Publications by authors named "Jun Lv"

398 Publications

Lifestyle factors and fetal and childhood origins of type 2 diabetes: A prospective study of Chinese and European adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Early life development plays a key role in adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the extent to which can be attenuated by lifestyle is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the independent relevance of genetic predisposition to low birth weight and childhood obesity for T2DM, and their attenuation by adherence to a healthy lifestyle in adulthood.

Methods: Genetic risk scores (GRSs) were estimated for birth weight and childhood body mass index (BMI) with genetic risk categories according to their quintiles in 90,029 and 321,225 participants from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) (mean age, 53.0 years) and UK Biobank (UKB) (56.1 years). Healthy lifestyle scores were defined on non-current smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, healthy diet, regular physical activity, non-obesity, categorized into healthy (4∼5 factors), intermediate (2∼3 factors) and unhealthy (0∼1 factor) lifestyle.

Results: GRSs for low birth weight and childhood BMI were associated with higher T2DM risks. Healthy lifestyle was related to lower T2DM risk, and there was an additive interaction with increasing childhood BMI GRS and decreasing healthy lifestyle factors on T2DM risk, while no additive interaction was observed for birth weight. Participants with a healthy compared with an unhealthy lifestyle had a 68% (hazard ratio: 0.32; 95%CI: 0.22, 0.47) and 77% (0.23; 0.19, 0.28) lower T2DM risk among participants at high genetic risk (lowest quintile) of low birth weight in CKB and UKB. Among participants with high genetic risk (highest quintile) of childhood obesity, compared with unhealthy lifestyle, adherence to a healthy lifestyle was associated with a 69% (0.31; 0.22, 0.46) and 80% (0.20; 0.17, 0.25) lower risk in CKB and UKB.

Conclusions: Genetic predisposition to low birth weight and childhood obesity were associated with higher risk of adult T2DM and these excess risks were attenuated by adherence to a healthy lifestyle in adulthood, particularly among those at high genetic risk of childhood obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab359DOI Listing
October 2021

The Roles of Genetic and Early-Life Environmental Factors in the Association Between Overweight or Obesity and Hypertension: A Population-Based Twin Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 5;12:743962. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to explore whether and to what extent overweight or obesity could increase the risk of hypertension, and further to estimate the roles of genetic and early-life familial environmental factors in their association.

Methods: This prospective twin study was based on the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which collected information from self-report questionnaires. We conducted unmatched case-control analysis to examine the association between overweight or obesity and hypertension. And further to explore whether genetics and familiar environments shared within a twin pair, accounted for their association co-twin matched case-control design. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and conditional logistic regressions were used in the unmatched and matched analyses, respectively. Then, we used logistic regressions to test the difference in odds ratios (ORs) between the unmatched and matched analyses. Finally, through bivariate twin model, the roles of genetic and environmental factors in the body mass index (BMI)- hypertension association were estimated.

Results: Overall, we included a total of 30,617 twin individuals, of which 7533 (24.6%) twin participants were overweight or obesity and 757 (2.5%) developed hypertension during a median follow-up time of 4.4 years. In the GEE model, overweight or obesity was associated with a 94% increased risk of hypertension (OR=1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64~2.30). In the conditional logistic regression, the multi-adjusted OR was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.18~2.74). The difference in OR between unmatched and matched analyses was significant (=0.016). Specifically, overweight or obesity was not associated with hypertension risk in the co-twin design when we full controlled genetic and familiar environmental factors (OR=0.89, 95 CI: 0.46~1.72). After controlling for age and sex, we found the positive BMI-hypertension association was mainly explained by a genetic correlation between them ( = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.44~1.00).

Conclusions/interpretation: Genetics and early-life environments shared by participants within a twin pair appear to account for the association between overweight or obesity and hypertension risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.743962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525506PMC
October 2021

Modification effect of ideal cardiovascular health metrics on genetic association with incident heart failure in the China Kadoorie Biobank and the UK Biobank.

BMC Med 2021 Oct 22;19(1):259. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Both genetic and cardiovascular factors contribute to the risk of developing heart failure (HF), but whether idea cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) offset the genetic association with incident HF remains unclear.

Objectives: To investigate the genetic association with incident HF as well as the modification effect of ICVHMs on such genetic association in Chinese and British populations.

Methods: An ICVHMs based on smoking, drinking, physical activity, diets, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for HF were constructed in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) of 96,014 participants and UK Biobank (UKB) of 335,782 participants which were free from HF and severe chronic diseases at baseline.

Results: During the median follow-up of 11.38 and 8.73 years, 1451 and 3169 incident HF events were documented in CKB and UKB, respectively. HF risk increased monotonically with the increase of PRS per standard deviation (CKB: hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07, 1.32; UKB: 1.07; 1.03, 1.11; P for trend < 0.001). Each point increase in ICVHMs was associated with 15% and 20% lower risk of incident HF in CKB (0.85; 0.81, 0.90) and UKB (0.80; 0.77, 0.82), respectively. Compared with unfavorable ICVHMs, favorable ICVHMs was associated with a lower HF risk, with 0.71 (0.44, 1.15), 0.41 (0.22, 0.77), and 0.48 (0.30, 0.77) in the low, intermediate, and high genetic risk in CKB and 0.34 (0.26, 0.44), 0.32 (0.25, 0.41), and 0.37 (0.28, 0.47) in UKB (P for multiplicative interaction > 0.05). Participants with low genetic risk and favorable ICVHMs, as compared with high genetic risk and unfavorable ICVHMs, had 56~72% lower risk of HF (CKB 0.44; 0.28, 0.70; UKB 0.28; 0.22, 0.37). No additive interaction between PRS and ICVHMs was observed (relative excess risk due to interaction was 0.05 [-0.22, 0.33] in CKB and 0.04 [-0.14, 0.22] in UKB).

