Publications by authors named "Jun Song"

705 Publications

Access to Allene-Containing Molecules via Enantioselective Reactions of Azolium Cumulenolate Intermediates.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Nanyang Technological University, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, 21 Nanyang Link, 637371, Singapore, SINGAPORE.

Azolium cumulenolates are a special type of intermediates in N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis. They contain elongated linear structures with three contiguous C=C bonds and sterically unhindered α-carbon. These structure features make it difficult to develop enantioselective reactions for these intermediates. Here we disclose the first carbene-catalyzed highly enantioselective addition reactions of azolium cumulenolates. The reaction starts with alkynals as the precursors for azolium cumulenolate intermediates that undergo enantioselective addition to activated ketones. From the same set of substrates, both allene and spirooxindole products can be obtained with high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. The allene moieties in our optically enriched products carry rich reactivities and can be transformed to diverse molecules. The spirooxindole scaffolds in our products are important structural motifs in natural products and medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102177DOI Listing
April 2021

The Effects of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis on the Gut Microbiota of End-Stage Renal Disease Patients, and the Relationship Between Gut Microbiota and Patient Prognoses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:579386. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Nephrology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Gut microbiota alterations occur in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with or without dialysis. However, it remains unclear whether changes in gut microbiota of dialysis ESRD patients result from dialysis or ESRD, or both. Similarly, there is a dearth of information on the relationship between gut microbiota and ESRD prognoses. We collected fecal samples and tracked clinical outcomes from 73 ESRD patients, including 33 pre-dialysis ESRD patients, 19 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and 21 hemodialysis (HD) patients. 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the gut microbiota of ESRD patients and healthy controls. Gut microbiota diversity was different before and after dialysis. Bacteroidetes were significantly deceased in HD patients. Twelve bacterial genera exhibited statistically significant differences, due to dialysis (all < 0.05, FDR corrected). HD reversed abnormal changes in and in pre-dialysis patients. Functional predictions of microbial communities showed that PD and HD altered signal transduction and metabolic pathways in ESRD patients. Furthermore, and were associated with cardiovascular mortality. , , and were related to peritonitis in PD patients. This study not only demonstrated differences in gut microbiota between pre-dialysis and dialysis ESRD patients, but also firstly proposed gut bacteria may exert an impact on patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.579386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021868PMC
March 2021

COVID-19 infection manifesting as a severe gastroparesis flare: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25467

Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which commonly presents with symptoms including fever, cough, and dyspnea. More recently, however, some patients have tested positive for COVID-19 after developing gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms either solely or in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. This may be due to SARS-CoV-2 infection of the GI tract. In patients with chronic GI illnesses, COVID-19 may initially present as a flare of their underlying GI conditions as viruses have historically been implicated in exacerbations of GI disorders, including gastroparesis.

Patient Concerns: We report a case of a 37-year-old female with a history of diabetic gastroparesis who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with nausea and vomiting similar to her gastroparesis flares.

Diagnoses: Her symptoms in the ED failed to improve with fluids and anti-emetic medications. After developing a fever, she was tested and found to be positive for COVID-19.

Interventions: She was started on antibiotic, steroid, and antiviral medications.

Outcomes: Her symptoms improved, her fever defervesced on day 4 of hospitalization, and she was discharged on day 5 of hospitalization. The patient reported symptom improvement at a follow-up outpatient gastroenterology visit 2 months after hospitalization.

Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, at the present time, this is the first report of a patient with COVID-19 presenting with signs and symptoms of a gastroparesis flare. This case illustrates that COVID-19 may present in an exacerbation of symptoms of an underlying disorder, such as a severe gastroparesis flare, in a patient with underlying gastroparesis. Initial presentation of these patients manifesting as a flare of their chronic GI disease, more severe than usual, should prompt an index of suspicion for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025467DOI Listing
April 2021

Optimization of 3D network topology for bioinspired design of stiff and lightweight bone-like structures.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 5;123:112010. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

A truly bioinspired approach to design optimization should follow the energetically favorable natural paradigm of "minimum inventory with maximum diversity". This study was inspired by constructive regression of trabecular bone - a natural process of network connectivity optimization occurring early in skeletal development. During trabecular network optimization, the original excessively connected network undergoes incremental pruning of redundant elements, resulting in a functional and adaptable structure operating at lowest metabolic cost. We have recapitulated this biological network topology optimization algorithm by first designing in silico an excessively connected network in which elements are dimension-independent linear connections among nodes. Based on bioinspired regression principles, least-loaded connections were iteratively pruned upon simulated loading. Evolved networks were produced along this optimization trajectory when pre-set convergence criteria were met. These biomimetic networks were compared to each other, and to the reference network derived from mature trabecular bone. Our results replicated the natural network optimization algorithm in uniaxial compressive loading. However, following triaxial loading, the optimization algorithm resulted in lattice networks that were more stretch-dominated than the reference network, and more capable of uniform load distribution. As assessed by 3D printing and mechanical testing, our heuristic network optimization procedure opens new possibilities for parametric design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112010DOI Listing
April 2021

