for food flavoring, medicine, and wood, has been of good economic importance. In the present study, the complete chloroplast genome of was assembled via the genome skimming data. As a typical quadripartite structure, the plastome of with 159,906 bp in length includes two inverted repeats (26,554 bp) separated by a small single copy region (18,761 bp) as well as a large single copy region (88,037 bp). This chloroplast genome consists of 131 different genes, including 86 protein coding genes (CDS), eight rRNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis showed that from Central America was closely related to an evergreen species, from East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1715854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748584PMC
January 2020

Chloroplast phylogenomics and character evolution of eastern Asian Astragalus (Leguminosae): Tackling the phylogenetic structure of the largest genus of flowering plants in Asia.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 03 30;156:107025. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA. Electronic address:

Astragalus, as the largest genus of the flowering plants, is well-known for its high species richness and morphological diversity. Previous studies suggested that many of the subgenera of Astragalus are not monophyletic and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still poorly known. In this study, we sampled 117 accessions of Astragalus and its close relatives, covering 55 sections of the genus plus 30 outgroup taxa to recover the main clades of eastern Asian Astragalus based on sequences of the whole chloroplast genome and 65 chloroplast CDSs. Astragalus is supported to be monophyletic and it is sister to the Oxytropis + Coluteoid clade. Within Astragalus, we recovered ten clades, and the ten clades differ substantially from Bunge's subgenera. The former segregate genus Astracantha is also monophyletic, but embedded within Astragalus s. str., supporting the merge of the spiny former genus Astracantha with Astragalus. We detected the atpF intron losses in the chloroplast genome of the Oxytropis + Coluteoid clade, i.e., the sister clade to Astragalus. Furthermore, we estimated the ancestral states of the trichome morphology and habit via the Bayesian Binary Method. The medifixed hair type is inferred to have developed at least five times and the annual habit originated at least six times. In addition, Astragalus is estimated to have originated in the mid Miocene (stem age, 16.09 Ma, 95% HPD: 12.46-20.50 Ma). The divergence times of the medifixed hair groups ranged from 4.03 to 0.87 Ma, mostly 2-1 Ma, which are correlated with the estimated phased uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We hypothesize that the uplifts of the QTP, which contributed to aridification in eastern Asia and the adjacent regions, may have accelerated the rapid speciation of Astragalus, especially the xerophilous groups (i.e. the medifixed hair groups).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.107025DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficient Removal 17-Estradiol by Graphene-Like Magnetic Sawdust Biochar: Preparation Condition and Adsorption Mechanism.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 12;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China.

The occurrence of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic environments has caused extensive concern. Graphene-like magnetic sawdust biochar was synthesized using potassium ferrate (KFeO) to make activated sawdust biochar and applied for the removal of 17-estradiol (E2). The characterization showed that the surface morphology of five graphene-like magnetic sawdust biochars prepared with different preparation conditions were quite different. The specific surface area and pore structure increased with the increment of KFeO addition. The results have shown that graphene-like magnetic sawdust biochar (1:1/900 °C) had the best removal on E2. The experimental results indicated that pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model could describe the adsorption process well, in which the equilibrium adsorption capacity () of 1:1/900 °C were 59.18 mg·g obtained from pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the maximum adsorption capacity () of 1:1/900 °C were 133.45 mg·g obtained from Langmuir model at 298K. At the same time, lower temperatures, the presence of humic acid (HA), and the presence of NaCl could be regulated to change the adsorption reaction in order to remove E2. Adsorption capacity was decreased with the increase of solution pH because pH value not only changed the surface charge of graphene-like magnetic sawdust biochar, but also affected the E2 in the water. The possible adsorption mechanism for E2 adsorption on graphene-like magnetic sawdust biochar was multifaceted, involving chemical adsorption and physical absorption, such as H-bonding, π-π interactions, micropore filling effects, and electrostatic interaction. To sum up, graphene-like magnetic sawdust biochar was found to be a promising absorbent for E2 removal from water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696789PMC
November 2020

Plastomes of eight Ligusticum species: characterization, genome evolution, and phylogenetic relationships.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Nov 13;20(1):519. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Background: The genus Ligusticum consists of approximately 60 species distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. It is one of the most taxonomically difficult taxa within Apiaceae, largely due to the varied morphological characteristics. To investigate the plastome evolution and phylogenetic relationships of Ligusticum, we determined the complete plastome sequences of eight Ligusticum species using a de novo assembly approach.

