Publications by authors named "Jun Kato"

308 Publications

Analysis of circulating cell-free DNA after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background/objectives: Recently, increase in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentration or newly detected KRAS mutation after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy were reported to be related to the occurrence of new distant metastasis. In this study, we investigated whether cfDNA concentration increased with the release of tumor components into the blood after EUS-FNA and whether its increase was related to prognosis.

Methods: Sixty-eight patients underwent EUS-FNA and were pathologically confirmed as having pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We measured plasma cfDNA concentration and the copy number of KRAS mutation in 68 patients and circulating tumor cells in 8 before and after EUS-FNA.

Results: The average cfDNA concentration after EUS-FNA (672.5 ± 919.6 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that before EUS-FNA (527.7 ± 827.3 ng/mL) (P < 0.001). KRAS mutation in plasma was detected in 8 patients (11.8%), however a significant increase in cfDNA concentration after EUS-FNA was not related to the change in KRAS-mutant copy number. Minimal increase in circulating tumor cells was observed in 3 of 8 patients. New distant metastasis was observed within 286 days to initial metastasis detection in 6 of 12 patients with ≥2-fold increase in cfDNA concentration and 26 of 56 patients with <2-fold increase within 185 days. In 32 patients who underwent surgery, ≥2-fold increase in cfDNA did not affect early recurrence.

Conclusions: The increase in cfDNA concentration after EUS-FNA was not caused by tumor cell components released into blood vessels. Hence, the risk of seeding via the blood stream after EUS-FNA may need not be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Serum Angiopoietin 2 acts as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(9):2694-2701. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is typically accompanied by abundant arterial blood flow. Although angiogenic growth factors such as Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) play a central role in tumor angiogenesis in HCC, the role of serum Ang2 as a biomarker in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of Ang2 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HCC using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median Ang2 levels in controls (n=20), chronic liver disease patients (n=98), and HCC patients (n=275) were 1.58, 2.33, and 3.53 ng/mL, respectively. The optimal cut-off value of Ang2 was determined as 3.5 ng/mL by receiver operating curve analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Ang2 for HCC detection were 50.9, 83.7, and 59.5%, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated only a weak correlation between Ang2 serum levels and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) serum levels. The diagnostic value of Ang2 was comparable to those of other existing markers. In addition, 24 out of 73 patients with normal AFP and DCP levels (32.9%) demonstrated abnormally high Ang2 levels (≥3.5 ng/mL). Although no significant difference in overall survival was found between Ang2 and Ang2 patients with curative ablation therapy, recurrence-free survival (RFS) in Ang2 patients was observed to be significantly shorter than those in Ang2 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high serum Ang2 levels (≥3.5 ng/mL) and the presence of multiple tumors were poor prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings indicate that serum Ang2 is a potential novel biomarker for both diagnosis and prognosis in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.56436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040723PMC
March 2021

Impact of Specific Antibody Level on Human Herpesvirus 6 Reactivation after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Feb 11;27(2):174.e1-174.e5. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The majority of adults are seropositive for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). HHV-6 reactivation can occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and lead to life-threatening central nervous system disorders. In this prospective study, we evaluated the relationship between HHV-6 reactivation and anti-HHV-6 IgG antibody levels in recipients of allogeneic HSCT. The HHV-6 viral load in the plasma was quantitatively measured weekly after allogeneic HSCT by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The level of anti-HHV-6 IgG antibody was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and serially after transplantation. In 28 of the 56 evaluated patients (50%), HHV-6 reactivation was detected after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, cord blood as the stem cell source was the only significant factor associated with HHV-6 reactivation (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 32.6; P < .01). When evaluated in the recipients of cord blood transplantation (CBT), the anti-HHV-6 antibody level before transplantation was significantly lower in the patients with HHV-6 reactivation compared with those without (sample positivity index: median, 2.04 [range, 0.95 to 5.98] versus 4.15 [range, 3.93 to 5.65]; P < .05). The anti-HHV-6 antibody level was significantly decreased at 3 months post-transplantation compared with before transplantation (P < .01). Such differences were not observed in other stem cell sources. Our results demonstrate that the low anti-HHV-6 antibody level before transplantation was associated with the reactivation of HHV-6 after CBT, and that the anti-HHV-6 antibody level was significantly decreased specifically after CBT. These results suggest that HHV-6-specific humoral immunity plays a role in HHV-6 reactivation after CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.011DOI Listing
February 2021

