Publications by authors named "Jun Huang"

1,609 Publications

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Cascaded-Recalibrated Multiple Instance Deep Model for Pathologic-Level Lung Cancer Prediction in CT Images.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 13;2022:9469234. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Shanghai United Imaging Intelligence Co. Ltd, Shanghai, China.

Lung cancer accounts for the greatest number of cancer-related mortality, while the accurate evaluation of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) images can significantly increase the 5-year relative survival rate. Despite deep learning methods that have recently been introduced to the identification of malignant nodules, a substantial challenge remains due to the limited datasets. In this study, we propose a cascaded-recalibrated multiple instance learning (MIL) model based on multiattribute features transfer for pathologic-level lung cancer prediction in CT images. This cascaded-recalibrated MIL deep model incorporates a cascaded recalibration mechanism at the nodule level and attribute level, which fuses the informative attribute features into nodule embeddings and then the key nodule features can be converged into the patient-level embedding to improve the performance of lung cancer prediction. We evaluated the proposed cascaded-recalibrated MIL model on the public Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI) benchmark dataset and compared it to the latest approaches. The experimental results showed a significant performance boost by the cascaded-recalibrated MIL model over the higher-order transfer learning, instance-space MIL, and embedding-space MIL models and the radiologists. In addition, the recalibration coefficients of the nodule and attribute feature for the final decision were also analyzed to reveal the underlying relationship between the confirmed diagnosis and its highly-correlated attributes. The cascaded recalibration mechanism enables the MIL model to pay more attention to those important nodules and attributes while suppressing less-useful feature embeddings, and the cascaded-recalibrated MIL model provides substantial improvements for the pathologic-level lung cancer prediction by using the CT images. The identification of the important nodules and attributes also provides better interpretability for model decision-making, which is very important for medical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9469234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9208922PMC
June 2022

Shielding Protection by Mesoporous Catalysts for Improving Plasma-Catalytic Ambient Ammonia Synthesis.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ, U.K.

Plasma catalysis is a promising technology for decentralized small-scale ammonia (NH) synthesis under mild conditions using renewable energy, and it shows great potential as an alternative to the conventional Haber-Bosch process. To date, this emerging process still suffers from a low NH yield due to a lack of knowledge in the design of highly efficient catalysts and the in situ plasma-induced reverse reaction (i.e., NH decomposition). Here, we demonstrate that a bespoke design of supported Ni catalysts using mesoporous MCM-41 could enable efficient plasma-catalytic NH production at 35 °C and 1 bar with >5% NH yield at 60 kJ/L. Specifically, the Ni active sites were deliberately deposited on the external surface of MCM-41 to enhance plasma-catalyst interactions and thus NH production. The desorbed NH could then diffuse into the ordered mesopores of MCM-41 to be shielded from decomposition due to the absence of plasma discharge in the mesopores of MCM-41, that is, "shielding protection", thus driving the reaction forward effectively. This promising strategy sheds light on the importance of a rational design of catalysts specifically for improving plasma-catalytic processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c01950DOI Listing
June 2022

Correlating Electrochemical Kinetic Parameters of Single LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 Particles with the Performance of Corresponding Porous Electrodes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 Zhongguancun South street, Beijing, CHINA.

Characterizing microscale single particles directly is requested for dissecting the performance-limiting factors at the electrode scale. In this work, we build a single-particle electrochemical setup and develop a physics-based model for extracting the solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Ds) and exchange current density (i0) from electrochemical impedance measurements. We find that the carbon coating on LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 surface enhances i0. In addition, Ds and i0 decay irreversibly by ~25% and ~10%, respectively, when the cutoff charge voltage increases from 4.3 V to 4.4 V. Moreover, we correlate intrinsic parameters of single particles with the performance of porous electrodes. Porous electrodes assembled with active particles with higher i0 values deliver a greater capacity and faster capacity fade. The methods developed in this combined experimental and theoretical work can be useful in correlating the single-particle scale and porous-electrode scale for other similar systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202205394DOI Listing
June 2022

Development of a Cleaved Probe-Based Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of African Swine Fever Virus.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 26;12:884430. Epub 2022 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province; The Research Center for African Swine Fever Prevention and Control; College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