Results: Through a comprehensive comparative analysis, we found that the eight plastomes were similar in terms of repeat sequence, SSR, codon usage, and RNA editing site. However, compared with the other seven species, L. delavayi exhibited striking differences in genome size, gene number, IR/SC borders, and sequence identity. Most of the genes remained under the purifying selection, whereas four genes showed relaxed selection, namely ccsA, rpoA, ycf1, and ycf2. Non-monophyly of Ligusticum species was inferred from the plastomes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences phylogenetic analyses.

Conclusion: The plastome tree and ITS tree produced incongruent tree topologies, which may be attributed to the hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. Our study highlighted the advantage of plastome with mass informative sites in resolving phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, combined with the previous studies, we considered that the current taxonomy system of Ligusticum needs to be improved and revised. In summary, our study provides new insights into the plastome evolution, phylogeny, and taxonomy of Ligusticum species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02696-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663912PMC
November 2020

(Apiaceae), a new species from southwest China.

PhytoKeys 2020 21;164:11-19. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Key laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, 610065, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Sichuan University Chengdu China.

A new species (Apiaceae) is described and illustrated in this article. The new species grows in alpine bushes and meadows in south-western China. It resembles , but differs from the latter by the length of the stem, ultimate segments of leaf and rays of the umbel. Phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, is provided, as well as comparative morphology between related species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.164.54927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593316PMC
October 2020

Grief and Posttraumatic Growth Among Chinese Bereaved Parents Who Lost Their Only Child: The Moderating Role of Interpersonal Loss.

Front Psychol 2020 9;11:558313. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Center for Complicated Grief, Columbia School of Social Work, New York, NY, United States.

: Losing the only child is considered as the most severe kind of bereavement. It can trigger intense grief symptoms along with loss of psychosocial resources, but meanwhile, it can also lead to posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current study aimed to examine (a) whether a curvilinear relationship exists between grief and PTG and (b) the moderating role of resources-loss among Chinese bereaved parents who lost their only child (shidu parents). : One hundred and ninety-nine shidu parents from five provinces completed the assessment packet covering prolonged grief symptoms and PTG, as well as resource loss. Hierarchical regression analyses were computed to examine the curvilinear relationship and the moderating effect of interpersonal loss and socio-economic loss. : There was no significant curvilinear relationship between grief and PTG in shidu parents. Under the high levels of interpersonal loss, shidu parents' PTG scores decreased as the severity of grief increased. However, the socio-economic loss did not show a significant moderating effect. : The results of the current study did not show a significant curvilinear relationship between grief and PTG in shidu parents. High levels of grief coupled with high levels of interpersonal loss may interfere with their ability to achieve PTG. Therefore, evaluating degrees of interpersonal loss seems to be an important part of the treatment process when working with shidu parents. To facilitate their adaptation from a positive perspective, helping them maintain existing or develop new interpersonal relationships may be helpful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.558313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581902PMC
October 2020

Site Occupation and Spectral Assignment in Eu-Activated β-Ca(PO)-Type Phosphors: Insights from First-Principles Calculations.

Inorg Chem 2020 Nov 5;59(22):16760-16768. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Optoelectric Materials Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000, China.

Eu-activated β-Ca(PO)-type phosphors have attracted significant experimental interest for applications in solid-state lighting because of the presence of multiple cation sites, which is highly desirable for site engineering of activator emission. However, the site occupation and associated spectral assignment of dopant Eu, and hence the mechanism behind the site-regulated emission tuning, still remain elusive. Herein, we perform a systematic first-principles study on Eu-doped Ca(PO), CaM(PO) (M = Li, Na, K), and Ca(PO):Mg by combining density functional theory and multiconfigurational ab initio calculations. The results show that, among the isovalent Eu substitutions in Ca(PO), the occurrence probability correlates positively with the size of the substituted site, which is, nevertheless, weakened by the incorporation of codopant Mg ions. In the presence of aliovalent Eu substitutions as in CaM(PO), the site-size-controlled preference is neutralized by the requirement for charge compensation, and the effect becomes more pronounced with an increase of the M ionic size. On this basis, the emission spectra of the phosphors are interpreted with respect to the substituted sites and the mechanism behind the composition dependence of the emission color is consistently elucidated, as is also verified by a comparison between the calculated 4f → 5d transition energies and experimental excitation spectra. Our results provide a new perspective on the site preference of Eu in β-Ca(PO)-type compounds and may also serve as a theoretical guideline on the structure-property relationship for the design of other Eu-activated phosphors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c02849DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of Arteriovenous Thrombolysis Combined with Mechanical Thrombectomy on Efficacy and Neurological Function of Acute Cerebral Infarct Patients.