Conclusions: In CKB and UKB, genetic risk and ICVHMs were independently associated with the risk of incident HF, which suggested that adherence to favorable cardiovascular health status was associated with a lower HF risk among participants with all gradients of genetic risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02122-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532287PMC
October 2021

Publisher Correction: Utility of single versus sequential measurements of risk factors for prediction of stroke in Chinese adults.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 18;11(1):20874. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Big Data Institute, Old Road Campus, Oxford, OX 7LF, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00401-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523744PMC
October 2021

Improved hydrogen evolution with SnS quantum dot-incorporated black Si photocathode.

Dalton Trans 2021 Oct 5;50(38):13329-13336. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, No. 193, Tunxi Road, Baohe District, Hefei, 230009, PR China.

Black silicon (bSi), possessing appealing light-trapping properties and large specific surface area, ranks high among many other photocathode materials. However, the insufficient dynamics towards HER seriously bother black Si. Herein, a novel photoelectrode with ultrasmall size tin sulfide quantum dot (SnS QD) incorporated black silicon was employed. Nanosized SnS possesses numerous active sites for electrochemical reactions. Impressively, benefiting from SnS QDs, the downward band bending of the Si Fermi level at the interface of electrolyte becomes higher, which remarkably suppresses the recombination of photo-generated carriers, thereby facilitating the participation of photo-generated electrons in PEC-HER. As a result, the thus-designed SnS/bSi reveals an exceptional PEC-HER activity with a positive onset potential of 0.235 V reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), a high photocurrent of 1.23 mA cm at 0 V RHE, and long-term stability. Besides, the saturated photocurrent of ∼41 mA cm is achieved at about -0.51 V RHE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt02048jDOI Listing
October 2021

The Impact of Consequences Awareness of Public Environment on Medicine Return Behavior: A Moderated Chain Mediation Model.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 16;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Logistics Management, Delivery Hero Co., LTD, Phnom Penh 12309, Cambodia.

With global aging trends and prosperity in the medicine market, the number of unused or expired household unused or expired medicines is increasing. Medicines which are discarded improperly result in serious pollution. From the perspective of behavioral science, the main contribution of this paper is the construction of a chain mediation model to analyze the influence mechanism between consequences awareness of the public environment and proper return behavior of unused or expired medicines. The model explores the moderating effect of personal health awareness with through observation of to the mediating effect of personal norms and return intention. Using a sample size of 366 residents from China, the proposed hypotheses are empirically tested. The results show: firstly, the direct effect of residents' consequences awareness of public environmental awareness on the proper medicine return behavior is not significant; secondly, return intention plays a mediating role in the positive effect of consequences awareness of the public environment on proper return behavior; thirdly, personal norms and return intention play a chain mediating role in the positive impact of consequences awareness of the public environment on proper return behavior; and lastly, personal health awareness moderates the chain mediation path by strengthening the positive effect of return intention on proper return behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471998PMC
September 2021

Simultaneous image reconstruction and lesion segmentation in accelerated MRI using multitasking learning.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves as an important medical imaging modality for a variety of clinical applications. However, the problem of long imaging time limited its wide usage. In addition, prolonged scan time will cause discomfort to the patient, leading to severe image artifacts. On the other hand, manually lesion segmentation is time consuming. Algorithm-based automatic lesion segmentation is still challenging, especially for accelerated imaging with low quality.

Methods: In this paper, we proposed a multitask learning-based method to perform image reconstruction and lesion segmentation simultaneously, called "RecSeg". Our hypothesis is that both tasks can benefit from the usage of the proposed combined model. In the experiment, we validated the proposed multitask model on MR k-space data with different acceleration factors (2×, 4×, and 6×). Two connected U-nets were used for the tasks of liver and renal image reconstruction and segmentation. A total of 50 healthy subjects and 100 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were included for training and testing. For the segmentation part, we use healthy subjects to verify organ segmentation, and hepatocellular carcinoma patients to verify lesion segmentation. The organs and lesions were manually contoured by an experienced radiologist.

Results: Experimental results show that the proposed RecSeg yielded the highest PSNR (RecSeg: 32.39 ± 1.64 vs. KSVD: 29.53 ± 2.74 and single U-net: 31.18 ± 1.68, respectively, p < 0.05) and highest structural similarity index measure (SSIM) (RecSeg: 0.93 ± 0.01 vs. KSVD: 0.88 ± 0.02 and single U-net: 0.90 ± 0.01, respectively, p < 0.05) under 6× acceleration. Moreover, in the task of lesion segmentation, it is proposed that RecSeg produced the highest Dice score (RecSeg: 0.86 ± 0.01 vs. KSVD: 0.82 ± 0.01 and single U-net: 0.84 ± 0.01, respectively, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study focused on the simultaneous reconstruction of medical images and the segmentation of organs and lesions. It is observed that the multitask learning-based method can improve performances of both image reconstruction and lesion segmentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15213DOI Listing
September 2021

A Comparison of Preterm Birth Rate and Growth from Birth to 18 Years Old between in Vitro Fertilization and Spontaneous Conception of Twins.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Aug 20;24(4):228-233. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1-2 years), preschool (3-5 years), primary or elementary school (6-11 years), and adolescence (10-18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0-18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2021.33DOI Listing
August 2021

Alcohol drinking and risks of liver cancer and non-neoplastic chronic liver diseases in China: a 10-year prospective study of 0.5 million adults.

BMC Med 2021 09 17;19(1):216. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for hepatic neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Questions remain, however, about the relevance to disease risk of drinking patterns and alcohol tolerability, which differ appreciably between Chinese and Western populations.