African Swine Fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious and lethal viral disease of pigs. However, commercial vaccines are not yet available, and neither are drugs to prevent or control ASF. Therefore, rapid, accurate on-site diagnosis is urgently needed for detection during the early stages of ASFV infection. Herein, a cleaved probe-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CP-LAMP) detection method was established. Based on the original primer sets, we targeted the ASFV 9GL gene sequence to design a probe harboring a ribonucleotide insertion. Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) enzyme activity can only be activated when the probe is perfectly complementary, resulting in hydrolytic release of a quencher moiety, and consequent signal amplification. The method displayed robust sensitivity, with copy number detection as low as 13 copies/µL within 40 min at constant temperature (62°C). Visualization of the fluorescence product was employed using a self-designed 3D-printed visualization function cassette, and the CP-LAMP method achieved specific identification and visual detection of ASFV. Moreover, coupling the dual function cassette and smartphone quantitation makes the CP-LAMP assay first user-friendly, cost-effective, portable, rapid, and accurate point-of-care testing (POCT) platform for ASFV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.884430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204333PMC
June 2022

Effects of Resveratrol on Tight Junction Proteins and the Notch1 Pathway in an HT-29 Cell Model of Inflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.

Inflammation 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Gerontology and Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is closely associated with disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junction proteins. A variety of studies have confirmed that resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic compound, has a potential anti-inflammatory effect and can regulate the expression of tight junction proteins. However, the mechanism by which RSV regulates the expression of tight junction proteins in the intestinal epithelium remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the potential effect of RSV on tight junction proteins in an HT-29 cell model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and explored its mechanism of action. First, the downregulated expression of the tight junction proteins occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-1 in the HT-29 cell model of inflammation induced by LPS was reversed by incubation with RSV, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme (TACE). Additionally, the Notch1 pathway was attenuated and the expression of the inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α was decreased by treatment with RSV. Second, after Jagged-1 was used in combination with RSV to reactivate the Notch1 pathway, the protective effects of RSV against the LPS-induced reductions in the expression of the tight junction proteins occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-1 and the decreases in the levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α were abolished. These results suggest that RSV might regulate the expression of tight junction proteins by attenuating the Notch1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-022-01704-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Abating biogenic amines and improving the flavor profile of Cantonese soy sauce via co-culturing Tetragenococcus halophilus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

Food Microbiol 2022 Sep 11;106:104056. Epub 2022 May 11.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China; Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

This study aimed to investigate the formation and abatement strategies of biogenic amines (BAs) in the moromi contaminated accidently during Cantonese soy sauce (CSS) production processes. The ratio of total acid/amino nitrogen (TA/AAN) in koji can be used to predict the change in BAs content. Of the three main phases, BAs contents were more significantly increased once moromi manufacturing- and fermentation-phase were polluted. By co-culturing Tetragenococcus halophilus CGMCC3792 with Zygosaccharomyces rouxii CGMCC21865, BAs content was reduced by 59.96% and 51.10%, respectively, for the contaminated initial and fermenting moromi. Moreover, BAs content was reduced by 67.68% via the split batch fermentation method for the latter. Based on high throughput sequencing and metatranscriptome technology, BAs content was closely related to Lactobacillus abundance. It revealed the mechanism of abating BAs by inhibiting decarboxylase expression and changing redox potential. Therefore, it was an efficient strategy for abating BAs content and improving the flavor profile of CSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2022.104056DOI Listing
September 2022

Can a single-port robot be safely used for robotic total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer? First experience using the da Vinci SP platform.

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2022 7;10:goac023. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of General Surgery, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, P. R. China.

Background: Many studies have shown the operative feasibility and safety of robotic gastrectomy. Surgeons are pursuing single-port (SP) surgery to leverage the advantages of minimally invasive gastrectomy. The purpose of this study was to describe technical considerations and short-term outcomes from the first reported SP robotic total gastrectomy (RTG) using the da Vinci SP platform.

Methods: A 75-year-old patient with a body-mass index of 19.8 kg/m and clinical stage III cancer (cT3N+M0) underwent SP RTG on 22 January 2022 at the Department of General Surgery, the Chinese PLA General Hospital. All procedures were performed successfully using the da Vinci SP robotic platform.