Neurotensin differentially regulates bile acid metabolism and intestinal FXR-bile acid transporter axis in response to nutrient abundance.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21371

Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Studies demonstrate a role for neurotensin (NT) in obesity and related comorbidities. Bile acid (BA) homeostasis alterations are associated with obesity. We determined the effect of NT on BA metabolism in obese and non-obese conditions. Plasma and fecal BA profiles were analyzed by LC-MS/MS in male and female NT and NT mice fed low-fat (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks (early stage of obesity) or greater than 20 weeks (late stage of obesity). The nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and BA transporter mRNA expression were assessed in ileum, mouse enteroids, and human cell lines. HFD decreased plasma primary and secondary BAs in NT mice; HFD-induced decrease of plasma BAs was improved in NT-deficient mice. In NT mice, HFD inhibited ileal FXR and BA transporter expression; HFD-decreased expression of FXR and BA transporters was prevented in NT mice. Compared with LFD-fed NT mice, LFD-fed NT mice had relatively lower levels of ileal FXR and BA transporter expression. Moreover, NT stimulates the expression of FXR and BA transporters in Caco-2 cells; however, stimulated expression of BA transporters was attenuated in NT enteroids. Therefore, we demonstrate that HFD disrupts the BA metabolism and ileal FXR and BA transporter axis which are improved in the absence of NT, suggesting that NT contributes to HFD-induced disruption of BA metabolism and plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of ileal FXR and BA transporter signaling under obese conditions. Conversely, NT positively regulates the expression of ileal FXR and BA transporters under non-obese conditions. Therefore, NT plays a dual role in obese and non-obese conditions, suggesting possible therapeutic strategies for obesity control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001692RDOI Listing
May 2021

Epigenomic tensor predicts disease subtypes and reveals constrained tumor evolution.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(13):108927

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Understanding the epigenomic evolution and specificity of disease subtypes from complex patient data remains a major biomedical problem. We here present DeCET (decomposition and classification of epigenomic tensors), an integrative computational approach for simultaneously analyzing hierarchical heterogeneous data, to identify robust epigenomic differences among tissue types, differentiation states, and disease subtypes. Applying DeCET to our own data from 21 uterine benign tumor (leiomyoma) patients identifies distinct epigenomic features discriminating normal myometrium and leiomyoma subtypes. Leiomyomas possess preponderant alterations in distal enhancers and long-range histone modifications confined to chromatin contact domains that constrain the evolution of pathological epigenomes. Moreover, we demonstrate the power and advantage of DeCET on multiple publicly available epigenomic datasets representing different cancers and cellular states. Epigenomic features extracted by DeCET can thus help improve our understanding of disease states, cellular development, and differentiation, thereby facilitating future therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108927DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy of malnutrition screening tools in China for elderly outpatients.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2021 ;30(1):1-6

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Email:

Background And Objectives: Malnutrition in elderly individuals is extremely common. In China, Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) is often used to assess malnutrition in hospitalized elderly patients, although a gold standard for elderly outpatients is lacking. The Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist (NSI) and Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) have seldom been validated in elderly outpatients. This open, parallel, multi-center, cross-sectional study evaluated the performance of NRS-2002, the NSI, and the MST in estimating malnutrition risk in elderly outpatients.

Methods And Study Design: This study included 986 elderly outpatients, with 53.2% being women, from five clinical teaching hospitals in Beijing. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the tools were estimated using a body mass index (BMI) of <18.5 kg/m2 as a reference.

Results: The mean (range) age of the patients was 69.6±6.8 (60-100) years. Overall, 4.3% had BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 16.8% scored ≥3 points in NRS-2002, 9.8% scored ≥2 points in the MST, and 37.0% scored ≥3 points in the NSI. NRS-2002 had the highest sensitivity and the best AUC (0.934 vs. 0.642 for the NSI and 0.660 for the MST, p<0.05), and the MST had the highest specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of the NSI were 0.64 and 0.64, respectively.

Conclusions: NRS-2002 had the highest validity, and the MST had the highest specificity in estimating the risk of malnutrition in elderly outpatients. However, the accuracy of the NSI should be further verified with large samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.202103_30(1).0001DOI Listing
January 2021

Antimony Nanopolyhedrons with Tunable Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances for Highly Effective Photoacoustic-Imaging-Guided Synergistic Photothermal/Immunotherapy.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 30:e2100039. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center for Biomedical Optics and Photonics (CBOP) & College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, P. R. China.

