Publications by authors named "Jun Liu"

7,314 Publications

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Mechanically Robust, Self-Repairable, Shape Memory and Recyclable Ionomeric Elastomer Composites with Renewable Lignin via Interfacial Metal-Ligand Interactions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China.

Lignin, the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature, is one of the most promising renewable feedstocks for value-added polymer products. However, it is challenging to prepare high-performance and multifunctional polymer materials with renewable lignin because of its poor compatibility with the elastomer matrix. In fact, lignin often requires solvent fractionation, chemical modification, or prohibitively expensive additives. This work develops a cost-effective strategy to prepare ionomeric elastomer composites based on a commercial carboxyl elastomer and a high content of lignin without purification or chemical modification. The compatibility between the elastomer and lignin is improved by the incorporation of zinc oxide which creates metal-ligand coordination at the interfaces between the carboxyl groups of the elastomer and the oxygen-bearing groups of the lignin. This results in fine dispersion of the lignin in the elastomer matrix, even when its content reaches 50 wt %. The lignin/elastomer composites show excellent mechanical properties, which are attributed to the reinforcing effect of the lignin domains and the presence of abundant sacrificial coordination bonds. Moreover, ionic bonds and ionic aggregates created by the neutralization of the zinc ions with the carboxyl groups of the elastomer behave as physical crosslinks which endow the composites with excellent recyclability; namely, their mechanical properties are retained or even improved after multiple reprocessing cycles. They also show good self-repairability and shape memory. Hence, this work may open up new avenues to utilize lignin as a renewable alternative to petroleum derivatives for designing and fabricating high-performance and multifunctional elastomer materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c10731DOI Listing
August 2022

Versatilely Manipulating the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites by Incorporating Porous Fillers: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

Langmuir 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been attracting myriad scientific and technological attention due to their promising mechanical and functional properties. However, there remains a need for an efficient method that can further strengthen the mechanical performance of PNCs. Here, we propose a strategy to design and fabricate novel PNCs by incorporating porous fillers (PFs) such as metal-organic frameworks with ultrahigh specific surface areas and tunable nanospaces to polymer matrices via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Three important parameters─the polymer chain stiffness (), the interaction strength between the PF center and the end functional groups of polymer chains (ε), and the PF weight fraction ()─are systematically examined. First, attributed to the penetration of polymer chains into PFs at a strong ε, the dimension of polymer chains such as the radius of gyration and the end-to-end distance increases greatly as a function of compared to the case of the neat polymer system. The penetration of polymer chains is validated by characterizing the radial distribution function between end functional groups and filler centers, as well as the visualization of the snapshots. Also, the dispersion state of PFs tends to be good because of the chain penetration. Then, the glass transition temperature ratio of PNCs to that of the neat systems exhibits a maximum in the case of = 5ε, indicating that the strongest interlocking between polymer chains and PFs occurs at intermediate chain stiffness. The polymer chain dynamics of PNCs decreases to a plateau at = 5ε and then becomes stable, and the relative mobility to that of the neat system as well presents the same variation trend. Furthermore, the mechanical property under uniaxial deformation is thoroughly studied, and intermediates , ε, and can bring about the best mechanical property. This is because of the robust penetration and interaction, which is confirmed by calculating the stress of every component of PNCs with and without end functional groups and PF centers as well as the nonbonded interaction energy change between different components. Finally, the optimal condition ( = 5.36ε, ε = 5.29ε, and = 6.54%) to design the PNC with superior mechanical behavior is predicted by Gaussian process regression, an active machine learning (ML) method. Overall, incorporating PFs greatly enhances the entanglements and interactions between polymer chains and nanofillers and brings effective mechanical reinforcements with lower filler weight fractions. We anticipate that this will provide new routes to the design of mechanically reinforced PNCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c01090DOI Listing
August 2022

Antibiofilm Activity of Essential Fatty Acids Against from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Bloodstream Infections.

Infect Drug Resist 2022 3;15:4181-4193. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine and Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The biofilm formation of is an important virulence factor as it can increase tolerance to conventional antifungal drugs and the host immune system. The study aimed to assess the effect of essential fatty acids (EFAs) against biofilm formation and mature biofilms of strains, which were isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia.

Methods: The biofilm formation ability of and antifungal activities of fluconazole were determined. Additionally, the effects of six EFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LOA), γ-linolenic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA)] against under planktonic and biofilm conditions were evaluated.

Results: 94.1% of exhibited biofilm formation capacity, and 98.5% of were susceptible to fluconazole. The biofilms of were highly resistant to fluconazole with minimum biofilm eradication concentration values ≥ 64 µg/mL. The EFAs attenuated biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, and GLA displayed a remarkable inhibitory activity against biofilm formation of . In addition, EPA, DHA, and GLA at 0.1 mM could inhibit the biofilm formation of without affecting the planktonic growth rate. Notably, EPA and AA at 1 mM had both inhibitory and eradication activities on biofilms.

Conclusion: This is the first study to directly compare different EFAs for their capacity to affect biofilm formation as well as biofilm eradication. These results suggest EPA and AA could serve as potential new antifungal agents for the treatment of clinical infections caused by biofilms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S373991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9357398PMC
August 2022

Treatment of melasma by a combination of intense pulsed light with advanced optimal pulse technology and human-like collagen repair dressing: A case series study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Aug;101(31):e29492

Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, People's Republic of China.