Results: The SP RTG was successfully performed with D2 lymphadenectomy including No. 10 lymph-nodes dissection and extracorporeal Roux-en-Y anastomosis. Except for subcutaneous emphysema, no severe adverse events occurred during the operation. According to a visual analogue scale (VAS), the subjective feeling of post-operative pain was given a VAS score of 3 of 10 on Post-Operative Day 1 (POD 1), 1 of 10 on POD 3, and 1 of 10 on POD 7. We removed the gastric tube on POD 2 and advised sipping water, a liquid diet, and a soft diet on PODs 2, 4, and 6, respectively. The patient was discharged without any complications on POD 8.

Conclusion: RTG is technically feasible and safe using the da Vinci SP robotic platform. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the da Vinci SP platform in RTG for advanced gastric cancer in elderly patients. To verify its superior operative outcomes, further clinical trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goac023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9172626PMC
June 2022

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with subtotal thyroidectomy: Case report.

Authors:
Wei Shen Jun Huang

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 Jun 11;95:107181. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, Guangzhou 510120, China. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Postoperative complication of thoracic surgery often consists of bleeding, pneumothorax, pulmonary atelectasis, infection, etc.; however, concomitant diseases such as thyroid hormone disorder deserve to think about and summarized.

Case Presentation: This case was reported as a rare postoperative cardiopulmonary arrested of a 46-year-woman who presented bilateral lung nodules with concomitant subtotal thyroidectomy 2 months ago with Toremifene Citrate to sustain thyroid hormones. 3D-VATS was allowed to be conducted after her preoperative examination and blood tests. Unexpectedly, she suddenly fell in the bathroom at 5 pm the next day. Thirty minutes later, while finding cardiopulmonary arrest CPR endotracheal intubation assisted ventilation; in the meantime, that conducted vasoactive interventions for 50 min. Finally, the patient's heart rhythm recovered, and her vital sign index slowly tended to normal.

Clinical Discussion: Cardiopulmonary arrested usually occurs in massive invasive surgery, sudden severe diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, or pulmonary embolism. Even if certain chronic physical diseases are related, clinical symptoms usually catch the surgeon's attention. Ultimately, the excluded major inducing reasons during the medical process in ICU; by contract, it is still to discuss the thyroid hormones disorder that could not convince us to explain this postoperative cardiopulmonary arrest.

Conclusion: Although this cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 min and following medical treatment in ICU was undoubtedly successful, it is necessary to focus on managing concomitant thyroid hormones during surgery and think about certain physiological changes if it was one of the reasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2022.107181DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of Integrated Care on Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 17;9:904090. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aims: The integrated management was evidenced to improve the hospitalization and its associated complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the strategies of integrated care varied and results were inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of integrated care on AF-related outcomes with comparison with usual care.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles published until 10th January 2022. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials to study the effect of integrated care on AF-related outcomes. Meta-analysis with a random-effect model was used to calculate risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by comparing the integrated care with usual care.

Results: A total of five studies with 6,486 AF patients were selected. By synthesizing available data, integrated care effectively reduced the risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.42-0.69), cardiovascular hospitalization (RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55-0.94), and cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.36-0.78) when compared with usual care; however, there was no superior effect on preventing AF-related hospitalization (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.72-1.02), cerebrovascular events (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.75-1.70), and major bleeding (RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.86-1.94) when comparing integrated care with usual care.

Conclusion: Integrated care can reduce the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular hospitalizations in AF patients compared with usual care, while the benefit was not observed in other outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.904090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9152009PMC
May 2022

Induction of autophagy-dependent ferroptosis to eliminate drug-tolerant human retinoblastoma cells.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jun 2;13(6):521. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Surgery, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Carboplatin is the most used first-line drug for the treatment of human retinoblastoma (RB), a rare form of cancer in infancy and childhood. However, the clinical application of carboplatin is restricted due to the emergence of acquired multi-drug resistance (MDR) after long-term treatment. Here, we report a new strategy to eliminate MDR RB cells by inducing autophagy-dependent ferroptosis. Compared with parent cells, carboplatin-resistant human RB cells have higher autophagy activity, which drives the formation of MDR to other chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., etoposide and vincristine). In addition to confirming the traditional strategy of inhibiting autophagy to overcome MDR, we also establish an approach of inducing selective ferritinophagy to eliminate drug-resistant cells. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 4-octyl itaconate, a cell-permeable derivative of the metabolite itaconate, in inducing ferritinophagy-dependent ferroptosis in the treatment of MDR RB cells in vitro and in xenograft mouse models. These findings may provide essential clues for initiating clinical trials that target autophagy-dependent ferroptosis to kill drug-tolerant persistent cells during RB therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04974-8DOI Listing
June 2022