Antimony (Sb), a typical group VA semimetal, has rarely been studied both experimentally and theoretically in plasmonic photothermal therapy, possibly due to the lack of effective morphology-controllable methods for the preparation of high-quality Sb nanocrystals. In this study, an effective ligand-guided growth strategy to controllably synthesize Sb nanopolyhedrons (Sb NPHs) with ultrahigh photothermal conversion efficiency (PTCE), good photothermal stability, as well as biocompatibility is presented. Furthermore, the modulation effect of different morphologies on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Sb NPHs in experimentation is successfully observed. When the resonance frequency of the Sb NPHs is matched well with the excitation wavelength (808 nm), the PTCE of the Sb NPHs is as high as 62.1%, which is noticeably higher compared to most of the reported photothermal agents. The Sb NPHs also exhibit good photothermal stability. In addition, Sb-NPHs-based multifunctional nanomedicines are further constructed via loading 1-methyl-d-tryptophan on PEGylated Sb NPHs for a highly efficient photoacoustic-imaging-guided synergistic photothermal/immune-therapy of tumors in vivo. This work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental investigations of Sb NPHs and other semimetal nanomaterials regarding their LSPR properties and inspire various potential applications of semimetals in biomedicine and sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100039DOI Listing
March 2021

LMNB2 promotes the progression of colorectal cancer by silencing p21 expression.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 29;12(4):331. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu, 221002, Xuzhou, China.

Colorectal cancer is the second common cause of death worldwide. Lamin B2 (LMNB2) is involved in chromatin remodeling and the rupture and reorganization of nuclear membrane during mitosis, which is necessary for eukaryotic cell proliferation. However, the role of LMNB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. This study explored the biological functions of LMNB2 in the progression of colorectal cancer and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that LMNB2 was significantly upregulated in primary colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines, compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and normal colorectal epithelium. The high expression of LMNB2 in colorectal cancer tissues is significantly related to the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and the shorter overall and disease-free cumulative survival. Functional analysis, including CCK8 cell proliferation test, EdU proliferation test, colony formation analysis, nude mouse xenograft, cell cycle, and apoptosis analysis showed that LMNB2 significantly promotes cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in vivo and in vitro. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis, luciferase report analysis, and CHIP analysis showed that LMNB2 promotes cell proliferation by regulating the p21 promoter, whereas LMNB2 has no effect on cell apoptosis. In summary, these findings not only indicate that LMNB2 promotes the proliferation of colorectal cancer by regulating p21-mediated cell cycle progression, but also suggest the potential value of LMNB2 as a clinical prognostic marker and molecular therapy target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03602-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Glycogen metabolism is dispensable for tumour progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Nat Metab 2021 03 23;3(3):327-336. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Glycogen accumulation is a highly consistent, distinguishable characteristic of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). While elevated glycogen pools might be advantageous for ccRCC cells in nutrient-deprived microenvironments to sustain tumour viability, data supporting a biological role for glycogen in ccRCC are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen metabolism is not required for ccRCC proliferation in vitro nor xenograft tumour growth in vivo. Disruption of glycogen synthesis by CRISPR-mediated knockout of glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) has no effect on proliferation in multiple cell lines, regardless of glucose concentrations or oxygen levels. Similarly, prevention of glycogen breakdown by deletion or pharmacological inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase B (PYGB) and L (PYGL) has no impact on cell viability under any condition tested. Lastly, in vivo xenograft experiments using the ccRCC cell line, UMRC2, reveal no substantial changes in tumour size or volume when glycogen metabolism is altered, largely mimicking the phenotype of our in vitro observations. Our findings suggest that glycogen build-up in established ccRCC tumour cells is likely to be a secondary, and apparently dispensable, consequence of constitutively active hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00367-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995639PMC
March 2021

Circular RNAs: new biomarkers of chemoresistance in cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221002, China.

Chemotherapeutics are validated conventional treatments for patients with advanced cancer. However, with continual application of chemotherapeutics, chemoresistance, which is often predictive of poor prognosis, has gradually become a concern in recent years. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of endogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) with a closed-loop structure, have been reported to be notable targets and markers for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of many diseases, particularly cancer. Although dozens of studies have shown that circRNAs play major roles in drug-resistance activity in tumors, the mechanisms by which circRNAs affect chemoresistance have yet to be explored. In this review, we describe the detailed mechanisms of circRNAs and chemotherapeutics in various cancers and summarize potential therapeutic targets for drug-resistant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0312DOI Listing
March 2021

Recent Advances in Perovskite Photodetectors for Image Sensing.

Small 2021 Mar 16:e2005606. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083, P. R. China.