To observe the efficacy and safety of a combination of intense pulsed light (IPL) with advanced optimal pulse technology (AOPT) and human-like collagen repair dressing in the treatment of melasma. Ten patients with melasma were treated using IPL with AOPT once a month for a total of 8 times, and received the treatment of external human-like collagen repair dressing after each operation. The efficacy was evaluated with the modified Melasma Area Severity Index (mMASI) score and satisfaction score, respectively, before treatment, after each treatment and at 4 months after the end of the whole treatment course. The melasma was significantly lightened in all 10 patients after 8 times of treatments. The mMASI score before treatment was (8.6 ± 3.8) points, which decreased significantly to (5.1 ± 2.7) points after 8 times of treatments, and there was a significant difference in mMASI score between before and after 8 times of treatments (P = .001). The mMASI score was (3.3 ± 2.2) points at 4 months after the end of whole treatment course, and there was no significant difference in mMASI score between after 8 times of treatments and 4 months after the end of whole treatment course (P > .05). The satisfaction score was (7.2 ± 1.4) points after 8 times of treatments and (7.1 ± 1.4) points at 4 months after the end of whole treatment course, there was no significant difference in satisfaction score between after 8 times of treatments and 4 months after the end of whole treatment course (P > .05). A combination of IPL with AOPT and human-like collagen repair dressing can effectively decrease the severity of melasma, and is associated with a higher patient satisfaction score and a lower risk of relapse after discontinuation of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029492DOI Listing
August 2022

Live leech in the trachea: an unexpected cause of haemoptysis.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2022 07 11;83(7). Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2022.0010DOI Listing
July 2022

Characteristics of Gut Microbial Profiles of Offshore Workers and Its Associations With Diet.

Front Nutr 2022 22;9:904927. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Navy Special Medical Center, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

The composition of gut microbiota is not a static state in humans but fluctuates in response to changes in environments, diet, and lifestyle factors. Here, we explored differences in gut microbiota between populations worked offshore and onshore and further studied microbiota-associated variables in offshore workers (OFWs). We investigated the gut microbiota of 168 healthy subjects (offshore: 145 and onshore: 23) using 16S rRNA sequencing. Our results indicated that the marine environment caused significant changes in intestinal microbial structure, which was mainly reflected in the increase in bacterial diversity, changes in composition, and the emergence of more specific bacteria in OFWs. In addition, characteristics of gut microbiota in OFWs were further explored, and the genus was considered a potential contributor to the stable state of health. Besides, some dietary factors, namely, duck, mutton, dairy products, and algae vegetables were identified as the gut microbial covariates in the OFWs cohort and were positively correlated with the genus . This suggests the positive intervention of diet on . Our data highlight, for the first time to our knowledge, that the marine geographical environment plays an important role in shaping the gut mycobiome composition. And diet could be considered as the targeted intervention that alters the composition of the microbiome to improve host health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.904927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354959PMC
July 2022

Nickel/nitrogen-doped carbon nanocomposites: Synthesis and electrochemical sensor for determination of p-nitrophenol in local environment.

Environ Res 2022 Aug 4:114007. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

School of Biology and Engineering, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 550025, China; Engineering Research Center of Medical Biotechnology, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 550025, Guizhou, China. Electronic address:

A novel electrochemical sensor was prepared using N-doped carbon mesoporous materials supported with nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NCs) for environmental p-nitrophenol (p-NP) detection in a specific geographical area. These as-prepared Ni-NCs were dispersed in polyethyleneimine (PEI) solution and modified onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrocatalytic reduction of p-NP. The Ni-NCs-PEI/GCE showed a high Faraday current at -0.302 V during p-NP reduction, because of the synergistic effect between Ni-NCs and PEI. Under ideal conditions, the Ni-NCs-PEI/GCE was used in the voltametric determination of p-NP, with high sensitivity. The linear ranges for p-NP are 0.06-10 μM and 10-100 μM with low detection limit (4.0 nM) and high sensitivity (1.465 μA μM cm). In the presence of other phenolic compounds, this sensor showed good selectivity for p-NP detection. The Ni-NCs-PEI/GCE was also used to determine p-NP in environmental water samples of a specific geographical area, with recoveries ranging from 95.9% to 109.4%, and an RSD of less than 3.6%. Therefore, this novel Ni-NCs-PEI/GCE provides a good example for the design of other carbon-based nanocomposite materials, for electrochemical detection of trace p-NP in a specific geographical area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.114007DOI Listing
August 2022

Overcoming the blood-brain barrier: Exosomes as theranostic nanocarriers for precision neuroimaging.

J Control Release 2022 Aug 5;349:902-916. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410000, PR China. Electronic address:

Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles with a lipid bilayer membrane that play important roles in intercellular communication. They provide an unprecedented opportunity for the development of drug delivery nanoplatforms due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, biocompatibility, stability, and ability to change the functions of recipient cells. In addition, exosomes can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and then target and accumulate in relevant pathological brain regions. However, few studies have focused on the applications of exosomes as nanocarriers for use in precision neuroimaging studies. Thus, this report presents the feasibility of fabricating specific exosome-based diagnostic reagents for the application of personalized/precision radiology in the central nervous system based on important recent fundamental discoveries and technological advances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.08.002DOI Listing
August 2022

Discrepancies among healthy, subclinical mastitic, and clinical mastitic cows in fecal microbiome and metabolome and serum metabolome.