Methods: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank included 512,715 adults (41% men) aged 30-79 years recruited from ten areas during 2004-2008, recording alcohol intake, drinking patterns, and other characteristics. After median 10 years' follow-up, 2531 incident liver cancer, 2040 liver cirrhosis, 260 alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and 1262 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cases were recorded among 492,643 participants without prior cancer or chronic liver disease at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) relating alcohol intake and drinking patterns to each disease.

Results: Overall, 33% of men and 2% of women drank alcohol regularly (i.e. at least weekly) at baseline. Among male current regular drinkers, alcohol consumption showed positive dose-response associations with risks of several major chronic liver diseases, with HRs per 280 g/week (i.e. around four drinks/day) higher usual alcohol intake of 1.44 (95% CI 1.23-1.69) for liver cancer (n = 547), 1.83 (1.60-2.09) for liver cirrhosis (n = 388), 2.01 (1.77-2.28) for ALD (n = 200), 1.71 (1.35-2.16) for NAFLD (n = 198), and 1.52 (1.40-1.64) for total liver disease (n = 1775). The association with ALD appeared stronger among men reporting flushing (i.e., with low alcohol tolerance). After adjustment for the total amount of weekly alcohol consumption, daily drinkers had significantly increased risk of ALD (2.15, 1.40-3.31) compared with non-daily drinkers, and drinking without meals was associated with significantly greater risks of liver cancer (1.32, 1.01-1.72), liver cirrhosis (1.37, 1.02-1.85), and ALD (1.60, 1.09-2.33) compared with drinking with meals. Female current regular drinkers had significantly higher risk of ALD, but not other liver diseases, than female abstainers.

Conclusions: In Chinese men, alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks of several major chronic liver diseases, and certain drinking patterns (e.g. drinking daily, drinking without meals) may further exacerbate the disease risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02079-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447782PMC
September 2021

Overweight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Chinese Twin Study.

Diabetes Metab 2021 Sep 11:101278. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the association between overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DMM) in twins, and further to explore whether genetic and early-life environmental factors account for this association.

Methods: This study included 31,197 twin individuals from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Generalised estimating equation (GEE) models were applied for unmatched case-control analysis. Conditional logistic regressions were used in co-twin matched case-control analysis. Logistic regressions were fitted to examine the differences in odds ratios (ORs) from the GEE models and conditional logistic regressions. Bivariate genetic model was used to explore the genetic and environmental correlation between body mass index (BMI) and T2DM.

Results: In the GEE model, overweight was associated with a higher T2DM risk (OR=2.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96∼3.73), compared with participants with normal BMI. In the multi-adjusted conditional logistic regression, the association was still significant (OR=2.60, 95% CI: 1.15∼5.87). The ORs from the unmatched and matched analyses were different (P = 0.042). Particularly, overweight could increase T2DM risk in monozygotic (MZ) twins, and the difference in ORs between the unmatched and matched designs was significant (P = 0.014). After controlling for age and sex, the positive BMI-T2DM association was partly due to a significant genetic correlation (rA= 0.31, 95% CI: 0.20∼0.41).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that genetics and early-life environments might account for the observed overweight-T2DM association. Genetic correlation between BMI and T2DM further provides evidence for the influence of overlap genes on their association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2021.101278DOI Listing
September 2021

Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and coronary heart disease: a nested case-control study.

Elife 2021 Sep 13;10. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Identifying environmentally responsive genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for CHD. We conducted the first prospective epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD in the Asian population.

We did a nested case-control study comprising incident CHD cases and 1:1 matched controls who were identified from the 10-year follow-up of the China Kadoorie Biobank. Methylation level of baseline blood leukocyte DNA was measured by Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip. We performed the single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site association analysis and network approach to identify CHD-associated CpG sites and co-methylation gene module.

After quality control, 982 participants (mean age 50.1 years) were retained. Methylation level at 25 CpG sites across the genome was associated with incident CHD (genome-wide false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05 or module-specific FDR <0.01). One SD increase in methylation level of identified CpGs was associated with differences in CHD risk, ranging from a 47% decrease to a 118% increase. Mediation analyses revealed 28.5% of the excessed CHD risk associated with smoking was mediated by methylation level at the promoter region of gene (P for mediation effect = 0.036). Methylation level at the promoter region of was associated with blood pressure and subsequent risk of CHD, with the mediating proportion to be 7.7% (P = 0.003) via systolic blood pressure and 6.4% (P = 0.006) via diastolic blood pressure. Network analysis revealed a co-methylation module associated with CHD.

We identified novel blood methylation alterations associated with incident CHD in the Asian population and provided evidence of the possible role of epigenetic regulations in the smoking- and BP-related pathways to CHD risk.

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81390544 and 91846303). The CKB baseline survey and the first re-survey were supported by a grant from the Kadoorie Charitable Foundation in Hong Kong. The long-term follow-up is supported by grants from the UK Wellcome Trust (202922/Z/16/Z, 088158/Z/09/Z, 104085/Z/14/Z), grant (2016YFC0900500, 2016YFC0900501, 2016YFC0900504, 2016YFC1303904) from the National Key and Program of China, and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2011BAI09B01).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.68671DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary patterns and cardiometabolic diseases in 0.5 million Chinese adults: a 10-year cohort study.

Nutr J 2021 09 3;20(1):74. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: The effect of the overall diet quality on cardiometabolic diseases has been well studied in the Western population. However, evidence is still in need regarding dietary patterns depicting unique Chinese dietary habits and their associations with cardiometabolic diseases.