In recent years, metal halide perovskites have been widely investigated to fabricate photodetectors for image sensing due to the excellent photoelectric performance, tunable bandgap, and low-cost solution preparation process. In this review, a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in perovskite photodetectors for image sensing is provided. First, the key performance parameters and the basic device types of photodetectors are briefly introduced. Then, the recent developments of image sensors on the basis of different dimensional perovskite materials, including 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D perovskite materials, are highlighted. Besides the device structures and photoelectric properties of perovskite image sensors, the preparation methods of perovskite photodetector arrays are also analyzed. Subsequently, the single-pixel imaging of perovskite photodetectors and the strategies to fabricate narrowband perovskite photodetectors for color discrimination are discussed. Finally, the potential challenges and possible solutions for the future development of perovskite image sensors are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202005606DOI Listing
March 2021

Genomic insights into the host specific adaptation of the Pneumocystis genus.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 8;4(1):305. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Critical Care Medicine Department, NIH Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Pneumocystis jirovecii, the fungal agent of human Pneumocystis pneumonia, is closely related to macaque Pneumocystis. Little is known about other Pneumocystis species in distantly related mammals, none of which are capable of establishing infection in humans. The molecular basis of host specificity in Pneumocystis remains unknown as experiments are limited due to an inability to culture any species in vitro. To explore Pneumocystis evolutionary adaptations, we have sequenced the genomes of species infecting macaques, rabbits, dogs and rats and compared them to available genomes of species infecting humans, mice and rats. Complete whole genome sequence data enables analysis and robust phylogeny, identification of important genetic features of the host adaptation, and estimation of speciation timing relative to the rise of their mammalian hosts. Our data reveals insights into the evolution of P. jirovecii, the sole member of the genus able to infect humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01799-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940399PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of SNA001, a Novel Recombinant Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Injection, in Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 17;11:615883. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

SNA001 is a novel recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH). rhTSH has long been approved in several countries to facilitate monitoring and ablation of thyroid carcinoma without hypothyroidism caused by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). To assess the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of SNA001, the two-period (SNA001 period and THW period), dose-ascending study in well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients was designed. Three doses (0.45 mg, 0.9 mg, and 1.35 mg) of SNA001 were intramuscularly injected, twice in the SNA001 period to stimulate iodine-131 uptake and thyroglobulin (Tg) release. 24 h after the last dose of SNA001, iodine-131 (111-185 MBq) was administrated, followed by whole-body scan (WBS) 48 h later. THW period began just after SNA001 washout and lasted for about 3-6 weeks. When TSH level was above 30 mU/L, iodine-131 (111-185 MBq) was administrated, followed by a WBS and Tg detection 48 h later. Twenty-four DTC patients after thyroidectomy were enrolled; mean peak concentrations of SNA001 in 0.45, 0.9, and 1.35 mg groups were 18.5, 26.7, and 37.0 ng/ml (about 244.7, 354.2, and 489.6 mU/L) respectively, within 28-32 h after first dose of SNA001. SNA001 was metabolized in a dose-dependent manner. The results of WBS and Tg release in the SNA001 period were compared with those in the THW period. Compared to Tg level in baseline, the Tg levels in SNA001 and THW periods were increased, with 78% of subjects showing higher Tg levels in the THW period. 100% of the patients had concordant qualitative results of the scans within two periods in three groups. Symptoms of hypothyroidism were relieved in the SNA001 period compared with THW period, though there was no significant difference in most of the scale scores. There were no serious adverse events related to SNA001; the most common adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms of mild and transient nature. Thus, SNA001 promises to be a safe and effective method to stimulate iodine-131 uptake and Tg secretion during monitoring and ablation for DTC without the disadvantages of incidental hypothyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.615883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927955PMC
February 2021

Intestinal Dysbiosis in Young Cystic Fibrosis Rabbits.

J Pers Med 2021 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Center for Advanced Models for Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Michigan Medical Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often experience gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. In recent years, the intestinal microbiome has been postulated as a contributor to the development of CF-associated GI complications, hence representing a potential therapeutic target for treatment. We recently developed a rabbit model of CF, which is shown to manifest many human patient-like pathological changes, including intestinal obstruction. Here, we investigated the feces microbiome in young CF rabbits in the absence of antibiotics treatment. Stool samples were collected from seven- to nine-week-old CF rabbits ( = 7) and age-matched wild-type (WT) rabbits ( = 6). Microbiomes were investigated by iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and functional profiles were predicted using PICRUSt. Consistent with reports of those in pediatric CF patients, the fecal microbiomes of CF rabbits are of lower richness and diversity than that of WT rabbits, with a marked taxonomic and inferred functional dysbiosis. Our work identified a new CF animal model with the manifestation of intestinal dysbiosis phenotype. This model system may facilitate the research and development of novel treatments for CF-associated gastrointestinal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11020132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920415PMC
February 2021