J Dairy Sci 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Mastitis is generally considered a local inflammatory disease caused by the invasion of exogenous pathogens and resulting in the dysbiosis of microbiota and metabolites in milk. However, the entero-mammary pathway theory may establish a possible link between some endogenous gut bacteria and the occurrence and development of mastitis. In the current study, we attempted to investigate differences in the gut microbiota profile and metabolite composition in gut and serum from healthy cows and those with subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis. Compared with those of healthy cows, the microbial community diversities in the feces of cows with subclinical mastitis (SM) and clinical mastitis (CM) were lower. Lower abundance of Bifidobacterium, Romboutsia, Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group, Coprococcus, Prevotellaceae_UCG-003, Ruminococcus, and Alistipes, and higher abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and the genera Escherichia-Shigella and Streptococcus were observed in CM cows. Klebsiella and Paeniclostridium were significantly enriched in the feces of SM cows. Several similarities were observed in feces and serum metabolites in mastitic cows. Higher levels of proinflammatory lipid products (20-trihydroxy-leukotriene-B4, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE, and 9,10-dihydroxylinoleic acids) and lower levels of metabolites involved in secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid, 12-ketolithocholic acid), energy (citric acid and 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine), and purine metabolism (uric acid and inosine) were identified in both SM and CM cows. In addition, elevated concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and decreased concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were detected in the serum of SM and CM cows. Higher serum concentrations of triglyceride and total cholesterol and lower concentrations of high-density lipoproteins in mastitic cows might be related to changes in the gut microbiota and metabolites. These findings suggested a significant difference in the profile of feces microbiota and metabolites in cows with different udder health status, which might increase our understanding of bovine mastitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-21654DOI Listing
August 2022

Artificial intelligence-based diagnosis of abnormalities in small-bowel capsule endoscopy.

Endoscopy 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

BACKGROUND : Further development of deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) technology to automatically diagnose multiple abnormalities in small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) videos is necessary. We aimed to develop an AI model, to compare its diagnostic performance with doctors of different experience levels, and to further evaluate its auxiliary role for doctors in diagnosing multiple abnormalities in SBCE videos. METHODS : The AI model was trained using 280 426 images from 2565 patients, and the diagnostic performance was validated in 240 videos. RESULTS : The sensitivity of the AI model for red spots, inflammation, blood content, vascular lesions, protruding lesions, parasites, diverticulum, and normal variants was 97.8 %, 96.1 %, 96.1 %, 94.7 %, 95.6 %, 100 %, 100 %, and 96.4 %, respectively. The specificity was 86.0 %, 75.3 %, 87.3 %, 77.8 %, 67.7 %, 97.5 %, 91.2 %, and 81.3 %, respectively. The accuracy was 95.0 %, 88.8 %, 89.2 %, 79.2 %, 80.8 %, 97.5 %, 91.3 %, and 93.3 %, respectively. For junior doctors, the assistance of the AI model increased the overall accuracy from 85.5 % to 97.9 % (  < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected), comparable to that of experts (96.6 %,  > 0.0125, Bonferroni corrected). CONCLUSIONS : This well-trained AI diagnostic model automatically diagnosed multiple small-bowel abnormalities simultaneously based on video-level recognition, with potential as an excellent auxiliary system for less-experienced endoscopists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1881-4209DOI Listing
August 2022

A multi-layer functional genomic analysis to understand noncoding genetic variation in lipids.

Am J Hum Genet 2022 08;109(8):1366-1387

Division of Genome Science, Department of Precision Medicine, National Institute of Health, Chungbuk, South Korea.

A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We first prioritize lipid-associated genes with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) colocalizations and then add chromatin interaction data to narrow the search for functional genes. Polygenic enrichment analysis across 697 annotations from a host of tissues and cell types confirms the central role of the liver in lipid levels and highlights the selective enrichment of adipose-specific chromatin marks in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Overlapping transcription factor (TF) binding sites with lipid-associated loci identifies TFs relevant in lipid biology. In addition, we present an integrative framework to prioritize causal variants at GWAS loci, producing a comprehensive list of candidate causal genes and variants with multiple layers of functional evidence. We highlight two of the prioritized genes, CREBRF and RRBP1, which show convergent evidence across functional datasets supporting their roles in lipid biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.06.012DOI Listing
August 2022

A novel porous granular scaffold for the promotion of trabecular bone repair by time-dependent alteration of morphology.