Methods: A prospective cohort recruited around 0.5 million Chinese residents aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse survey sites during 2004-08. Dietary patterns were obtained using factor analysis based on the habitual consumption of 12 food groups collected at baseline. Among 477,465 eligible participants free of prior heart disease, stroke and cancer, linkages to multiple registries and health insurance database recorded 137,715 cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and 17,412 diabetes cases (among 451,846 non-diabetic participants) until 31 December 2017. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated to compare the risks of cardiometabolic diseases across quintiles of dietary pattern scores using the Cox regression.

Results: Two dietary patterns were derived: the traditional northern pattern, characterised by wheat, other staples, egg and dairy products; and the modern pattern, featured with fresh fruit, meat, poultry, fish, dairy products and soybean. Adherence to either dietary pattern was associated with lower risks of major cardiometabolic diseases in a dose-response relationship way. After multivariate adjustment, participants adhering to the traditional northern pattern the most had an 8% (95%CI: 5-11%) lower risk of CVD in comparison with those adhering the least. Corresponding risk reductions were 12% (11-32%) for haemorrhagic stroke (HS), 14% (8-19%) for ischaemic stroke (IS), and 15% (6-24%) for diabetes, respectively. When comparing extreme quintiles of the modern pattern, the adjusted HR of HS was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.59-0.77). Corresponding HRs were 0.89 (0.86-0.92) for CVD, 0.88 (0.77-0.99) for MCE, 0.85 (0.80-0.89) for IS, and 0.89 (0.81, 0.97) for diabetes.

Conclusion: Among Chinese adults, both traditional northern and modern dietary patterns were associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes beyond other risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00730-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418004PMC
September 2021

Utility of single versus sequential measurements of risk factors for prediction of stroke in Chinese adults.

Sci Rep 2021 09 2;11(1):17575. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Big Data Institute, Old Road Campus, Oxford, OX 7LF, UK.

Absolute risks of stroke are typically estimated using measurements of cardiovascular disease risk factors recorded at a single visit. However, the comparative utility of single versus sequential risk factor measurements for stroke prediction is unclear. Risk factors were recorded on three separate visits on 13,753 individuals in the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank. All participants were stroke-free at baseline (2004-2008), first resurvey (2008), and second resurvey (2013-2014), and were followed-up for incident cases of first stroke in the 3 years following the second resurvey. To reflect the models currently used in clinical practice, sex-specific Cox models were developed to estimate 3-year risks of stroke using single measurements recorded at second resurvey and were retrospectively applied to risk factor data from previous visits. Temporal trends in the Cox-generated risk estimates from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. To assess the value of more flexible machine learning approaches and the incorporation of longitudinal data, we developed gradient boosted tree (GBT) models for 3-year prediction of stroke using both single measurements and sequential measurements of risk factor inputs. Overall, Cox-generated estimates for 3-year stroke risk increased by 0.3% per annum in men and 0.2% per annum in women, but varied substantially between individuals. The risk estimates at second resurvey were highly correlated with the annual increase of risk for each individual (men: r = 0.91, women: r = 0.89), and performance of the longitudinal GBT models was comparable with both Cox and GBT models that considered measurements from only a single visit (AUCs: 0.779-0.811 in men, 0.724-0.756 in women). These results provide support for current clinical guidelines, which recommend using risk factor measurements recorded at a single visit for stroke prediction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95244-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413314PMC
September 2021

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients: Short-Term Outcomes and Antifungal Options.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Hepatology Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No 1838, Guangzhou Dadao Bei, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients are susceptible to invasive fungal infections. We evaluated the prognosis and antifungal options in ACLF patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA).

Methods: ACLF patients with IPA from 15 hospitals were retrospectively screened from 2011 to 2018, and 383 ACLF patients without lung infections were included from a prospective cohort (NCT02457637). Demographic, laboratory, clinical data, and 28-day outcomes were documented in the two cohorts.

Results: ACLF patients with probable IPA (n = 145) had greater 28-day mortality (33.6% vs. 15.7%, p < 0.001) than those without (n = 383). The respiratory failure-associated 28-day mortality was greater in ACLF patients with IPA than in those without before (17.1% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.001) and after (16.0% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001) propensity score matching in 116 pairs. IPA patients with lung injury had greater 28-day all-cause mortality (66.5% vs. 24.2%, p < 0.001) and IPA-associated mortality (45.8% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001) than patients without lung injury (PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 400 mmHg). Antifungal therapy was prescribed to 139 of 145 patients, and 102 patients were treated with voriconazole alone (n = 59) or sequential/combined therapy (n = 43) with varying loading doses (100-800 mg) and daily maintenance doses (0-800 mg). A proposed optimal voriconazole regimen (loading dose, 200 mg twice daily; daily maintenance dose, 100 mg) achieved comparable short-term survival and optimal trough drug concentrations (1-5 μg/mL) on therapeutic drug monitoring in 26 patients.

Conclusion: Presence of IPA increases the short-term mortality of ACLF patients mainly due to respiratory failure. An optimal voriconazole regimen is needed for such critical patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00524-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary Soy Consumption and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese People with Type 2 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2021 Jul 23;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 5650871, Japan.