Brown Adipocyte ADRB3 Mediates Cardioprotection via Suppressing Exosomal iNOS.

Circ Res 2022 Jun 2:101161CIRCRESAHA121320470. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China (J.-R.L., L.-L.-Q.D., L.X., J.H., Z.-B.Z., X.-H.C., Y.-W.C., P.-J.G.).

Background: The ADRB3 (β3-adrenergic receptors), which is predominantly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT), can activate BAT and improve metabolic health. Previous studies indicate that the endocrine function of BAT is associated with cardiac homeostasis and diseases. Here, we investigate the role of ADRB3 activation-mediated BAT function in cardiac remodeling.

Methods: BKO (brown adipocyte-specific ADRB3 knockout) and littermate control mice were subjected to Ang II (angiotensin II) for 28 days. Exosomes from ADRB3 antagonist SR59230A (SR-exo) or agonist mirabegron (MR-exo) treated brown adipocytes were intravenously injected to Ang II-infused mice.

Results: BKO markedly accelerated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis compared with control mice after Ang II infusion. In vitro, ADRB3 KO rather than control brown adipocytes aggravated expression of fibrotic genes in cardiac fibroblasts, and this difference was not detected after exosome inhibitor treatment. Consistently, BKO brown adipocyte-derived exosomes accelerated Ang II-induced cardiac fibroblast dysfunction compared with control exosomes. Furthermore, SR-exo significantly aggravated Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling, whereas MR-exo attenuated cardiac dysfunction. Mechanistically, ADRB3 KO or SR59230A treatment in brown adipocytes resulted an increase of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) in exosomes. Knockdown of iNOS in brown adipocytes reversed SR-exo-aggravated cardiac remodeling.

Conclusions: Our data illustrated a new endocrine pattern of BAT in regulating cardiac remodeling, suggesting that activation of ADRB3 in brown adipocytes offers cardiac protection through suppressing exosomal iNOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.320470DOI Listing
June 2022

Distribution and Drug Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria in Diabetic Patients with Double J-Stent Associated Infections.

Infect Drug Resist 2022 25;15:2671-2678. Epub 2022 May 25.

Laboratory Department, First People's Hospital of Zigong City, Zigong, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in diabetic patients with double J-stent associated infections, and to explore the strategies for prevention and treatment of the infections.

Methods: From January 2019 to December 2021, 266 diabetic patients treated with double J-stent placement in our hospital assessed for eligibility were recruited. Urine and double J-stent samples were collected for pathogenicity assay and screened for biofilm bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance were examined.

Results: A total of 97 strains (36.5%) of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from urine samples and 129 strains (48.5%) from double J-stent samples (P > 0.05). 3 strains (1.1%) of biofilm bacteria were separated from urine samples and 106 strains (39.8%) from double J-stent samples (P < 0.05). In the double J-stent samples, there were significantly higher ratios of Gram-positive bacteria separated from biofilm bacteria versus the urine-cultured pathogens (44.3%/61.3%, P < 0.05), and higher drug resistance was observed in biofilm bacteria versus urine-cultured pathogens (P < 0.05). Fosfomycin tromethamine showed remarkable susceptibility to both urinary cultured pathogens and double J-stent biofilm bacteria.

Conclusion: Diabetic patients with double J-stent biofilm-positive bacteria are mainly Gram-positive bacteria, which are prone to biofilm formation and show strong drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S360086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9148917PMC
May 2022

Multicomponent Composite Membrane with Three-Phase Interface Heterostructure as Photocatalyst for Organic Dye Removal.