Biomater Adv 2022 May 29;136:212777. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomaterials and Devices, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Granular scaffolds have been extensively used in the clinic to repair irregular maxillofacial defects. There remain some challenges for the repair of trabecular structures in cancellous bone due to the reticular lamella-like morphology. In this study, we fabricated a novel granular scaffold by rational design of components with different degradation rates so that the morphology of the novel scaffold can evolve to match the growth period of bone cells. Here, polycaprolactone (PCL) was used to fabricate porous microspheres as a skeleton with slow degradation. The macropores were filled with quick degraded gelatin to form complete microspheres. Asynchronous degradation of the two components altered the morphology of the evolutive scaffold from compact to porous, gradually exposing the ridge-like skeletons. This scaffold reversed the decline of cellular adhesion to simple porous skeletons during the initial adhesion. Furthermore, the cells were able to grow into the pores and adhere onto the skeletons with an elongated cellular morphology, facilitating osteogenic differentiation. This novel scaffold was experimentally proven to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone along with a good percentage of bone volume and the formation of trabecular structures. We believe this morphology-evolved scaffold is highly promising for regenerative applications in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.212777DOI Listing
May 2022

Myricetin Improves Impaired Nerve Functions in Experimental Diabetic Rats.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 19;13:915603. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, China.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is considered as one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. At present, effective treatments that might improve the damaged neurological function in DPN are sorely needed. As myricetin has been proved to possess excellent neuroprotective and antioxidant effects, it might have therapeutic potential for DPN. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to detect the potential beneficial effect of myricetin on DPN. A single dose of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin was applied in rats for the establishment of diabetic models. Different doses of myricetin (0.5 mg/kg/day, 1.0 mg/kg/day, and 2.0 mg/kg/day) were intraperitoneally injected for 2 weeks from the 21st day after streptozotocin injection. After the final myricetin injection, behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical, and protein analyses were performed. In the present study, myricetin significantly ameliorated diabetes-induced impairment in sensation, nerve conduction velocities, and nerve blood flow. In addition, myricetin significantly reduced the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated Na, K-ATPase activity and antioxidant activities in nerves in diabetic animals. Additional studies revealed that myricetin significantly raised the hydrogen sulfide (HS) levels, and elevated the expression level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as well as nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in diabetic rats. In addition, myricetin has the capability of decreasing plasma glucose under diabetic conditions. The findings in our present study collectively indicated that myricetin could restore the impaired motor and sensory functions under diabetic conditions. The Nrf2-dependent antioxidant action and the capability of decreasing plasma glucose might be the underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effect of myricetin on impaired neural functions. Our study showed the therapeutic potential of myricetin in the management of DPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.915603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343592PMC
August 2022

Monogenic basis of young-onset cryptogenic stroke: a multicenter study.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(9):512

Department of Neurology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China.

Background: The prevalence of stroke in young adults is increasing. We investigated the monogenic basis of young adult cryptogenic stroke patients.

Methods: This multicenter study enrolled cryptogenic stroke patients under 55 years old, and individuals with nonstroke diseases were included as controls. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied with a custom-designed gene panel that included 551 genes. Rare variants were classified into 2 groups: pathogenic variants and variants of unknown significance.

Results: A total of 153 individuals, including 30 (21 males, 70%; mean age 36.1±10.2 years) in the disease group and 123 (59 males, 48.0%; mean age 40.4±13.1 years) in the control group, were recruited. In the disease group, 32 rare variants were identified. Among these individuals, 18 pathogenic variants in 16 patients were detected, with a 53.3% (16/30) diagnostic yield of monogenic causes for cryptogenic stroke. None of these mutations were observed in the control group. Among the mutant genes, the most prevalent were Notch receptor 3 (), protein kinase AMP-activated noncatalytic subunit gamma 2 (), and ryanodine receptor 2 (). Genes associated with cardiogenic diseases showed the highest mutation frequency (10/18, 55.6%) followed by genes associated with small-vessel diseases (SVDs) and coagulation disorders. None of the patients with mutations had evident abnormalities in the heart or other systems checked by routine tests. For the imaging phenotype-genotype association analysis, infarctions in both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation were only observed in patients with genes related to cardiogenic disease.

Conclusions: In this study, pathogenic variants were identified in nearly half of the young-onset cryptogenic stroke patients, with genes related to cardiogenic diseases being the most frequently mutated. This may have implications for future clinical decision-making, including the development of finer and more sensitive examinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9347040PMC
May 2022

Wedge resection before lobectomy for patients with T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer: a propensity score matching analysis.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(9):502

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Whether wedge resection of a tumor before lobectomy (Wed + Lob) can improve the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has yet to be determined comprehensively. This study aimed to compare the effects of Wed + Lob with those of direct lobectomy (Lob) on survival and tumor cell dissemination in patients with T1N0M0 NSCLC.

Methods: A cohort of 813 patients with T1N0M0 NSCLC who underwent lobectomy at a single center in China was investigated. After propensity score matching, the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients were estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots. Associations between surgical strategies and patient survival were computed as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Changes in folate receptor-positive circulating tumor cells (FR+ CTCs) after lobectomy were analyzed in another cohort from our hospital.

Results: A total of 401 Wed + Lob cases were matched with 255 Lob cases according to their propensity scores. Although no significant differences were found in OS, multivariate analysis showed that patients with T1N0M0 NSCLC in the Wed + Lob group had significantly improved DFS (HR =0.583; P=0.012) compared to those in the Lob group. After surgery, a decrease in FR+ CTCs was observed in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%) in the Wed + Lob group and in 16 of 23 patients (69.6%) in the Lob group [mean changes: 6.10 (±7.80) FU per 3 mL 1.31 (±4.39) FU per 3 mL; P=0.014].