Biomed Res Int 2020 9;2020:9743075. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Neurology, The First People's Hospital, 818 Renmin East Road, Changde City, Hunan Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of arteriovenous thrombolysis combined with mechanical thrombectomy on clinical efficacy, neurological function, and the changes of nerve injury markers of acute cerebral infarct (ACI) patients.

Methods: A total of 143 cases with ACI admitted to our hospital from June 2017 to June 2019 were elected as research subjects. Among them, 69 cases of patients who received treatment of arteriovenous thrombolysis were considered as group A, and 74 cases of patients who received treatment of arteriovenous thrombolysis combined with mechanical thrombectomy were considered as group B. NIHSS score, clinical efficacy, vascular recanalization, adverse reactions, hemodynamics, neurological injury indexes, duration of coma, length of hospital stay, and prognosis of patients in the two groups were compared.

Results: After treatment, the NIHSS score of group A was higher than that of group B ( < 0.05), the clinical efficacy of group B was better than that of group A, and the incidence of adverse reactions was lower than that of group A ( < 0.05). There was no difference in vascular recanalization rate, duration of coma, and prognosis between the two groups ( > 0.05). Length of hospital stay, maximum peak velocity after treatment (Vs), and mean flow rate (Vm) of group A were lower than those of group B, while vascular resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), serum glutamic acid (Glu), neuron-specific enolase (NES), and S100 protein detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of group A were higher than those of group B ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Arteriovenous thrombolysis combined with mechanical thrombectomy has a significant effect on ACI, with high safety and quick effect. In addition, it has a stronger effect on improving and protecting the neurological function of patients, which is worth promoting in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9743075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568809PMC
May 2021

A race for a better understanding of COVID-19 vaccine non-adopters.

Brain Behav Immun Health 2020 Dec 9;9:100159. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

School of Public Health, China Institute for Urban Governance, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

In this paper, we aim to underscore the need for a more nuanced understanding of vaccine non-adopters. As the availability of vaccines does not translate into their adoption-a phenomenon that may be more pronounced amid "Operation Warp Speed"-it is important for public health professionals to thoroughly understand their "customers" (i.e., end users of COVID-19 vaccines) to ensure satisfactory vaccination rates and to safeguard society at large.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544597PMC
December 2020

Key rules of life and the fading cryosphere: Impacts in alpine lakes and streams.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Dec 19;26(12):6644-6656. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

School of Biology and Ecology, Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA.

Alpine regions are changing rapidly due to loss of snow and ice in response to ongoing climate change. While studies have documented ecological responses in alpine lakes and streams to these changes, our ability to predict such outcomes is limited. We propose that the application of fundamental rules of life can help develop necessary predictive frameworks. We focus on four key rules of life and their interactions: the temperature dependence of biotic processes from enzymes to evolution; the wavelength dependence of the effects of solar radiation on biological and ecological processes; the ramifications of the non-arbitrary elemental stoichiometry of life; and maximization of limiting resource use efficiency across scales. As the cryosphere melts and thaws, alpine lakes and streams will experience major changes in temperature regimes, absolute and relative inputs of solar radiation in ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation, and relative supplies of resources (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus), leading to nonlinear and interactive effects on particular biota, as well as on community and ecosystem properties. We propose that applying these key rules of life to cryosphere-influenced ecosystems will reduce uncertainties about the impacts of global change and help develop an integrated global view of rapidly changing alpine environments. However, doing so will require intensive interdisciplinary collaboration and international cooperation. More broadly, the alpine cryosphere is an example of a system where improving our understanding of mechanistic underpinnings of living systems might transform our ability to predict and mitigate the impacts of ongoing global change across the daunting scope of diversity in Earth's biota and environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15362DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Billroth-II versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction for gastrojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy on delayed gastric emptying: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Chengdu Third People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Background/purpose: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is one of the most common complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of Billroth-II(B-II) versus Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction for gastrojejunostomy on DGE after PD.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using the electronic database MEDLINE (via PubMed and OVID), EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) of the Cochrane Library to select pertinent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic from January 1990 to January 2020. The primary outcome was identified as postoperative DGE. Subgroup analysis was established to compare the incidence of grade B and C DGE. Software Revman 5.3 was used for the statistical analysis, summary statistics were calculated using fixed effect model or random effect model.