Percutaneous Two-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosis of Pancreatic Tumor.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohan, Chuo-ku Chiba City 260-8670, Japan.

Background: To investigate the efficacy of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass lesions.

Methods: This ethics committee-approved cross-sectional study included 52 patients with histologically-proven pancreatic tumors (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), 36; tumor-forming pancreatitis (TFP), 15; neuroendocrine tumor, 1) and 33 control subjects. The 2D-SWE was performed for the tumor/non-tumor tissues, and SWE-mapping patterns and propagation quality were assessed.

Results: Three mapping patterns were detected based on the size and distribution of the coloring areas. Pattern A (whole coloring) was detected in all non-tumor tissues and TFP, whereas pattern C (multiple small coloring spots) was detected in PDAC only. Pattern B (partial coloring with smaller spots) was detected in other lesions. The specificity and positive predictive value of pattern A for non-PDAC and those of pattern C for PDAC were 100%. The SWE value was higher in tumor lesions than in the non-tumor tissues (38.1 vs. 9.8 kPa; < 0.001) in patients with PDAC. The SWE value in the non-tumor lesion was higher in patients with PDAC than in control (9.8 vs. 7.5 kPa; < 0.001).

Conclusions: 2D-SWE may play a role as a novel diagnostic tool for PDAC to detect a specific mapping pattern with quantitative assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001884PMC
March 2021

Efficacy of Texture and Color Enhancement Imaging in visualizing gastric mucosal atrophy and gastric neoplasms.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6910. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chiba-City, 260-8670, Japan.

In 2020, Olympus Medical Systems Corporation introduced the Texture and Color Enhancement Imaging (TXI) as a new image-enhanced endoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neoplasms and mucosal atrophy in the upper gastrointestinal tract through TXI. We evaluated 72 and 60 images of 12 gastric neoplasms and 20 gastric atrophic/nonatrophic mucosa, respectively. The visibility of gastric mucosal atrophy and gastric neoplasm was assessed by six endoscopists using a previously reported visibility scale (1 = poor to 4 = excellent). Color differences between gastric mucosal atrophy and nonatrophic mucosa and between gastric neoplasm and adjacent areas were assessed using the International Commission on Illumination L*a*b* color space system. The visibility of mucosal atrophy and gastric neoplasm was significantly improved in TXI mode 1 compared with that in white-light imaging (WLI) (visibility score: 3.8 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 0.9, p < 0.01 for mucosal atrophy; visibility score: 2.8 ± 1.0 vs. 2.0 ± 0.9, p < 0.01 for gastric neoplasm). Regarding gastric atrophic and nonatrophic mucosae, TXI mode 1 had a significantly greater color difference than WLI (color differences: 14.2 ± 8.0 vs. 8.7 ± 4.2, respectively, p < 0.01). TXI may be a useful observation modality in the endoscopic screening of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86296-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994634PMC
March 2021