Conclusions: Wed + Lob may improve DFS and reduce tumor cell dissemination in patients with T1N0M0 NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-5246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9347037PMC
May 2022

Circulating osteocalcin is associated with time in range and other metrics assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2022 Aug 4;14(1):109. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Endocrinology, Jinling Hospital, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Osteocalcin, a protein secreted mainly by mature osteoblasts, has been shown to be involved in glucose metabolism through various pathways. However, few studies has explored the association between osteocalcin and Time in range (TIR). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) -derived metrics, such as TIR and other indexes have been gradually and widely used in clinical practice to assess glucose fluctuations. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between osteocalcin and indexes from CGM in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Method: The total number of 376 patients with T2D were enrolled, all of them performed three consecutive days of monitoring. They were divided into four groups on account of the quartile of osteocalcin. Time in range, Time below range (TBR), Time above range(TAR) and measures of glycemic variability (GV) were assessed for analysing. After a 100 g standard steamed bread meal, blood glucose (Glu0h Glu0.5 h, Glu1h, Glu2h, GLu3h), C-peptide (Cp0h, Cp0.5 h, Cp1h, Cp2h, Cp3h), serum insulin (INS0h, INS0.5 h, INS1h, INS2h, INS3h) concentrations at different time points were obtained. HOMA-IS, HOMA-βwas calculated to evaluate insulin sensitivity and insulin secreting of the participants.

Results: Patients with higher osteocalcin level had higher TIR (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that osteocalcin was positively correlated with TBR (although the P value for TBR was greater than 0.05) (r = 0.227, P < 0.001 r = 0.068, P = 0.189) and negatively correlated with TAR (- 0.229, P < 0.001). Similarly, there was a negative correlation between osteocalcin and glycemic variability (GV) indicators, including SD, MBG, MODD, ADDR, and MAGE (P value of MAGE > 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression showed that osteocalcin was an independent contributor to TIR, TAR and HOMA-IS.

Conclusion: Circulating osteocalcin is positively correlated with TIR and negatively correlated with MODD, ADDR, and MAGE. Osteocalcin may have a beneficial impact on glucose homeostasis in T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-022-00863-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351112PMC
August 2022

Letter to the editor: Ethnic and age differences in right-left breast asymmetry in a large population-based screening population.

Br J Radiol 2022 Aug 4:20200392. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200392DOI Listing
August 2022

Metabolite profile of COVID-19 revealed by UPLC-MS/MS-based widely targeted metabolomics.

Front Immunol 2022 18;13:894170. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Medical Research Center, Yue Bei People's Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shaoguan, China.

The metabolic characteristics of COVID-19 disease are still largely unknown. Here, 44 patients with COVID-19 (31 mild COVID-19 patients and 13 severe COVID-19 patients), 42 healthy controls (HC), and 42 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were involved in the study to assess their serum metabolomic profiles. We used widely targeted metabolomics based on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The differentially expressed metabolites in the plasma of mild and severe COVID-19 patients, CAP patients, and HC subjects were screened, and the main metabolic pathways involved were analyzed. Multiple mature machine learning algorithms confirmed that the metabolites performed excellently in discriminating COVID-19 groups from CAP and HC subjects, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1. The specific dysregulation of AMP, dGMP, -glycero-3-phosphocholine, and carnitine was observed in the severe COVID-19 group. Moreover, random forest analysis suggested that these metabolites could discriminate between severe COVID-19 patients and mild COVID-19 patients, with an AUC of 0.921. This study may broaden our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 and may offer an experimental basis for developing novel treatment strategies against it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.894170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339702PMC
August 2022

Design of a genetically encoded biosensor to establish a high-throughput screening platform for L-cysteine overproduction.

Metab Eng 2022 Jul 31;73:144-157. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China; Key Laboratory of Systems Microbial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China. Electronic address:

Metabolic engineering seeks to rewire the metabolic network of cells for the efficient production of value-added compounds from renewable substrates. However, it remains challenging to evaluate and identify strains with the desired phenotype from the vast rational or random mutagenesis library. One effective approach to resolve this bottleneck is to design an efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) method to rapidly detect and analyze target candidates. L-cysteine is an important sulfur-containing amino acid and has been widely used in agriculture, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additive industries. However, HTS methods that enable monitoring of L-cysteine levels and screening of the enzyme variants and strains to confer superior L-cysteine biosynthesis remain unavailable, greatly limiting the development of efficient microbial cell factories for L-cysteine production at the industrial scale. Here, we took advantage of the L-cysteine-responsive transcriptional regulator CcdR to develop a genetically encoded biosensor for engineering and screening the L-cysteine overproducer. The in vivo L-cysteine-responsive assays and in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I footprint analysis indicated that CcdR is a transcriptional activator that specifically interacts with L-cysteine and binds to its regulatory region to induce the expression of target genes. To improve the response performance of the L-cysteine biosensor, multilevel optimization strategies were performed, including regulator engineering by semi-rational design and systematic optimization of the genetic elements by modulating the promoter and RBS combination. As a result, the dynamic range and sensitivity of the biosensor were significantly improved. Using this the excellent L-cysteine biosensor, a HTS platform was established by coupling with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and was successfully applied to achieve direct evolution of the key enzyme in the L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway to increase its catalytic performance and to screen the high L-cysteine-producing strains from the random mutagenesis library. These results presented a paradigm of design and optimization of biosensors to dynamically detect metabolite concentrations and provided a promising tool enabling HTS and metabolic regulation to construct L-cysteine hyperproducing strains to satisfy industrial demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2022.07.007DOI Listing
July 2022

Internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for investigating the phospholipid dysregulation induced by perfluorooctanoic acid in Nile tilapia.