Results: Five RCTs including a total of 612 patients were eligible for this meta-analysis. The incidence of grade B and C DGE was significantly lower with the B-II reconstruction than with the R-Y reconstruction (8.0% vs. 14.8%, OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.95, P = 0.03) and the B-II reconstruction took a shorter operation time (WMD=-7.18, 95% CI: [-13.09, -1.27], P = 0,02). No statistically significant difference was found between the two reconstruction methods in terms of the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), bile leak, intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative pneumonia and the length of postoperative hospital stay.

Conclusions: B-II reconstruction after PD has a lower incidence of grade B and C DGE and shorter operation time compared with R-Y reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.828DOI Listing
September 2020

Phylogenomic relationships and character evolution of the grape family (Vitaceae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 01 29;154:106948. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, MRC166, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012, USA. Electronic address:

The grape family consists of 16 genera and ca. 950 species. It is best known for the economically important fruit crop - the grape Vitis vinifera. The deep phylogenetic relationships and character evolution of the grape family have attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. We herein reconstruct the phylogenomic relationships within Vitaceae using nuclear and plastid genes based on the Hyb-Seq approach and test the newly proposed classification system of the family. The five tribes of the grape family, including Ampelopsideae, Cayratieae, Cisseae, Parthenocisseae, and Viteae, are each robustly supported by both nuclear and chloroplast genomic data and the backbone relationships are congruent with previous reports. The cupular floral disc (raised above and free from ovary at the upper part) is an ancestral state of Vitaceae, with the inconspicuous floral disc as derived in the tribe Parthenocisseae, and the state of adnate to the ovary as derived in the tribe Viteae. The 5-merous floral pattern was inferred to be the ancestral in Vitaceae, with the 4-merous flowers evolved at least two times in the family. The compound dichasial cyme (cymose with two secondary axes) is ancestral in Vitaceae and the thyrse inflorescence (a combination of racemose and cymose branching) in tribe Viteae is derived. The ribbon-like trichome only evolved once in Vitaceae, as a synapomorphy for the tribe Viteae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106948DOI Listing
January 2021

Asiaticoside Antagonizes Proliferation and Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Cells.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Aug 30;26:e924435. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Second Department of Hepatopathy, Tianjin Second People's Hospital, Tianjin, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most prevalent malignant tumor in China after lung cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, and breast cancer, and has a high mortality rate. Though there are a series of therapeutic strategies is now available for HCC in clinical practice, the 5-year survival rate after surgery is still low. In addition, multi-drug resistance (MDR) is one of the most important factors responsible for the low survival rate and poor therapy response in HCC. Hence, novel treatment strategies and molecules for HCC need to be developed. MATERIAL AND METHODS We assessed the effect of asiaticoside, a natural product derived from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, on HCC cell proliferation and drug resistance. RESULTS Our data indicated that asiaticoside significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cell lines QGY-7703 and Bel-7402 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, asiaticoside significantly induced apoptosis in QGY-7703 and Bel-7402 cells. Treatment with asiaticoside also caused G1 cell cycle arrest in QGY-7703 and Bel-7402 cells. Western blot assay results indicated that the mechanism underlying the effects of asiaticoside involves inhibiting the activity of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways. Furthermore, asiaticoside significantly antagonized P-gp-mediated MDR in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that asiaticoside has the potential to be applied in the treatment of HCC patients, but further evidence is needed to confirm our results, particularly in vivo efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.924435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480090PMC
August 2020

A synopsis of the expanded (Maleae, Rosaceae).