Acquisition of mesenchymal-like phenotypes and overproduction of angiogenic factors in lenvatinib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 3;549:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Lenvatinib is one of the first-line drugs for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and widely used around the world. However, the mechanisms underlying resistance to lenvatinib remain unclear. In this study, we conducted characteristic analyses of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells. Lenvatinib-resistant HCC cell lines were established by exposure to serially escalated doses of lenvatinib over 2 months. The biological characteristics of these cells were examined by in vitro assays. To investigate the cytokine profile of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells, the supernatant derived from lenvatinib-resistant Huh7 cells was subjected to nitrocellulose membrane-based sandwich immunoassay. Both activation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers were observed in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Concordant with these findings, proliferation and invasion abilities were enhanced in these cells compared with control cells. Screening of a cytokine array spotted with 105 different antibodies to human cytokines enabled us to identify 16 upregulated cytokines in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Among them, 3 angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), and angiogenin, were increased significantly. Conditioned medium from lenvatinib-resistant cells accelerated tube formation of human umbilical vein cells. In conclusion, lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion abilities. These findings might contribute to the establishment of new combination therapies with lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.097DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

Phase 1 study of plerixafor in combination with total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Plerixafor, a CXCR4 inhibitor, has the potential to mobilize leukemic cells, which may contribute to their chemosensitization. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety of myeloablative conditioning combined with plerixafor for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients with high-risk leukemia undergoing allogeneic HSCT after total body irradiation (TBI, 12 Gy)-based myeloablative conditioning were eligible; 9 patients were enrolled. The study was performed using a 3 + 3 design with an escalating total dose of plerixafor. Plerixafor was given subcutaneously 8 h before TBI and chemotherapeutic agents. Plerixafor was successfully escalated to the maximum dose (0.72 mg/kg) without dose-limiting toxicities. Underlying diseases were acute myelogenous and lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. As adverse events, plerixafor administration was associated with transient Grades 2-3 diarrhea (n = 7) and abdominal pain (n = 4). In 6 patients, leukemic cell mobilization into the peripheral blood by plerixafor was confirmed by a morphological or molecular method. All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment and 5 were alive in remission at a follow-up after 30-40 months. Plerixafor-combined myeloablative conditioning for allogeneic HSCT was well tolerated. Leukemic-cell mobilization into peripheral blood was observed in half of the patients. Further study is required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this concept.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03109-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Management of generalized severe periodontitis using full-mouth disinfection and systemic antibiotics in a leukemic patient before stem cell transplantation: A case report.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Feb 3;9(2):644-649. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery Keio University School of Medicine Tokyo Japan.

The full-mouth disinfection protocol implemented in this case can be integrated into established protocols for treating severe periodontitis in the context of a hematological malignancy, without any interference with the cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869351PMC
February 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

[Spontaneous remission of relapsed skin lesions of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(1):25-29

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine.

A 44-year-old woman was diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with clinical stage IVA (nodal and bladder involvement). Complete response (CR) was achieved after the CHOP chemotherapy; however, 12 months after the last course of chemotherapy, ALCL relapsed in the form of skin lesions without nodal involvement. After achieving a second CR with chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplantation was performed. Two months after transplantation, the disease again relapsed as multiple skin lesions. Electron beam irradiation was performed; however, other skin lesions appeared thereafter and spontaneously disappeared. At present, 3.4 years after the transplantation, the patient is free from disease. ALK-positive ALCL relapsing as skin lesions may behave differently from the nodal relapse. An accumulation of cases is required to elucidate ALCL characteristics relapsing as skin lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.62.25DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk factors of poor prognosis and impairment of activities of daily living in patients with hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 6;21(1):16. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kanda-Izumi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8643, Japan.

Background: Impairment of activities of daily living (ADL) due to hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers (HGU) has rarely been evaluated. We analyzed the risk factors of poor prognosis, including mortality and impairment of ADL, in patients with HGU.

Methods: In total, 582 patients diagnosed with HGU were retrospectively analyzed. Admission to a care facility or the need for home adaptations during hospitalization were defined as ADL decline. The clinical factors were evaluated: endoscopic features, need for interventional endoscopic procedures, comorbidities, symptoms, and medications. The risk factors of outcomes were examined with multivariate analysis.