Analyst 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of Ministry of Education, College of New Energy and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

Direct profiling of endogenous biomolecules in tissue samples is considered as a promising approach to investigate metabolic-related toxicity in organisms induced by emerging pollutants. Herein, we report the application of internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS) to direct phospholipid profiling in the liver and spleen tissues of Nile tilapia exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Combining positive and negative ion detection modes, 130 phospholipid signals were directly detected and identified by iEESI-MS in the tissues of Nile tilapia, including phosphatidyl cholines (PCs), sphingomyelins (SMs), phosphatidic acids (PAs), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PEs), phosphatidyl glycerols (PGs), phosphatidyl inositols (PIs) and phosphatidyl serines (PSs). With the help of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), several phospholipid signals showed a significant difference in the tissue of Nile tilapia between the control group and PFOA exposure groups. In addition, pathway analysis revealed that PFOA has a significant metabolic impact on the glycerophospholipid metabolism in Nile tilapia. Without complex sample preparation, iEESI-MS was applied to direct phospholipid profiling in the liver and spleen tissues of Nile tilapia treated with PFOA, which provided a promising methodology for investigating environmental toxicity and phospholipid-dysregulation caused by emerging pollutants in aquatic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2an00820cDOI Listing
August 2022

Enhanced photoluminescence stability and internal defect evolution of the all-inorganic lead-free CsEuCl perovskite nanocrystals.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Aug 10;24(31):18860-18867. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

School of Physical Science and Technology & Guangxi Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, 541004, China.

Perovskite materials are prominent candidates for many high-performance optoelectronic devices. The rare-earth lead-free CsEuCl perovskite nanocrystals are extremely unstable, which makes it very difficult to study their physicochemical properties and applications. Herein, we improved the stability of rare-earth based CsEuCl nanocrystals by employing a silica-coating for the first time. Simultaneously, the naturally formed "hollow" regions with an obviously blue-shifted PL emission were first observed inside the CsEuCl nanocrystals during the period of storage. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that the formed "hollow" regions are due to the internal defect evolution in the perovskite lattice, which is also responsible for the increase of the bandgap and the blue-shift of emission. Additionally, the rapid decline of luminescence is probably due to the nanocrystals' final cracking with the expansion of the "hollow" regions. This work helps to understand the relationship between defects and luminescence properties, and provides guidance for the design of more stable lead-free perovskite nanocrystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp01374fDOI Listing
August 2022

Tomato Pest Recognition Algorithm Based on Improved YOLOv4.

Front Plant Sci 2022 13;13:814681. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

College of Information and Control Engineering, Weifang University, Weifang, China.

Tomato plants are infected by diseases and insect pests in the growth process, which will lead to a reduction in tomato production and economic benefits for growers. At present, tomato pests are detected mainly through manual collection and classification of field samples by professionals. This manual classification method is expensive and time-consuming. The existing automatic pest detection methods based on a computer require a simple background environment of the pests and cannot locate pests. To solve these problems, based on the idea of deep learning, a tomato pest identification algorithm based on an improved YOLOv4 fusing triplet attention mechanism (YOLOv4-TAM) was proposed, and the problem of imbalances in the number of positive and negative samples in the image was addressed by introducing a focal loss function. The K-means + + clustering algorithm is used to obtain a set of anchor boxes that correspond to the pest dataset. At the same time, a labeled dataset of tomato pests was established. The proposed algorithm was tested on the established dataset, and the average recognition accuracy reached 95.2%. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of tomato pests, which is superior to the previous methods. Algorithmic performance on practical images of healthy and unhealthy objects shows that the proposed method is feasible for the detection of tomato pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.814681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9326248PMC
July 2022

Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 exhaled by COVID-19 patients.

J Infect 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Tropical Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Center, Wilberforce, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2022.07.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334158PMC
July 2022

The global burden and associated factors of ovarian cancer in 1990-2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

BMC Public Health 2022 07 30;22(1):1455. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine Laboratory, School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among women. The aim of this study was to estimate and report data on the current burden of ovarian cancer worldwide over the past 30 years.

Method: Based on the data provided by GBD 2019, we collected and interpreted the disease data of ovarian cancer by incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and used corresponding age-standardized rates as indicators. Also, we categorized the data by attributed risk factors and captured deaths due to high fasting plasma glucose, occupational exposure to asbestos and high body-mass index, respectively. All outcomes in the study were reported using mean values and corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UI).

Results: Globally, there were 294422 (260649 to 329727) incident cases in 2019, and the number of deaths and DALYs were 198412 (175357 to 217665) and 5.36 million (4.69 to 5.95). The overall burden was on the rise, with a percentage change of 107.8% (76.1 to 135.7%) for new cases, 103.8% (75.7 to 126.4%) for deaths and 96.1% (65.0 to 120.5%) for DALYs. Whereas the age-standardized rates kept stable during 1990-2019. The burden of ovarian cancer increased with age. and showed a totally different trends among SDI regions. Although high SDI region had the declining rates, the burden of ovarian cancer remained stable in high-middle and low SDI regions, and the middle and low-middle SDI areas showed increasing trends. High fasting plasma glucose was estimated to be the most important attributable risk factor for ovarian cancer deaths globally, with a percentage change of deaths of 7.9% (1.6 to 18.3%), followed by occupational exposure to asbestos and high body mass index.