Randomized controlled trials showed that soy intervention significantly improved blood lipids in people with diabetes. We sought to prospectively examine the association of soy consumption with the risk of cardiovascular death among individuals with diabetes. A total of 26,139 participants with a history of diabetes were selected from the Chinese Kadoorie Biobank study. Soy food consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Causes of death were coded by the 10th International Classification of Diseases. The Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compute the hazard ratios. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, a total of 1626 deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recorded. Compared with individuals who never consumed soy foods, the multivariable-adjusted risks (95% confidence intervals) of CVD mortality were 0.92 (0.78, 1.09), 0.89 (0.75, 1.05), and 0.77 (0.62, 0.96) for those who consumed soy foods monthly, 1-3 days/week, and ≥4 days/week, respectively. For cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, significant inverse associations were observed for coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Higher soy food consumption was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular death, especially death from coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction, in Chinese adults with diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398979PMC
July 2021

Cost-Efficient Photovoltaic-Water Electrolysis over Ultrathin Nanosheets of Cobalt/Iron-Molybdenum Oxides for Potential Large-Scale Hydrogen Production.

Small 2021 Oct 19;17(39):e2102222. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

TJU-NIMS International Collaboration Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

Unassisted photovoltaic (PV) water splitting to hydrogen system is of great potential for future environmental-friendly fuel production from renewable solar energy. However, industrialization simultaneously requires higher efficiency, sustained stability and a lower cost for the system. In this work, the ultrathin cobalt/iron-molybdenum oxides nanosheet on nickel foam (NF) is prepared for efficient HER and OER, respectively, delivering a relatively low voltage of 1.45 V at 10 mA cm in two-electrodes configuration. Water electrolysis at low voltage driven by electrocatalysts is critical for realizing energy conversion. Integrated with a commercial monocrystalline silicon cell, the H area specific activity of 0.47 L m h is achieved with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 15.1% under solar simulator illumination (100 mW cm ) and no performance degradation appeares over 160 h. Such a solar conversion technology demonstrates the potential for long-term and cost-efficient H production in large-scale industrialization and provides an exploration for new-type of energy-conversion system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102222DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Clinical Activities in Obstetrics and Gynecology: A National Survey in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:633477. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Few studies have quantified the influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on medical providers. This is the first national study to investigate the impact of the pandemic on physicians practicing obstetrics and gynecology in China. A two-stage, stratified, cluster sampling method was performed based on the city categories (category 1, fewer than 10,000 beds; category 2, 10,000-30,000; and category 3, more than 30,000) and public hospital levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). Physicians practicing obstetrics and gynecology reported the relevant changes in their general clinical activities and changes in the management of specific diseases or conditions occurring during the periods that they were most strongly affected. These changes were compared by municipal and hospital characteristics. Questionnaires were collected from a representative sample of 11,806 physicians actively practicing obstetrics and gynecology in 779 hospitals from 157 cities of 31 provinces. Except emergency visits and online consultations, category 3 cities, tertiary hospitals and general hospitals had greater reductions in overall clinical activities than category 1 cities, primary hospitals and specialized hospitals (all adjusted < 0.05), respectively. The differences also existed in the management of specific diseases and conditions, especially for less urgent conditions, including cervical cancer screening, instructions regarding contraception and miscarriage, and assisted reproduction (all < 0.05). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the clinical obstetrics and gynecology activities in China markedly decreased, with significant differences across municipal and hospital characteristics. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on July 27, 2020 (NCT04491201).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.633477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360866PMC
July 2021

Genome-wide in vitro and in vivo RNAi screens reveal Fer3 to be an important regulator of kkv transcription in Drosophila.

Insect Sci 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of High Technology for Plant Protection, Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of chitin, an important component of the Drosophila epidermis, trachea, and other tissues. Here, we report the use of comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) analyses to search for kkv transcriptional regulators. A cell-based RNAi screen identified 537 candidate kkv regulators on a genome-wide scale. Subsequent use of transgenic Drosophila lines expressing RNAi constructs enabled in vivo validation, and we identified six genes as potential kkv transcriptional regulators. Weakening of the kkvDsRed signal, an in vivo reporter indicating kkv promoter activity, was observed when the expression of Akirin, NFAT, 48 related 3 (Fer3), or Autophagy-related 101(Atg101) was knocked down in Drosophila at the 3rd-instar larval stage; whereas we observed disoriented taenidial folds on larval tracheae when Lines (lin) or Autophagy-related 3(Atg3) was knocked down in the tracheae. Fer3, in particular, has been shown to be an important factor in the activation of kkv transcription via specific binding with the kkv promoter. The genes involved in the chitin synthesis pathway were widely affected by the downregulation of Fer3. Furthermore, Atg101, Atg3, Akirin, Lin, NFAT, Pnr and Abd-A showed the potential complex mechanism of kkv transcription are regulated by an interaction network with bithorax complex components. Our study revealed the hitherto unappreciated diversity of modulators impinging on kkv transcription and opens new avenues in the study of kkv regulation and chitin biosynthesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12954DOI Listing
August 2021

Factors related to age at natural menopause in China: results from the China Kadoorie Biobank.

Menopause 2021 08 2;28(10):1130-1142. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Non-Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the potentially modifiable factors affecting age at natural menopause (ANM) in Chinese women.

Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank study which that recruited 0.5 million (0.3 million women) Chinese adults aged 30 to 79 from 2004 to 2008. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between ANM and various factors recorded at baseline.

Results: Among 87,349 postmenopausal women, the mean ANM (SD) was 48.7 (4.3) years. Older age, being a housewife, earlier menarche, and passive smoking were associated with both premature menopause (PM, ie, ANM <40 years) and early menopause (EM, ie, ANM between 40 and 44 years). A higher odds for EM was observed in women who were widowed (odds ratio: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.16), had spontaneous abortions (1.33 [1.05-1.69]), current regular smoking (1.19 [1.07-1.37]), and frequent spicy food intake (1.11 [1.05-1.08]). Higher socioeconomic status; later first birth; more live births and induced abortions; longer breastfeeding; tea drinking, as well as intakes of meat, fruits, dairy, and soybean products; and increased body mass index gain were inversely associated with PM and/or EM. In contrast, women who had more pregnancies, occasional alcohol drinking, higher levels of physical activity or body mass index, vitamin intake, and hypertension were more likely to have a later age at menopause (LM, ie, ANM ≥53 years).