Results: Advanced age (> 75 years) was a significant predictor of poor prognosis, including impairment of ADL. Additional significant risk factors were renal disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-8.14) for overall mortality, proton pump inhibitor (PPIs) usage prior to hemorrhage (OR 5.80; 95% CI 2.08-16.2), and heart disease (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.11-8.43) for the impairment of ADL. Analysis of elderly (> 75 years) subjects alone also revealed that use of PPIs prior to hemorrhage was a significant predictor for the impairment of ADL (OR 8.24; 95% CI 2.36-28.7).

Conclusion: In addition to advanced age, the presence of comorbidities was a risk of poor outcomes in patients with HGU. PPI use prior to hemorrhage was a significant risk factor for the impairment of ADL, both in overall HGU patients and in elderly patients alone. These findings suggest that the current strategy for PPI use needs reconsideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01580-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789673PMC
January 2021

Risk Factors for Acute Cholangitis Caused by and .

Gut Liver 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aims: Acute cholangitis (AC) is a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection, and timely antimicrobial treatment, faster than that achieved with bacterial cultures, is recommended. Although the current guidelines refer to empirical antimicrobial treatment, various kinds of antimicrobial agents have been cited because of insufficient analyses on the spectrum of pathogens in AC. spp. is one of the most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria from the bile of patients with AC, but its risk factors have not been extensively studied. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors of AC caused by and .

Methods: Patients with AC who were hospitalized in a Japanese tertiary center between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' first AC episodes in the hospital were evaluated.

Results: A total of 266 patients with AC were identified. and/or was isolated in 56 (21%) episodes of AC. Prior endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST), the presence of a biliary stent, prior cholecystectomy, and past intensive care unit admission were more frequently observed in AC patients with E. faecalis and/or E. faecium than in those without such bacteria. Prior EST was identified as an independent risk factor for AC caused by and/or in the multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Given the intrinsic resistance of and to antibiotics, clinicians should consider empirical therapy with anti-enterococcal antibiotics for patients with prior EST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl20214DOI Listing
December 2020

Cytomegalovirus retinitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation under cytomegalovirus antigenemia-guided active screening.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 Dec 12. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the incidence of CMV retinitis is considered to be lower than the incidence of CMV infection in other organs following allogeneic HSCT. In this study, the incidence and characteristics of CMV retinitis were retrospectively evaluated in recipients of allogeneic HSCT. Ophthalmological screening was performed at the development of ocular symptoms or positive CMV infection using peripheral blood evaluated by pp65 antigenemia or polymerase chain reaction. Of the 514 patients, 13 patients developed CMV retinitis. The median onset of CMV retinitis was day 34 (range, 21-118) post transplant, and the cumulative incidence was 2.5% (95% CI, 1.6-4.2) at 6 months after transplantation. Five patients presented ocular symptoms at the onset. In the remaining eight asymptomatic patients, the diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made by the screening guided by positive CMV infection. All evaluable patients responded to antiviral treatment but three showed incomplete improvement with ocular sequela. Our results suggest that the incidence of CMV retinitis after allogeneic HSCT is not negligible and active ophthalmological screening based not only on symptoms but also positive CMV infection monitoring contributes to the early diagnosis of CMV retinitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01176-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Colonoscopic evaluation of diarrhea/colitis occurring as an immune-related adverse event.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar;51(3):363-370

Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Objective: Diarrhea is often observed as an immune-related adverse event. In this study, we conducted a retrospective review of the severity of diarrhea, its treatment and the endoscopic findings in patients developing diarrhea as an immune-related adverse event.

Methods: From August 2015 to June 2019, a total of 369 patients received treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors at our hospital. For this study, development of grade 2 or more diarrhea in these patients was defined as an immune-related adverse event. We analyzed the histopathological severity of the bowel lesions according to the Nancy histological index for ulcerative colitis.