Conclusions: Although the age-standardized rates of ovarian cancer didn't significantly change at the global level, the burden still increased, especially in areas on the lower end of the SDI range. Also, the disease burden due to different attributable risk factors showed heterogeneous, and it became more severe with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13861-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339194PMC
July 2022

Efficient Gene Transfer to Kidney Using a Lentiviral Vector Pseudotyped with Zika Virus Envelope Glycoprotein.

Hum Gene Ther 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Southern Medical University, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Guangzhou, China;

Gene therapy's entrance into clinical settings has made it an ever more attractive field of study for various diseases. However, relatively little progress has been made in targeting kidney diseases due to poor gene delivery efficiency in renal cells. The development of novel gene therapy vectors for medical intervention to treat kidney diseases is needed. In this study, we designed and produced a pseudotyped lentiviral vector with envelope glycoproteins of Zika virus, and evaluated its potential use in viral vector entry, neutralization assay and gene delivery especially in the renal context. The lentiviral vector, simplified as ZIKV-E, is pseudotyped with Env/G-TC representing the transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic (CY) domains of Env replaced with the TM and CY domains of the glycoprotein (G) of the vesicular stomatitis virus. In vivo results shows that ZIKV-E induced efficient transduction in tubular epithelial cells in mouse kidneys, demonstrating more than 100-fold higher expression of exogenous GFP gene compared to that achieved by Vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped lentiviral vector (VSV-G). The results also showed that the vector ZIKV-E transduced cells in a pH-independent manner and the transduction was inhibited by anti-ZIKV Env domain III antibodies. Results also show that ZIKV-E can be used as a surrogate for studies of ZIKV entry mechanisms and neutralization antibody assay. In all, this study successfully demonstrated a novel pseudotyped lentiviral vector ZIKV-E for inducing high transduction efficiency in renal tubular epithelial cells which could serve as a foundation for gene therapy for the treatment of inherited renal diseases in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2022.053DOI Listing
July 2022

Surface-Plasmon-Mediated Alloying for Monodisperse Au-Ag Alloy Nanoparticles in Liquid.

Inorg Chem 2022 Aug 29;61(31):12449-12457. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

Plasmonic noble-metal nanoparticles with broadly tunable optical properties and catalytically active surfaces offer a unique opportunity for photochemistry. Resonant optical excitation of surface-plasmon generates high-energy hot carriers, which can participate in photochemical reactions. Although the surface-plasmon-driven catalysis on molecules has been extensively studied, surface-plasmon-mediated synthesis of bimetallic nanomaterials is less reported. Herein, we perform a detailed investigation on the formation mechanism and colloidal stability of monodisperse Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles synthesized through irradiating the intermixture of Au nanochains and AgNO solution with a nanosecond pulsed laser. It is revealed that the Ag atoms can be extracted from AgNO solution by surface-plasmon-generated hot electrons and alloy with Au atoms. Particularly, the obtained Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles without any surfactants or ligands exhibit superior stability that is confirmed by experiments as well as DLVO-based theoretical simulation. Our work would provide novel insights into the synthesis of potentially useful bimetallic nanoparticles via surface-plasmon-medicated alloying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01975DOI Listing
August 2022

Predictive Factors for Adjacent Vertebral Fractures After Percutaneous Kyphoplasty in Patients With Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture.

Pain Physician 2022 Aug;25(5):E725-E732

Orthopedics Department, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Adjacent vertebral fracture (AVF) seemed to be a frequent and severe complication in osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) patients receiving percutaneous vertebroplasty  or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), resulting in poor long-term outcome and recurrence of pain-related symptoms. Nonetheless, its mechanism remains unclear.

Objectives: To investigate the potential predictor of AVF after PKP and figure out whether the intervertebral disc plays a role during the process of AVF.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Department of Orthopedic, an affiliated hospital of a medical university.

Methods: Clinical data of OVCF patients receiving PKP were reviewed in our hospital from January 2016 to December 2020. Four hundred and forty-five patients were recruited who met the abovementioned criteria in this study. The clinical data, including age, gender, bone mineral density (BMD), vertebral height, vertebral kyphosis angle, cement volume, cement distribution, as well as adjacent disc degeneration extent, were recorded for each patient. Independent-sample t tests and chi-squared tests were performed to compare these indexes. Bivariate correlation tests and multiple linear regression analyses were performed among potential predictors. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis and Kaplan-Meier plotter were applied to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of parameters for predicting the occurrence of AVF.

Results: Patients in both groups gained obvious improvements in symptomatic and radiographic indexes after first PKP. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was only found between 2 groups with respect to BMD, kyphosis angle at last follow-up before second PKP, cement distribution, and disc degeneration grade. The ROC analysis showed that BMD = 15.5° was highly predictive of AVF after PKP (sensitivity, 92.2%; specificity, 24.6%; area under curve, 0.569, P = 0.109). Statistically significant difference of AVF incidence amongst patients with different cement distribution (P = 0.018) and similar trend was also found amongst patients with different disc degeneration (P = 0.000). Statistically significant difference was noted in terms of disc degeneration grade between 2 adjacent discs in AVF group.