Nicotine-derived NNK induces the stemness enrichment of CRC cells through regulating the balance of DUSP4-ERK1/2 feedback loop.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 2;214:112057. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Public Health, Xuzhou Medical University, 209 Tongshan Road, Xuzhou 221002, Jiangsu Province, China; Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, 221002 Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Cigarette smoking has been considered as an independent risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression. In this study, we found that cigarette smoking was significantly associated with poor CRC differentiation (P = 0.040). Since studies have indicated that poorly differentiated tumors are more aggressive and metastasize earlier, leading to poorer prognosis; and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are largely responsible for tumor differentiation state, here we observed that the exposure of nicotine-derived 4-(methylnitrosamino)- 1-(3-pyridyl)- 1-butanone (NNK) promoted cell sphere formation and the expression of the stem cell markers, CD44, OCT4, C-MYC and NANOG in HCT8 and DLD-1 cells. Further colony formation assay, CCK-8 assay and tumor-bearing experiment showed that NNK exposure significantly increased the proliferative and growth ability of CRC cells. In mechanism, we found that NNK-activated ERK1/2 played an important role in enrichment of CRC stem cells and the up-regulation of DUSP4, a major negative regulator of ERK1/2. Moreover, DUSP4 up-regulation was essential for maintaining NNK-activated ERK1/2 in an appropriate level, which was an required event for NNK-induced stemness enrichment of CRC cells. Taken together, our findings provided a possible mechanistic insight into cigarette smoking-induced CRC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112057DOI Listing
May 2021

Peroxide- and transition metal-free electrochemical synthesis of α,β-epoxy ketones.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 03 3;19(11):2481-2486. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

A novel electrochemical method for the synthesis of α,β-epoxy ketones is reported. With KI as the redox mediator, methyl ketones reacted with aldehydes under peroxide- and transition metal-free electrolytic conditions and afforded α,β-epoxy ketones in one pot (36 examples, 52-90% yield). This safe and environmental-friendly method has a broad substrate scope and can readily provide a variety of α,β-epoxy ketones in gram-scales for evaluation of their anti-cancer activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob02444aDOI Listing
March 2021

Short-term outcomes and safety of radiotherapy for immediate breast reconstruction with autologous flap transfer following breast-conserving surgery.

BMC Cancer 2021 Mar 2;21(1):214. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, China.

Background: The outcomes of immediate autologous breast reconstruction (IABR) after partial mastectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in terms of aesthetics, treatment-related complications, and local control are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of IABR after partial mastectomy with or without breast RT, and thus the impact of radiation on autologous flap transfer.

Method: A retrospective cohort study involving consecutive breast cancer patients who underwent IABR after partial mastectomy between July 2011 and December 2017 at Shengjing Hospital was performed. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not they received RT after IABR. We compared aesthetic outcomes and changes in the flap size over the three-dimensional coordinates at various timepoints (pre-RT, 1, 6, and 12 months post-RT), as well as postoperative complications, survival, and recurrence rates between the two groups.

Results: In total, 84 breast cancer patients were enrolled, with 32 patients in the RT group and 52 in the non-RT group. At a median follow-up time of 33.3 months, no significant difference was found in the rate of regional recurrence between the two groups (3.13% vs. 3.85%, P = 1.00), and no local recurrences occurred in either group. At the timepoints pre-RT, 1, and 6 months post-RT (approximately 4, 7, and 12 months after IABR, respectively), 77 (91.7%), 70 (83.3%), and 83 (98.8%) patients, respectively, had achieved very good or good cosmetic outcomes, and only changes in breast skin color at 1 month after RT significantly differed between the RT and non-RT groups, with very good or good cosmetic result rates of 62.5% vs. 96.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). No significant difference in the reduction of flap size was observed at any timepoint between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of postoperative complications including necrosis of the flap, infection, hematoma, or seroma (all P > 0.05). Additionally, no grade 3 or greater RT-associated adverse events occurred during or after RT.

Conclusion: RT following IABR provides aesthetically satisfactory results without intolerable adverse complications and may safely be performed in patients who underwent IABR after partial mastectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07915-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923603PMC
March 2021

Solar-Driven Hydrogen Generation Catalyzed by g-CN with Poly(platinaynes) as Efficient Electron Donor at Low Platinum Content.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Feb 4;8(4):2002465. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) Hung Hom Hong Kong P. R. China.

A metal-complex-modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) bulk heterostructure is presented here as a promising alternative to high-cost noble metals as artificial photocatalysts. Theoretical and experimental studies of the spectral and physicochemical properties of three structurally similar molecules , , and confirm that the Pt(II) acetylide group effectively expands the electron delocalization and adjusts the molecular orbital levels to form a relatively narrow bandgap. Using these molecules, the donor-acceptor assemblies @, @, and @ are formed with g-CN. Among these assemblies, the Pt(II) acetylide-based composite materials @ and @ with bulk heterojunction morphologies and extremely low Pt weight ratios of 0.19% and 0.24%, respectively, exhibit the fastest charge transfer and best light-harvesting efficiencies. Among the tested assemblies, 10 mg @ without any Pt metal additives exhibits a significantly improved photocatalytic H generation rate of 1.38 µmol h under simulated sunlight irradiation (AM1.5G, filter), which is sixfold higher than that of the pristine g-CN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887596PMC
February 2021

Piezo1 regulates intestinal epithelial function by affecting the tight junction protein claudin-1 via the ROCK pathway.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 24;275:119254. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430022, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Defective tight junctions (TJs) can induce intestinal epithelial dysfunction, which participates in various diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome. However, the mechanisms of TJ defects remain unclear. Our study revealed the role of Piezo1 in regulating intestinal epithelial function and TJs.