Conclusions: This large epidemiological study found a wide range of sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary, and reproductive factors related to PM, EM, and LM in Chinese women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462451PMC
August 2021

Lifestyle, cardiometabolic disease, and multimorbidity in a prospective Chinese study.

Eur Heart J 2021 09;42(34):3374-3384

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China.

Aims: The potential difference in the impacts of lifestyle factors (LFs) on progression from healthy to first cardiometabolic disease (FCMD), subsequently to cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM), and further to death is unclear.

Methods And Results: We used data from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 461 047 adults aged 30-79 free of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes at baseline. Cardiometabolic multimorbidity was defined as the coexistence of two or three CMDs, including ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We used multi-state model to analyse the impacts of high-risk LFs (current smoking or quitting because of illness, current excessive alcohol drinking or quitting, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy body shape) on the progression of CMD. During a median follow-up of 11.2 years, 87 687 participants developed at least one CMD, 14 164 developed CMM, and 17 541 died afterwards. Five high-risk LFs played crucial but different roles in all transitions from healthy to FCMD, to CMM, and then to death. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) per one-factor increase were 1.20 (1.19, 1.21) and 1.14 (1.11, 1.16) for transitions from healthy to FCMD, and from FCMD to CMM, and 1.21 (1.19, 1.23), 1.12 (1.10, 1.15), and 1.10 (1.06, 1.15) for mortality risk from healthy, FCMD, and CMM, respectively. When we further divided FCMDs into IHD, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, and T2D, we found that LFs played different roles in disease-specific transitions even within the same transition stage.

Conclusion: Assuming causality exists, our findings emphasize the significance of integrating comprehensive lifestyle interventions into both health management and CMD management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423468PMC
September 2021

Adherence to healthy lifestyle and attenuation of biological aging in middle-aged and older Chinese adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Little is known about the effects of lifestyle modification on biological aging in population-based studies of middle-aged and older adults.

Methods: We examined the individual and joint associations of multiple lifestyle factors with accelerated biological aging measured by change in frailty index (FI) over 8 years in a prospective study of Chinese adults. Data were obtained on 24,813 participants in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) on lifestyle factors and frailty status at baseline and at 8 years after baseline. Adherence to healthy lifestyle factors included non-smoking or quitting smoking for reasons other than illness, avoidance of heavy alcohol consumption, daily intake of fruit and vegetables, being physically active, body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-23.9 kg/m 2, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) <0.90 (men)/0.85 (women). FI was constructed separately at baseline and resurvey using 25 age- and health-related items.

Results: Overall, 8,760 (35.3%) individuals had a worsening frailty status. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, adherence to healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of worsening frailty status. Compared with robust participants maintaining 0-1 healthy lifestyle factors, the corresponding OR (95% CI) was 0.93 (0.83-1.03), 0.75 (0.67-0.84), 0.68 (0.60-0.77), and 0.55 (0.46-0.65) for robust participants with 2, 3, 4, and 5-6 healthy lifestyle factors. The decreased risk of frailty status worsening by adherence to healthy lifestyle factors was similar in both middle-aged and older adults, and in both robust and prefrail participants at baseline.

Conclusions: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the rate of change in biological aging in middle-aged and older Chinese adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab213DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between blood pressure categories and cardiovascular disease mortality in China.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0255373. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Blood pressure (BP) categories are useful to simplify preventions in public health, and diagnostic and treatment approaches in clinical practice. Updated evidence about the associations of BP categories with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and its subtypes is warranted.

Methods And Findings: About 0.5 million adults aged 30 to 79 years were recruited from 10 areas in China during 2004-2008. The present study included 430 977 participants without antihypertension treatment, cancer, or CVD at baseline. BP was measured at least twice in a single visit at baseline and CVD deaths during follow-up were collected via registries and the national health insurance databases. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between BP categories and CVD mortality. Overall, 16.3% had prehypertension-low, 25.1% had prehypertension-high, 14.1% had isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), 1.9% had isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and 9.1% had systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH). During a median 10-year follow-up, 9660 CVD deaths were documented. Compared with normal, the hazard ratios (95% CI) of prehypertension-low, prehypertension-high, ISH, IDH, SDH for CVD were 1.10 (1.01-1.19), 1.32 (1.23-1.42), 2.04 (1.91-2.19), 2.20 (1.85-2.61), and 3.81 (3.54-4.09), respectively. All hypertension subtypes were related to the increased risk of CVD subtypes, with a stronger association for hemorrhagic stroke than for ischemic heart disease. The associations were stronger in younger than older adults.

Conclusions: Prehypertension-high should be considered in CVD primary prevention given its high prevalence and increased CVD risk. All hypertension subtypes were independently associated with CVD and its subtypes mortality, though the strength of associations varied substantially.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255373PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323908PMC
July 2021

Blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Feb 23;7:100085. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

Background: Controversy persists about the relationship of blood pressure with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in diabetes and associated disease burden. We assessed these associations among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: In 2004-08, the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited >512,000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 localities across China, including 26,315 with T2D (based on self-report or plasma glucose measurement) but no prior CVD, followed-up for ~9 years. Cox regression yielded adjusted HR for major CVD and all-cause mortality associated with 10 mmHg higher usual (longer-term average) SBP. Attributable fractions were estimated to assess cardiovascular mortality burden due to uncontrolled hypertension (SBP ≥130 mmHg or DBP ≥80 mmHg).