Limitations: The main limitation is the retrospective nature of this study.

Conclusions: The risk of AVF should be focused, especially when OVCF patients with the following predictors: (1) BMD < -3.45; (2) kyphosis angle at last follow-up > 15.5°; (3) I or II cement distribution; and (4) IV or V disc degeneration. More prophylactic treatment should be prescribed for these patients to avoid the occurrence of AVF.
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August 2022

Binding mechanism of oseltamivir and influenza neuraminidase suggests perspectives for the design of new anti-influenza drugs.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 Jul 28;18(7):e1010343. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology of Basical Medicine of Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong Province, China.

Oseltamivir is a widely used influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor that prevents the release of new virus particles from host cells. However, oseltamivir-resistant strains have emerged, but effective drugs against them have not yet been developed. Elucidating the binding mechanisms between NA and oseltamivir may provide valuable information for the design of new drugs against NA mutants resistant to oseltamivir. Here, we conducted large-scale (353.4 μs) free-binding molecular dynamics simulations, together with a Markov State Model and an importance-sampling algorithm, to reveal the binding process of oseltamivir and NA. Ten metastable states and five major binding pathways were identified that validated and complemented previously discovered binding pathways, including the hypothesis that oseltamivir can be transferred from the secondary sialic acid binding site to the catalytic site. The discovery of multiple new metastable states, especially the stable bound state containing a water-mediated hydrogen bond between Arg118 and oseltamivir, may provide new insights into the improvement of NA inhibitors. We anticipated the findings presented here will facilitate the development of drugs capable of combating NA mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010343DOI Listing
July 2022

Does anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibody treatment have the potential to replace nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids in treating hip or knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

EFORT Open Rev 2022 Jul 5;7(7):470-480. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Considering the adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids for treating osteoarthritis (OA), development of drugs that are more effective and better tolerated than existing treatments is urgently needed. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) monoclonal antibodies vs active comparator therapy, such as NSAIDs and oxycodone, in treating hip or knee OA.

Methods: Databases were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before January 2022. Efficacy and safety outcomes were assessed.

Results: Six RCTs that included 4325 patients were identified. Almost all the RCTs indicated that moderate doses of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment significantly improved efficacy outcomes based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score, the WOMAC physical function score and the Patient's Global Assessment compared with those of the active comparator. At least half of the RCTs indicated that the incidence of severe adverse events, withdrawals due to adverse events (AEs) and total joint replacement were not significantly different between anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment and active comparator therapy, but the outcomes of some studies may have been limited by a short duration of follow-up. Most RCTs suggested that anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment had a lower incidence of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular AEs. However, the majority of RCTs reported a higher incidence of abnormal peripheral sensation with anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment. Furthermore, the higher incidence of rapidly progressive osteoarthritis (RPOA) with anti-NGF monoclonal antibody treatment should also not be overlooked, and the identification of patient characteristics that increase the risk of RPOA is critical in further studies.

Conclusion: Based on the current research evidence, anti-NGF monoclonal antibodies are not yet a replacement for analgesic drugs such as NSAIDs but might be a new treatment option for hip or knee OA patients who are intolerant or unresponsive to nonopioid or opioid treatment. Notably, however, considering the inconsistency and inconclusive evidence on the safety outcomes of recent studies, more research is needed, and long-term follow-up is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EOR-21-0103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297056PMC
July 2022

Extra arginine supplementation during the suckling period alleviates weaning stress through the regulation of dendritic cells and Notch2 signaling in piglets.

Food Funct 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 215009, People's Republic of China.

This study aims to study the effects of extra arginine (Arg) supplementation during the suckling period on the weaning stress and intestinal barrier function of breastfed piglets. Forty 7-day-old breastfed piglets divided into the control group (CON) and Arg group (Arg) were fed with extra saline or Arg (250 mg per kg per d body weight), respectively. All piglets were weaned when they were 21 days old. Eight piglets from each group were sacrificed before weaning and on the 3rd-day after weaning, respectively. The results showed that Arg improved the average daily weight gain of piglets before weaning ( < 0.01) and decreased the average daily weight loss after weaning ( < 0.05). Weaning decreased the ratio of the villus length crypt depth (/) in the SI ( < 0.001), while Arg increased the / of the jejunum ( < 0.05). Arg increased the levels of immunoglobulins in the serum and SI ( < 0.05), decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines in the SI ( < 0.05). In addition, Arg supplementation increased the numbers of SWC3aCD40 ( < 0.01) and SWC3aSLAII DCs ( < 0.05), down-regulated Notch2 expression and up-regulated Jagged1 expression in the ilea of weaning piglets ( < 0.05). In conclusion, Arg supplementation during the suckling period decreased the LDH leakage in the SI, improved the intestinal morphology, down-regulated the contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accelerated the accumulation of DC precursors before weaning and increased the number of mature DCs after weaning, and thus improved the growth performance and reduced the weaning stress of piglets, and this might be associated with the regulation of Notch2 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo03720jDOI Listing
July 2022
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