Materials And Methods: The human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 were cultured on Transwell plate to form an epithelial barrier in vitro, and Piezo1 expression was manipulated using a lentivirus vector. Epithelial function was evaluated by measuring transepithelial electronic resistance (TEER) and 4-kDa FITC-dextran (FD4) transmission. TJ proteins (claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1) were evaluated by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunostaining analysis. Potential signal pathways, including the ROCK and Erk pathways, were detected. Moreover, to explore the regulatory effect of Piezo1 activity on epithelial function, inhibitors (ruthenium red, GsMTx4) and an agonist (Yoda1) were introduced both ex vivo and in vitro.

Key Findings: Alteration of Piezo1 expression altered epithelial function and the expression of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Piezo1 expression regulated phosphorylated ROCK1/2 expression, whereas interference on ROCK1/2 prevented the regulation of claudin-1 by Piezo1. In both Caco-2 monolayer and mouse colon epithelium, Piezo1 activity directly modulated epithelial function and permeability.

Significance: Piezo1 negatively regulates epithelial barrier function by affecting the expression of claudin-1. Such regulation may be achieved partially via the ROCK1/2 pathway. Moreover, activating Piezo1 can induce epithelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119254DOI Listing
February 2021

Leader-Follower Congruence in MD Propensity and UPB: A Polynomial Regression Analysis.

J Psychol 2021 22;155(3):275-291. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Drawing on previous work on moral disengagement and balance theory, the (in)congruence effect of leader and follower moral disengagement (MD) propensity on followers' unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) was examined in this study. Dyad data were gathered from 185 CEOs and 555 followers from 185 firms located in China. The polynomial regression analysis results suggest that followers in the presence of leader-follower congruence in MD propensity conduct more UPBs. Moreover, followers conduct more UPBs with MD propensity in the presence of congruence. We also found asymmetrical incongruence effects. Followers engage more in UPBs when their MD propensity exceeds their leaders' MD propensity than when their leaders' MD propensity exceeds their own. Overall, the findings emphasize the value of considering followers' and leaders' traits for shedding light on the occurrence of UPBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2021.1880359DOI Listing
April 2021

Potential of bacteriophages as disinfectants to control of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Feb 20;21(1):57. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Bovine Diseases, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, No. 5 Xinfeng Road, Daqing, 163319, P. R. China.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of chronic mastitis, and can form a biofilm that is difficult to completely remove once formed. Disinfectants are effective against S. aureus, but their activity is easily affected by environmental factors and they are corrosive to equipment and chemically toxic to livestock and humans. Therefore, we investigated the potential utility of a bacteriophage as a narrow-spectrum disinfectant against biofilms formed by S. aureus. In this study, we isolated and characterized bacteriophage vB_SauM_SDQ (abbreviated to SDQ) to determine its efficacy in removing S. aureus biofilms.

Results: SDQ belongs to the family Myoviridae and consists of a hexagonal head, long neck, and short tail. This phage can sterilize a 10 CFU/mL culture of S. aureus in 12 h and multiply itself 1000-fold in that time. Biofilms formed on polystyrene, milk, and mammary-gland tissue were significantly reduced after SDQ treatment. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that SDQ destroyed the biofilm structure. Moreover, the titer of SDQ remained relatively high after the lysis of the bacteria and the removal of the biofilm, exerting a continuous bacteriostatic effect. SDQ also retained its full activity under conditions that mimic common environments, i.e., in the presence of nonionic detergents, tap water, or organic materials. A nonionic detergent (Triton X-100) enhanced the removal of biofilm by SDQ.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that SDQ, a specific lytic S. aureus phage, can be used to control biofilm infections. SDQ maintains its full activity in the presence of nonionic detergents, tap water, metal chelators, and organic materials, and can be used in combination with detergents. We propose this phage as a narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. aureus, to augment or supplement the use of broad-spectrum disinfectants in the prevention and control of the mastitis and dairy industry contamination caused by S. aureus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02117-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896381PMC
February 2021

Development of the Nude Rabbit Model.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 18;16(3):656-665. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Center for Advanced Models and Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Loss-of-function mutations in the forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) gene lead to nude severe combined immunodeficiency, a rare inherited syndrome characterized by athymia, severe T cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy. We recently produced FOXN1 mutant nude rabbits (NuRabbits) by using CRISPR-Cas9. Here we report the establishment and maintenance of the NuRabbit colony. NuRabbits, like nude mice, are hairless, lack thymic development, and are immunodeficient. To demonstrate the functional applications of NuRabbits in biomedical research, we show that they can successfully serve as the recipient animals in xenotransplantation experiments using human induced pluripotent stem cells or tissue-engineered blood vessels. Our work presents the NuRabbit as a new member of the immunodeficient animal model family. The relatively large size and long lifespan of NuRabbits offer unique applications in regenerative medicine, cancer research, and the study of a variety of other human conditions, including immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940256PMC
March 2021

Gene Editing in Rabbits: Unique Opportunities for Translational Biomedical Research.