Findings: Overall, 75.7% of participants had self-reported (24.8%) or screen-detected (50.9%) (SBP ≥130 mmHg or DBP ≥80 mmHg) hypertension. Among individuals with self-reported hypertension, 82.3% were treated, of whom 9.3% achieved control. There were positive log-linear associations of blood pressure with CVD, with no evidence of a threshold down to ~120 mmHg for usual SBP. Each 10 mmHg higher usual SBP was associated with HR of 1.28 (95% CI 1.25-1.30), 1.18 (1.15-1.21), 1.17 (1.15-1.19) and 1.45 (1.38-1.52) for cardiovascular death (=1807), major coronary event (=1190), ischaemic stroke (=4362) and intracerebral haemorrhage (=469), respectively. There was an apparent J-shaped association with all-cause mortality (=4503). In this diabetes population, uncontrolled hypertension accounted for 39% of cardiovascular deaths.

Interpretation: Uncontrolled hypertension is common in Chinese adults with T2D, resulting in substantial excess risks of CVD. Improved hypertension management could avoid a large number of cardiovascular-related deaths.

Funding: Kadoorie Foundation, Wellcome Trust, MRC, BHF, CR-UK, MoST, NNSF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315364PMC
February 2021

Long-term solid fuel use and risks of major eye diseases in China: A population-based cohort study of 486,532 adults.

PLoS Med 2021 07 29;18(7):e1003716. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Over 3.5 billion individuals worldwide are exposed to household air pollution from solid fuel use. There is limited evidence from cohort studies on associations of solid fuel use with risks of major eye diseases, which cause substantial disease and economic burden globally.

Methods And Findings: The China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,715 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 areas across China during 2004 to 2008. Cooking frequency and primary fuel types in the 3 most recent residences were assessed by a questionnaire. During median (IQR) 10.1 (9.2 to 11.1) years of follow-up, electronic linkages to national health insurance databases identified 4,877 incident conjunctiva disorders, 13,408 cataracts, 1,583 disorders of sclera, cornea, iris, and ciliary body (DSCIC), and 1,534 cases of glaucoma. Logistic regression yielded odds ratios (ORs) for each disease associated with long-term use of solid fuels (i.e., coal or wood) compared to clean fuels (i.e., gas or electricity) for cooking, with adjustment for age at baseline, birth cohort, sex, study area, education, occupation, alcohol intake, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, cookstove ventilation, heating fuel exposure, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, self-reported general health, and length of recall period. After excluding participants with missing or unreliable exposure data, 486,532 participants (mean baseline age 52.0 [SD 10.7] years; 59.1% women) were analysed. Overall, 71% of participants cooked regularly throughout the recall period, of whom 48% used solid fuels consistently. Compared with clean fuel users, solid fuel users had adjusted ORs of 1.32 (1.07 to 1.37, p < 0.001) for conjunctiva disorders, 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26, p < 0.001) for cataracts, 1.35 (1.10 to 1.66, p = 0.0046) for DSCIC, and 0.95 (0.76 to 1.18, p = 0.62) for glaucoma. Switching from solid to clean fuels was associated with smaller elevated risks (over long-term clean fuel users) than nonswitching, with adjusted ORs of 1.21 (1.07 to 1.37, p < 0.001), 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12, p = 0.17), and 1.21 (0.97 to 1.50, p = 0.088) for conjunctiva disorders, cataracts, and DSCIC, respectively. The adjusted ORs for the eye diseases were broadly similar in solid fuel users regardless of ventilation status. The main limitations of this study include the lack of baseline eye disease assessment, the use of self-reported cooking frequency and fuel types for exposure assessment, the risk of bias from delayed diagnosis (particularly for cataracts), and potential residual confounding from unmeasured factors (e.g., sunlight exposure).

Conclusions: Among Chinese adults, long-term solid fuel use for cooking was associated with higher risks of not only conjunctiva disorders but also cataracts and other more severe eye diseases. Switching to clean fuels appeared to mitigate the risks, underscoring the global health importance of promoting universal access to clean fuels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321372PMC
July 2021

Identification of a Novel Class of Photolyases as Possible Ancestors of Their Family.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Sep;38(10):4505-4519

Key Laboratory of Biomedicine in Gene Diseases and Health of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, China.

UV irradiation induces the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. These two types of lesions can be directly photorepaired by CPD photolyases and 6-4 photolyases, respectively. Recently, a new class of 6-4 photolyases named iron-sulfur bacterial cryptochromes and photolyases (FeS-BCPs) were found, which were considered as the ancestors of all photolyases and their homologs-cryptochromes. However, a controversy exists regarding 6-4 photoproducts only constituting ∼10-30% of the total UV-induced lesions that primordial organisms would hardly survive without a CPD repair enzyme. By extensive phylogenetic analyses, we identified a novel class of proteins, all from eubacteria. They have relatively high similarity to class I/III CPD photolyases, especially in the putative substrate-binding and FAD-binding regions. However, these proteins are shorter, and they lack the "N-terminal α/β domain" of normal photolyases. Therefore, we named them short photolyase-like. Nevertheless, similar to FeS-BCPs, some of short photolyase-likes also contain four conserved cysteines, which may also coordinate an iron-sulfur cluster as FeS-BCPs. A member from Rhodococcus fascians was cloned and expressed. It was demonstrated that the protein contains a FAD cofactor and an iron-sulfur cluster, and has CPD repair activity. It was speculated that this novel class of photolyases may be the real ancestors of the cryptochrome/photolyase family.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476157PMC
September 2021