Results: Of the 369 patients, 27 (7.3%) developed diarrhea as an immune-related adverse event. Of these 27 patients, 18 received steroid treatment. Colonoscopy was performed in 17 patients and culture of the feces in 18. The tests revealed evidence of bacterial colitis (Aeromonas hydrophila) in two patients. The Nancy histological index was 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 in two, three, two, two and seven patients, respectively. No findings on colonoscopy were observed in 7 of the 17 patients (41%) who underwent colonoscopy, and most of these patients recovered without steroid treatment. Patients with lower values of the Nancy histological index tended to show better responses to steroid treatment.

Conclusions: To avoid unnecessary steroid administration, colonoscopic evaluation is essential in patients receiving treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors who present with diarrhea as an immune-related adverse event. In addition, the endoscopic findings could be useful to predict the response to steroid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa203DOI Listing
March 2021

Randomised controlled trial of conditioning regimen for cord blood transplantation for adult myeloid malignancies comparing high-dose cytarabine/cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation with versus without G-CSF priming: G-CONCORD study protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 12 4;10(12):e040467. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Institute of Medical Science The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: A better long-term quality of life after umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is observed compared with transplants from other alternative donors, whereas graft failure and relapses after CBT are still major issues. To minimise graft failure and relapse after CBT, intensification of conditioning by the addition of high-dose cytosine arabinoside (CA) and concomitant continuous use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are reported to convey a significantly better survival after CBT in some retrospective studies. To confirm the effect of G-CSF plus CA combination, in addition to the standard conditioning regimen, cyclophosphamide (CY)/total body irradiation (TBI), we design a randomised controlled study comparing CA/CY/TBI with versus without G-CSF priming (G-CSF combined conditioned cord blood transplantation [G-CONCORD] study).

Methods And Analysis: This is a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III study that aimed to compare G-CSF+CA/CY/TBI as a conditioning regimen for CBT with CA/CY/TBI. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, aged 16-55 years, are eligible. The target sample size is 160 and the registration period is 4 years. The primary endpoint is the 2-year disease-free survival rate after CBT. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse, non-relapse mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, engraftment rate, time to neutrophil recovery, short-term adverse events, incidence of infections and causes of death.This study employs a single one-to-one web-based randomisation between the with-G-CSF versus without-G-CSF groups after patient registration. Combination of high-dose CA and CY/TBI in both groups is used for conditioning.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the central review board, Nagoya University Certified Review Board, after the enforcement of the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The manuscripts presenting data from this study will be submitted for publication in quality peer-reviewed medical journals. Study findings will be disseminated via presentations at national/international conferences and peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Numbers: UMIN000029947 and jRCTs041180059.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722372PMC
December 2020

Linked color imaging can improve the visibility of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors.

Sci Rep 2020 11 26;10(1):20667. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chiba City, 260-8670, Japan.

The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of linked color imaging (LCI) in improving the visibility of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs). We prospectively evaluated 44 consecutive patients diagnosed with SNADETs. Three trainees and three experts assessed the visibility scores of white light imaging (WLI), LCI, and blue laser imaging-bright (BLI-b) for SNADETs, which ranged from 1 (not detectable without repeated cautious examination) to 4 (excellent visibility). In addition, the L* a* b* color values and color differences (ΔE*) were evaluated using the CIELAB color space system. For SNADETs, the visibility scores of LCI (3.53 ± 0.59) were significantly higher than those of WLI and BLI-b (2.66 ± 0.79 and 3.41 ± 0.64, respectively). The color differences (ΔE*) between SNADETs and the adjacent normal duodenal mucosa in LCI mode (19.09 ± 8.33) were significantly higher than those in WLI and BLI-b modes (8.67 ± 4.81 and 12.92 ± 7.95, respectively). In addition, the visibility score of SNADETs and the color differences in LCI mode were significantly higher than those in WLI and BLI-b modes regardless of the presence of milk white mucosa (MWM). LCI has potential benefits, and it is considered a promising clinical modality that can increase the visibility of SNADETs regardless of the presence of MWM.This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000028840).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77726-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691495PMC
November 2020

Toxoplasmosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Impact of serostatus-based management.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Nov 10:e13506. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a serious infectious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The incidence of toxoplasmosis varies widely because of the variabilities of seroprevalence among patient populations. The incidence and the optimal management of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic HSCT in a patient population with a low seroprevalence have not been fully evaluated. We conducted a single-center retrospective study evaluating toxoplasmosis in Japanese patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. Of the 728 evaluable patients, only 5 developed toxoplasmosis with a median onset of day 60 post-transplant (range, day 55-393). The cumulative incidence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3%-1.5%) at day 500 post-transplant. Four of the five patients succumbed due to toxoplasmosis. The more recently treated 220 patients (not the earlier 508 patients) were screened for the T. gondii serostatus, and prophylactic treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was applied. All five patients with toxoplasmosis were in the unscreened group, and there was no case of toxoplasmosis after the introduction of the screening and prophylactic treatment. Our results suggest that toxoplasmosis after allogeneic HST is rare but can develop as a life-threatening complication even in the populations with low seroprevalence, and that prophylactic treatment for seropositive patients could effectively prevent toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13506DOI Listing
November 2020

[Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with multiple vascular lesions successfully treated by cord blood transplantation].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(10):1502-1507

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine.

An 18-year-old woman presented with fever and liver dysfunction. Computed tomography showed lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and vascular lesions such as aneurysms and irregularities at multiple arteries, including coronary arteries. Based on the high copy number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA in the peripheral blood, EBV-infected CD4T cells, and the proliferation of EBER-positive cells in the bone marrow, chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) was diagnosed. Although the fever and liver dysfunction improved as a result of the initial immunosuppressive therapy and multiagent chemotherapy, EBV-DNA remained high. Moreover, she experienced repeated episodes of angina pectoris due to coronary arterial lesions. Therefore, cord blood transplantation was performed after reduced-intensity conditioning. EBV-DNA decreased quickly after initiating the conditioning and became undetectable at day 7 after the transplant. Vascular lesions did not progress after the transplant, and the patient's angina pectoris resolved. At 2.5 years after the transplant, she is alive without disease recurrence. The prognosis of CAEBV with vascular lesions is especially poor. Although the indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is difficult to determine in such cases, the clinical course of our case suggests that allogenic HSCT could be safely performed under appropriate management and could successfully control not only CAEBV but also vascular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.1502DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term remission of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218695DOI Listing
November 2020

Detection of residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia utilizing genomic next generation sequencing reveals persistence of differentiated Ph B cells but not bone marrow stem/progenitors.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 03 26;62(3):679-687. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Persistence of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) results in the recurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Thus, the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) with LSC potential can improve prognosis. Here, we analyzed 115 CML patients and found that CD25 was preferentially expressed on the phenotypic stem and progenitor cells (SPCs), and TKI therapy decreased the number of CD25-positive cells in the SPC fraction. To detect MRD harboring fusion DNA, we developed a highly-sensitive method using patient-specific primers and next-generation sequencing. By using this method, we identified that in patients who achieved molecular remission, almost all residual CD25-positive SPCs were -negative. Moreover, in some patients was detectable in peripheral B cells but not in SPCs. We conclude that CD25 marks LSCs at diagnosis but does not mark MRD following TKI treatment and that analysis of peripheral B cells can allow sensitive detection of MRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1837366DOI Listing
March 2021

Analyses of Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Transarterial Chemoembolization prior to Designing Clinical Trials.

Liver Cancer 2020 Sep 22;9(5):596-612. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high frequency of recurrence and progression to advanced stage after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), particularly in patients with high tumor burden. Promising new results from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and ICI-based therapies are expected to replace TACE, especially in HCC patients with high tumor burden.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of TACE with a view to design clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.