Front Genet 2021 28;12:642444. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Center for Advanced Models for Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Michigan Medical Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

The rabbit is a classic animal model for biomedical research, but the production of gene targeted transgenic rabbits had been extremely challenging until the recent advent of gene editing tools. More than fifty gene knockout or knock-in rabbit models have been reported in the past decade. Gene edited (GE) rabbit models, compared to their counterpart mouse models, may offer unique opportunities in translational biomedical research attributed primarily to their relatively large size and long lifespan. More importantly, GE rabbit models have been found to mimic several disease pathologies better than their mouse counterparts particularly in fields focused on genetically inherited diseases, cardiovascular diseases, ocular diseases, and others. In this review we present selected examples of research areas where GE rabbit models are expected to make immediate contributions to the understanding of the pathophysiology of human disease, and support the development of novel therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.642444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876448PMC
January 2021

Rational Application of First-Line EGFR-TKIs Combined with Antiangiogenic Inhibitors in Advanced EGFR-Mutant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:8850256. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Purpose: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare the difference in efficacy and safety between epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) with antiangiogenic inhibitors (A + T) and EGFR-TKI monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve advanced EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane electronic databases were searched for relevant RCTs. Meeting abstracts were also reviewed to identify appropriate studies. The endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), 1- and 2-year OS rates, objective response rate (ORR), and grade ≥ 3 adverse events. All pooled outcomes were expressed using hazard ratios (HRs) or relative risk ratios (RRs).

Results: Data were collected from six eligible RCTs, which included 1,244 participants (619 in the A + T group and 625 in the TKI alone group). PFS was significantly improved with A + T compared to TKI alone (HR = 0.60; < 0.01) regardless of EGFR mutation types (exon 19 deletion or L858R) and brain metastasis status (with or without brain metastases). There was no significant difference in median OS between the A + T and TKI alone groups (HR = 0.933; = 0.551) regardless of EGFR mutation type. The ORR for A + T combination therapy was significantly increased compared to TKI monotherapy in exon 19 deletion subgroups (RR = 0.774; = 0.008). There was no difference in the positive rates of acquired T790M mutation between the two groups (RR = 0.967; = 0.846). More patients in the TKI alone group received a variety of subsequent systemic treatments than those in the A + T group (RR = 0.881; = 0.002).

Conclusion: Addition of antiangiogenic inhibitors to first-line EGFR-TKI therapy significantly reduced the risk of disease progression for patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC regardless of EGFR mutation type and brain metastasis status. The lack of OS benefit may be explained by differences in subsequent treatments rather than drug resistance mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8850256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861921PMC
January 2021

Neoadjuvant EGFR-TKI Therapy for EGFR-Mutant NSCLC: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Five Prospective Clinical Trials.

Front Oncol 2020 12;10:586596. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: The role of neoadjuvant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeted therapy for patients with EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been clarified. A pooled analysis of prospective clinical trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant EGFR-TKI therapy.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as meeting abstracts were searched for prospective clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant EGFR-TKI for treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC. The main outcomes included the objective response rate (ORR), downstaging rate, surgical resection rate (SRR), pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse events.

Results: A total of five, phase II, prospective, clinical trials involving 124 patients with resectable or potentially resectable EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with neoadjuvant erlotinib or gefitinib treatment were included in this pooled analysis. The median neoadjuvant medication time was 42 (range, 21-56) days and the median time of response evaluation was 45 (range, 42-56) days. The pooled ORR was 58.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 45.5%-71.8%] and the surgical resection and complete resection (R0) rates were 79.9% (95% CI, 65.3%-94.5%) and 64.3% (95% CI, 43.8%-84.8%), respectively. In the stage IIIA subgroup (n = 68), the pooled ORR, SRR, and R0 rate were 51.4%, 72.9%, and 57.0%, respectively, while the downstaging and pCR rates were 14.0% and 0.0%, respectively. The pooled median PFS and overall survival were 13.2 and 41.9 months, respectively. Of the most common grade 3/4 adverse events in the overall group, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and skin rash were 5.3% and 14.7%, respectively. The most commonly reported postoperative complications were lung infection, arrhythmia, and pneumothorax.