ACS Omega 2022 May 15;7(20):17128-17143. Epub 2022 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

A multicomponent composite membrane (P-S-T/C) with three-phase interface heterostructure is ingeniously designed. A polydopamine (PDA)-modified conductive carbon fiber cloth (C) is used as the substrate. Activated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with titanium dioxide (TiO) and a silicon dioxide (SiO) aerogel are electrospun as the top layer. The three-phase interface heterostructure was formed by TiO, conductive C, and the SiO aerogel. Its photocatalytic performance is validated by photodegradation of organic dyes in a low-oxygen (O) water environment. On combining with the capillary condensation of a bilayer structure, P-S-T/C exhibits excellent removal capability for anionic and cationic dyes. Moreover, P-S-T/C exhibits excellent stability and recyclability under simulated sunlight. The mechanism study indicates that the separated photogenerated carriers diffuse to the composite membrane surface rapidly on the three-phase interface of P-S-T/C. The abundant O adsorbed on the porous SiO aerogel surface acts as an electron (e)-trapping agent, which can also decrease the work function of the composite materials. Superoxide radicals (O ) play a dominant role in the reaction of photodegradation supported by a free radical-trapping experiment. This work paves a way to design a membrane with photocatalytic performance by constructing the interface heterostructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c00686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9134254PMC
May 2022

Tough complex hydrogels transformed from highly swollen polyelectrolyte hydrogels based on Cu coordination with anti-bacterial properties.

J Mater Chem B 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

The development of broad-spectrum anti-bacterial tough hydrogels without antibiotics remains a challenge in biomedical applications. In this study, we have synthesized a novel tough anti-bacterial complex hydrogel based on Cu coordination. A swollen and weak poly(acrylamide--4-vinylbenzyl-(trihydroxymethyl-phosphonium)chloride) (P(AAm--VBzTHPC)) hydrogel was prepared by the radical copolymerization of AAm and VBzTHPC monomer solutions, followed by immersion in CuSO solution to coordinate with Cu to form a strong and tough hydrogel. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) were used to characterize the coordination structure between phosphorus and oxygen atoms in the VBzTHPC monomer and copper ions. The water content and mechanical properties of the obtained hydrogel varied with gel composition. The prepared toughened hydrogel exhibited excellent anti-bacterial performance because of the introduction of copper ion coordination and the slow release of copper ions, with bacterial viability of 5.1% when the mole fraction of VBzTHPC was 10 mol%. Cell viability when cocultured with the toughened hydrogel was above 85% using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) method, indicating the good biocompatibility of the hydrogel. Compared with the control group experiment , this tough hydrogel can also promote wound healing, making it a promising candidate for wound dressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2tb00830kDOI Listing
June 2022

RNF4 controls the extent of replication fork reversal to preserve genome stability.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 06;50(10):5672-5687

Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Geriatrics and Geriatrics Institute of Zhejiang Province, Department of Geriatrics, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou 310030, Zhejiang, China.

Replication fork reversal occurs via a two-step process that entails reversal initiation and reversal extension. DNA topoisomerase IIalpha (TOP2A) facilitates extensive fork reversal, on one hand through resolving the topological stress generated by the initial reversal, on the other hand via its role in recruiting the SUMO-targeted DNA translocase PICH to stalled forks in a manner that is dependent on its SUMOylation by the SUMO E3 ligase ZATT. However, how TOP2A activities at stalled forks are precisely regulated remains poorly understood. Here we show that, upon replication stress, the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF4 accumulates at stalled forks and targets SUMOylated TOP2A for ubiquitination and degradation. Downregulation of RNF4 resulted in aberrant activation of the ZATT-TOP2A-PICH complex at stalled forks, which in turn led to excessive reversal and elevated frequencies of fork collapse. These results uncover a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism that regulates TOP2A activities at stalled forks and thus the extent of fork reversal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkac447DOI Listing
June 2022

Melatonin, an endogenous hormone, modulates Th17 cells via the reactive-oxygen species/TXNIP/HIF-1α axis to alleviate autoimmune uveitis.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 May 27;19(1):124. Epub 2022 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratoryof Ophthalmologyand VisualScience, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: Melatonin, an indoleamine produced by the pineal gland, plays a pivotal role in maintaining circadian rhythm homeostasis. Recently, the strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin have attracted attention of researchers. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of melatonin in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), which is a representative animal model of human autoimmune uveitis.