Methods: We retrospectively identified intermediate-stage HCC patients undergoing TACE from our database and subdivided patients into low- and high-burden groups based on three subclassification models using the diameter of the maximum tumor and the number of tumors. Clinical outcomes were compared between low- and high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Results: Of 1,161 newly diagnosed HCC patients, 316 were diagnosed with intermediate-stage disease and underwent TACE. The median overall survival from high-burden intermediate-stage disease was not significantly different by clinical course, reaching high tumor burden in all subclassification models. The prognosis of high-burden patients after initial TACE was poor compared with low-burden patients for two models (except for the up-to-seven criteria). In all three models, high-burden patients showed a poor durable response rate (DRR) both ≥3 months and ≥6 months and poor prognosis after TACE. Moreover, patients with confirmed durable response ≥3 months and ≥6 months showed better survival outcomes for high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the basis for selecting a population that would not benefit from TACE and setting DRR ≥3 months or ≥6 months as alternative endpoints when designing clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548915PMC
September 2020

The Efficacy of Linked Color Imaging in the Endoscopic Diagnosis of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2020 29;2020:9604345. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Chiba, Japan.

Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of linked color imaging (LCI) in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).

Methods: A total of 112 and 12 consecutive patients with BE and EAC were analyzed. The visibility scores of BE and EAC ranging from 4 (excellent visibility) to 0 (not detectable) were evaluated by three trainees and three experts using white light imaging (WLI), LCI mode, and blue laser imaging bright (BLI-b) mode. In addition, L∗a∗b∗ color values and color differences (ΔE∗) were evaluated using the CIELAB color space system.

Results: The visibility score of the BE in LCI mode (2.94 ± 1.32) was significantly higher than those in WLI (2.46 ± 1.48) and BLI-b mode (2.35 ± 1.46) ( < 0.01). The color difference (ΔE∗) from the adjacent gastric mucosa in LCI mode (17.11 ± 8.53) was significantly higher than those in other modes (12.52 ± 9.37 in WLI and 11.96 ± 6.59 in BLI-b mode, < 0.01). The visibility scores of EAC in LCI mode (2.56 ± 1.47) and BLI-b mode (2.51 ± 1.28) were significantly higher than that in WLI (1.64 ± 1.46) ( < 0.01). The color difference (ΔE∗) from the adjacent normal Barrett's mucosa in LCI mode (19.96 ± 7.97) was significantly higher than that in WLI (12.95 ± 11.86) ( = 0.03).

Conclusion: The present findings suggest that LCI increases the visibility of BE and EAC and contributes to the improvement of the detection of these lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9604345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542478PMC
September 2020

Cyclosporine/methotrexate versus tacrolimus/methotrexate with or without anti-thymocyte globulin as GVHD prophylaxis in adult patients with aplastic anemia.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jan 9;100(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Nagoya, Japan.

The impact of calcineurin inhibitor types and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) in conditioning on overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) has not yet been analyzed in detail for aplastic anemia. We herein examined 517 adult patients with aplastic anemia who underwent BMT from HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD, n = 255) and unrelated donors (UD, n = 262) and were treated with cyclosporine A (CSA) + methotrexate (MTX) (n = 258) and tacrolimus (TAC) + MTX (n = 259). In total, 330 patients received ATG in conditioning. CSA + MTX versus TAC + MTX did not have a significant impact on acute and chronic GVHD, OS, or GRFS in each donor type. The use of ATG in conditioning reduced the risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD in the MSD and UD cohorts (HR 0.42, P = 0.014, and HR 0.3, P < 0.001, respectively); however, a differential impact on GRFS was identified, namely, better GRFS in MSD recipients (HR 0.56, P = 0.016), but not in UD recipients (HR 1.1, P = 0.657). In conclusion, CSA + MTX and TAC + MTX were similar as GVHD prophylaxis regardless of the donor type, and ATG in conditioning increased GRFS in MSD transplants, but not in UD transplants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04290-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among Japanese adults with hematological diseases.

Int J Hematol 2020 Nov 6;112(5):755-756. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03017-2DOI Listing
November 2020

[Efficacy of photocatalytic air purifiers in reducing dimethyl sulfide malodor following cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell infusion].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(8):885-887

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine.