Associations of toothbrushing behaviour with risks of vascular and nonvascular diseases in Chinese adults.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 21:e13634. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that poor oral hygiene is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases in Western populations. However, its relevance about the relationships in Chinese adults remains unclear. The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 715 adults aged 30-79 years in China during 2004-2008. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each disease associated with measures of oral hygiene. Overall 9.3% of the participants reported rarely or never brushing teeth at baseline. Participants who rarely or never brushed teeth had adjusted HR of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.15) for MVE, with similar HRs for stroke (1.08, 1.05-1.12), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.18, 1.11-1.26) and pulmonary heart disease (1.22, 1.13-1.32) compared with those who brushed teeth regularly. Those who did not brush teeth also had increased risk of cancer (1.09, 1.04-1.14), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (1.12, 1.05-1.20), liver cirrhosis (1.25, 1.09-1.44) and all-cause death (1.25, 1.21-1.28) but not type 2 diabetes (0.94, 0.86-1.03) and chronic kidney disease (0.98, 0.81-1.18). Among Chinese adults, we found that poor oral hygiene is associated with higher risks of major vascular disease, cancer, COPD, liver cirrhosis and all-cause deaths, but not type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13634DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence and risk factors of atrioventricular block among 15 million Chinese health examination participants in 2018: a nation-wide cross-sectional study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 06 11;21(1):289. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Nationwide data on the prevalence of atrioventricular (AV) block are currently unavailable in China. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of AV block among Chinese health examination adults.

Methods: A total of 15,181,402 participants aged ≥ 18 years (mean age 41.5 ± 13.4 years, 53.2% men) who underwent an electrocardiogram as a part of routine health examination in 2018 were analyzed. AV block was diagnosed by physicians using 12-lead electrocardiogram. Overall and stratified prevalence (by age, sex, and city size) of all, first-, second- and third-degree AV block were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore risk factors associated with AV block.

Results: AV block was observed in 88,842 participants, including 86,153 with first-degree, 2249 with second-degree and 440 with third-degree AV block. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence rate [95% confidence interval (CI)] of all, first-, second- and third-degree AV block were 7.06‰ (7.01-7.11), 6.84‰ (6.79-6.89), 0.18‰ (0.17-0.18) and 0.04‰ (0.03-0.04) respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the risk of AV block was positively associated with older age, being male, lower heart rate, higher body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. High total cholesterol was associated with a lower risk of AV block.

Conclusion: First-degree AV block is relatively common while severe AV block is rare in health examination adults. Besides, AV block was highly prevalent among the elderly. The risk of AV block was associated with older age, being male and metabolic factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02105-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194203PMC
June 2021

Case Report: A Severe and Multi-Site Infection Rapidly and Precisely Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:669552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

genus is an aerobic, gram-positive, and opportunistic pathogen, which mainly affects cell-mediated immunosuppressed patients. Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improve prognosis. However, the limitation of golden standard-bacterial culture exists. Here, we report a 61-year-old male with pneumonia, sepsis and intermuscular abscesses induced by . Venous blood culture reported negative results. Former improper diagnosis and treatment did not improve his condition. With the assistant of metagenomic next-generation sequencing, the pathogen was identified as . He was then applied with accurate treatment and had a remarkable clinical and radiological improvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.669552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183679PMC
May 2021

Identification of putative abdominal vibration-related genes through transcriptome analyses in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens).

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 09 26;39:100856. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The sexually mature female brown planthoppers (BPHs) send out abdominal vibration (AV) signals through the rice so that the males can obtain intraspecific, gender, and localization information to prepare for mating. Destroying vibration signals is an alternative biological method for pest control. However, the regulatory mechanism of AV in female BPHs remains elusive, which presents an obstacle to pest control. We observed that before mating female BHPs emitted abdominal vibration signals that disappeared immediately after mating and reappeared after 6 days. Therefore, ovarian and brain samples of female BPHs from Unmated-6h (with AV), Mated-6h (without AV) and Mated-6d (with AV) individuals were collected for transcript analyses. By transcriptional sequencing analyses, 33 candidate genes that might involve in the regulation of female AV were obtained. After selecting 4 candidate genes of them for verification by RNA interference (RNAi), it was found that interference of juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP) could greatly reduce the probability and frequency of AV for female BPHs. In general, this study identified AV-related candidate genes in female BPHs through transcriptome analyses and provided an important basis for future research on pest control in BPHs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100856DOI Listing
September 2021

Consumption of soy products and cardiovascular mortality in people with and without cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million individuals.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 5650871, Japan.

Purpose: We sought to examine the association of soy product consumption with risk of cardiovascular death in Chinese individuals with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: The current analysis included 487,034 individuals free of CVD and 22,923 individuals with a history of CVD at study baseline. Data on consumption of soy products were collected by a food frequency questionnaire. The Cox regression was used to obtain the hazard ratios (HRs) of cardiovascular mortality associated with soy product consumption among people with and without a history of CVD at baseline.

Results: During the period of follow-up, 12,582 and 2860 cardiovascular deaths were recorded among people without and with a history of CVD. Compared with those who never or rarely ate soy products, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) were 1.02 (0.96, 1.08) for those who ate soy products monthly, 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) for those who ate soy products 1-3 days per week, 0.95 (0.88, 1.04) for those who ate soy products ≥ 4 days per week. For cause-specific mortality, soy product consumption was inversely associated with mortality from acute myocardial infarction (HR [95% CI] = 0.75 [0.61, 0.92]). Among people with a history of CVD, higher soy product consumption was not associated with cardiovascular mortality.

Conclusions: Soy consumption ≥ 4 days per week was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality from acute myocardial infarction in comparison with never or rarely consumption among people without a history of CVD. Among people with a history of CVD, higher soy product consumption was not associated with cardiovascular mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02602-3DOI Listing
June 2021
-->