PhytoKeys 2020 3;154:19-55. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA National Museum of Natural History Washington United States of America.

As part of the integrative systematic studies on the tribe Maleae, a synopsis of the expanded is presented, recognizing 45 species. Three new forms were validated: R. bengalensis f. contracta B.B.Liu & J.Wen, R. bengalensis f. intermedia B.B.Liu & J.Wen, and R. bengalensis f. multinervata B.B.Liu & J.Wen, and four new combinations are made here: R. bengalensis f. angustifolia (Cardot) B.B.Liu & J.Wen, R. bengalensis f. gigantea (J.E.Vidal) B.B.Liu & J.Wen, (W.B.Liao, Q.Fan & S.F.Chen) B.B.Liu & J.Wen, and (Hook.f.) B.B.Liu & J.Wen. Furthermore, one new name, B.B.Liu & J.Wen is proposed here, and three taxa were reduced as new synonyms. We also provide lectotypification for 13 names: , , , , , , R. ferruginea var. serrata, , , , , R. indica subsp. umbellata var. liukiuensis, and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.154.52790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419340PMC
August 2020

Evolutionary directions of single nucleotide substitutions and structural mutations in the chloroplast genomes of the family Calycanthaceae.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 07 31;20(1):96. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.

Background: Chloroplast genome sequence data is very useful in studying/addressing the phylogeny of plants at various taxonomic ranks. However, there are no empirical observations on the patterns, directions, and mutation rates, which are the key topics in chloroplast genome evolution. In this study, we used Calycanthaceae as a model to investigate the evolutionary patterns, directions and rates of both nucleotide substitutions and structural mutations at different taxonomic ranks.

Results: There were 2861 polymorphic nucleotide sites on the five chloroplast genomes, and 98% of polymorphic sites were biallelic. There was a single-nucleotide substitution bias in chloroplast genomes. A → T or T → A (2.84%) and G → C or C → G (3.65%) were found to occur significantly less frequently than the other four transversion mutation types. Synonymous mutations kept balanced pace with nonsynonymous mutations, whereas biased directions appeared between transition and transversion mutations and among transversion mutations. Of the structural mutations, indels and repeats had obvious directions, but microsatellites and inversions were non-directional. Structural mutations increased the single nucleotide mutations rates. The mutation rates per site per year were estimated to be 0.14-0.34 × 10 for nucleotide substitution at different taxonomic ranks, 0.64 × 10 for indels and 1.0 × 10 for repeats.

Conclusions: Our direct counts of chloroplast genome evolution events provide raw data for correctly modeling the evolution of sequence data for phylogenetic inferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01661-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393888PMC
July 2020

Chloroplast Phylogenomics Reveals the Intercontinental Biogeographic History of the Liquorice Genus (Leguminosae: ).

Front Plant Sci 2020 17;11:793. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

The liquorice genus, L. (Leguminosae), is a medicinal herb with great economic importance and an intriguing intercontinental disjunct distribution in Eurasia, North Africa, the Americas, and Australia. , along with Boiss. and Fisch. & C.A.Mey., comprise s.l. Here we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history in s.l. using sequence data of whole chloroplast genomes. We found that s.l. is sister to the tribe Wisterieae and is divided into four main clades. Clade I, corresponds to and is sister to sensu Meng. is embedded within sensu Meng, and these two genera together form Clades II-IV. Based on biogeographic analyses and divergence time dating, s.l. originated during the late Eocene and its most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was distributed in the interior of Eurasia and the circum-Mediterranean region. A vicariance event, which was possibly a response to the uplifting of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, may have driven the divergence between sensu Meng and in the Middle Miocene. The third and fourth main uplift events of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may have led to rapid evolutionary diversification within sensu Meng. Subsequently, the MRCA of Clade II might have migrated to North America () via the Bering land bridge during the early Pliocene, and reached temperate South America () by long-distance dispersal (LDD). Within Clade III, the ancestor of arrived at southern Australia through LDD after the late Pliocene, whereas all other species (the SPEY clade) migrated to the interior of Eurasia and the Mediterranean region in the early Pleistocene. The MRCA of Clade IV was restricted in the interior of Eurasia, but its descendants have become widespread in temperate regions of the Old World Northern Hemisphere during the last million years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318913PMC
June 2020