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used as a cryoprotectant for peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) preservation. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a metabolite of DMSO secreted through patients' breath after PBSC infusion. It possesses malodor causing an unpleasant environment. We evaluated the efficacy of a photocatalyst environment purifier, which has the potential to lyse toxic substances, in reducing DMS malodor. High DMS concentration in the air after PBSC infusion rapidly decreased after operating the device. Our results suggest that photocatalytic reaction has the potential to reduce the DMS odor associated with PBSC infusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.885DOI Listing
October 2020

[Systemic varicella-zoster infection during ixazomib-containing multiagent chemotherapy for multiple myeloma].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(8):870-873

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine.

A 58-year-old man received high-dose melphalan with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in stringent complete response (sCR). Relapse occurred 4 years after the transplantation, and he was placed on ixazomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (IRd) and achieved sCR. On the 10th day of the 10th course of IRd, he developed fever followed by generalized skin eruption with vesicles, headache, and dizziness. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antigen from the vesicle and VZV-DNA from the cerebrospinal fluid were detected, and he was diagnosed with systemic VZV infection. He was placed on intravenous acyclovir (ACV), and the infection resolved completely. VZV infection has been recognized as an important complication associated with the use of proteasome inhibitors; however, to our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of serious systemic VZV infection associated with ixazomib. The clinical course of this case strongly suggests the importance of prophylaxis for VZV infection during treatment with ixazomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.870DOI Listing
October 2020

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous busulfan as condition for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison between combinations with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jan 4;113(1):128-133. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Busulfan (Bu) has been used in combination with fludarabine (Flu; BuFlu) or cyclophosphamide (Cy; BuCy) as conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This multi-institutional prospective study compared pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of Bu between BuFlu and BuCy. Plasma Bu concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at the first dose of the first and fourth days of intravenous Bu administrations (total of 16 doses of 0.8 mg/kg). Thirty-seven patients were evaluable (BuFlu, N = 18; BuCy, N = 19). The median age was significantly higher in BuFlu. In BuFlu, the median area under the blood concentration-time curve of Bu on the fourth day was 1183 μmol min/L (range 808-1509), which was significantly higher than that on the first day [1095 μmol min/L (range 822-1453), P < 0.01]. In contrast, such differences were not observed in BuCy. Consistently, there was a significant decrease in the clearance of Bu on the fourth day as compared with the first day in BuFlu. These results suggest that the PK of Bu was altered during the co-administration of Flu, which was not the case with Cy. A large-scale study is required to evaluate the significance of the differences in the PK of Bu between the conditionings on HSCT outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02990-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Factors Predicting a Favorable Disease Course Without Anti-TNF Therapy in Crohn's Disease Patients.

Acta Med Okayama 2020 Aug;74(4):265-274

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8643, Japan.

Determining factors that predict a favorable disease course without anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents would help establish a more cost-effective strategy for Crohn's disease (CD). A retrospective chart review was performed for CD patients with disease durations > 10 years who had not received anti-TNF agents as first-line therapy. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received neither anti-TNF agents nor bowel resection (G1), and those who had received an anti-TNF agent and/or bowel resection (G2). The patient backgrounds, therapies and clinical courses were compared between the groups. A total of 62 CD patients met the inclusion criteria (males: 71%; median duration of follow-up: 19 years). Six patients were included in G1; they were significantly less likely to have upper gastrointestinal lesions than G2 (p=0.007). A multivariate analysis revealed that the significant factors for avoidance of bowel resection without anti-TNF treatment were non-stricturing and non-penetrating behaviors, and absence of upper gastrointestinal lesions at the diagnosis (hazard ratios 0.41 and 0.52; p=0.004 and 0.04, respectively). In consideration of the long treatment course of CD, patients with non-stricturing and non-penetrating behaviors and no upper gastrointestinal lesions should not be treated with anti-TNF agents as first-line therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/60363DOI Listing
August 2020