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant EGFR-TKI therapy provides a feasible treatment modality for patients with resectable or potentially resectable EGFR-mutant NSCLC, with satisfactory surgical outcomes and low toxicity. Although further phase III clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings, it is necessary to explore the feasibility of a more effective EGFR-TKI combination neoadjuvant therapy given the modest downgrade and pCR rates for EGFR-TKI alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.586596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837071PMC
January 2021

Collective dynamics of neuronal activities in various modular networks.

Lab Chip 2021 03 21;21(5):951-961. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Modularity is a key feature of structural and functional brain networks. However, the association between the structure and function of modular brain networks has not been revealed. We constructed three types of modular cortical networks in vitro and investigated their neuronal activities. The modular networks comprising 4, 3, or 2 modules were constructed using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructures fabricated directly on a multi-electrode array (MEA) without transfer. The 4-module network had the strongest modular connectivity, followed by the 3-module and 2-module networks. To investigate how neuronal activities were affected by the modular network structure, spontaneous neuronal activities were recorded on different days in vitro and analyzed based on spike amplitudes, network bursts, and the propagation properties of individual spikes. Different characteristics were observed depending on the network topology and modular connectivity. Moreover, when an electrode was stimulated by biphasic voltage pulses, bursts were elicited for the 4-module network, whereas spikes were elicited for the 3-module and 2-module networks. Direct fabrication of the PDMS microstructures on the MEA without transfer allows microscale construction of modular networks and high-density functional recording; therefore, the technique utilizing the PDMS microstructures can be applied to the systematic study of the dynamics of modular neuronal networks in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc01106aDOI Listing
March 2021

Investigation on the luminescence behavior of terbium acetylsalicylate/bilirubin system via 2D-COS approaches.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 5;251:119427. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China; Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan.

Terbium acetylsalicylate has been prepared, and the ethanol solution of the complex exhibits strong luminescence under the excitation of ultraviolet radiation. When a small amount of bilirubin solution is introduced into the solution containing a high concentration of terbium acetylsalicylate, a remarkable diminution of the luminescence of the terbium complex was observed. Investigations on the behavior and life-time of luminescence indicate that the quenching is not caused by forming a stable non-luminescent product via a reaction between terbium acetylsalicylate and bilirubin. A π-π interaction between the chromophore of bilirubin and the aromatic moiety of ligand was revealed via the pattern of cross peaks in the 2D asynchronous spectrum generated using the DAOSD (double asynchronous orthogonal sample design) approach. Such an interaction paves a route for energy transfer in the quenching process. The combination of a high concentration of the terbium complex and a long life-time of luminescence in the lanthanide complex/bilirubin system forms a special scenario: a bilirubin molecule by diffusion may visit and deactivate dozens of excited terbium complexes within the half-life period of the lanthanide complex. This is why a small amount of bilirubin can bring about the significant reduction of luminescence on the solution containing a high concentration of the terbium complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119427DOI Listing
April 2021

The first mitochondrial genome of (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) and phylogenetic consideration within the superfamily Balanoidea.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 11;5(3):2776-2778. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Jiangsu Institute of Marine Resources/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang, China.

The first complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Pilsbry, 1916 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,665 bp, which encodes a set of 37 typical metazoan genes. All non-coding regions are 438 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (264 bp), which is located between and . All protein-coding genes (PCGs) have an ATD (ATA, ATT, or ATG) start codon, except , which is initiated with GTG. Remarkably, , , have incomplete stop codons (T-- or TA-) and the remaining PCGs have the complete stop codon (TAA). Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 mitochondrial PCGs shows that the members of the Archaeobalanidae and Balanidae intermingle with species from Pyrgomatidae. The results supposed that Balanidae and Archaeobalanidae are non-monophyly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1788459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781889PMC
July 2020

The first mitochondrial genome of (Crustacea: Cirripedia) from China: revealed the phylogenetic relationship within Thoracica.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jun 24;5(3):2573-2575. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Jiangsu Institute of Marine Resources, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang, China.

(Crustacea: Cirripedia) is an important stalked barnacle. The first mitochondrial genome of . from China was presented, which is a circular molecule of 15,930 bp in length and AT content is 64.4%. It encodes 37 genes, including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs, which is consistent with most barnacles species reported. There are 15 genes encoded on the light strand and 22 genes encoded on the heavy strand. Identical to most barnacles species reported, and genes are adjacent and separated only by gene. Phylogenetic trees showed that . clustered with , indicating Pollicipedidae is monophyletic. However, Scalpelliformes was not monophyletic from the phylogenetic tree. From the level of order, the Lepadiformes was located at the base of the phylogenetic tree, indicating that its divergence time was earlier than Scalpelliformes. The results provided more insights into phylogenetic consideration at the genomic level within superorder Thoracica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1781564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783061PMC
June 2020