Methods: EAU was induced in mice via immunization with the peptide interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein 1-20 (IRBP). Melatonin was then administered via intraperitoneal injection to induce protection against EAU. With EAU induction for 14 days, clinical and histopathological scores were graded to evaluate the disease progression. T lymphocytes accumulation and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the retinas were assessed via flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. T helper 1 (Th1), T helper 17 (Th17), and regulatory T (Treg) cells were detected via flow cytometry for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Reactive-oxygen species (ROS) from CD4 + T cells was tested via flow cytometry. The expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) proteins were quantified via western blot.

Results: Melatonin treatment resulted in notable attenuation of ocular inflammation in EAU mice, evidenced by decreasing optic disc edema, few signs of retinal vasculitis, and minimal retinal and choroidal infiltrates. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin restricted the proliferation of peripheral Th1 and Th17 cells by suppressing their transcription factors and potentiated Treg cells. In vitro studies corroborated that melatonin restrained the polarization of retina-specific T cells towards Th17 and Th1 cells in addition to enhancing the proportion of Treg cells. Pretreatment of retina-specific T cells with melatonin failed to induce EAU in naïve recipients. Furthermore, the ROS/ TXNIP/ HIF-1α pathway was shown to mediate the therapeutic effect of melatonin in EAU.

Conclusions: Melatonin regulates autoimmune T cells by restraining effector T cells and facilitating Treg generation, indicating that melatonin could be a hopeful treatment alternative for autoimmune uveitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-022-02477-zDOI Listing
May 2022

Boosting anti-tumour immunity using adjuvant apigenin.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Medical Technology Research Center, Institute of Health Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The interactions and secretions within the tumour have a pivotal role in tumour growth and therapy. Immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) secrets some substances, which can result in exhaustion of anti-tumour immunity. To stimulate anti-tumour immunity, suppression of the secretion and interactions of immunosuppressive cells, on the other hand, stimulation of proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes are required. Apigenin is a flavone with anticancer properties. Emerging evidence shows that not only does apigenin modulate cell death pathways in cancer cells but it also can stimulate anti-tumour immune cells to release death signals and suppress the release of tumour-promoting molecules. In this review, we discuss the interactions between apigenin and various cells within the tumour microenvironment (TME). These interactions may enhance anti-tumour immunity to improve the efficiency of anticancer remedies such as immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520622666220523151409DOI Listing
May 2022

Hb Laibin [β96(FG3)Leu→Arg; : c.290T>G]: A Novel Hemoglobin Variant Described in a Chinese Family.

Hemoglobin 2022 May 26:1-4. Epub 2022 May 26.

Center for Medical Genetics and Prenatal Diagnosis, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

We report a novel β chain hemoglobin (Hb) variant found in a Chinese family. A high level of Hb F was observed on capillary electrophoresis (CE). However, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed a high level of Hb A. DNA sequencing revealed a single base substitution (T>G) at codon 96 of exon 2 of the β-globin gene. This alters the normally encoded leucine to arginine [β96(FG3)Leu→Arg; : c.290T>G] that we propose to name Hb Laibin for the region of origin of the proband. The pedigree study showed that it was inherited from his mother.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2022.2069576DOI Listing
May 2022

Down-Regulation of P450 Genes Enhances Susceptibility to Indoxacarb and Alters Physiology and Development of Fall Armyworm, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Front Physiol 2022 9;13:884447. Epub 2022 May 9.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

The fall armyworm (FAW), (J.E. Smith), is a pest of many important crops globally. Effective control is challenging, with the pest exhibiting resistance to different synthetic pesticides across various groups. However, the mechanisms employed by resistant insects for overexpression of relevant detoxification genes remain unclear. The activity of detoxification enzymes was investigated in this study. Additionally, using RNA interference (RNAi), a functional analysis was completed of two P450s genes in an indoxacarb resistant population of fall armyworms. Elevated resistance levels (resistance ratio = 31.37-fold) in indoxacarb-selected populations of FAW were observed after 14 generations. The qRT-PCR showed higher expression of two cytochrome P450 genes, and , in this selected population compared to the control population. RNAi was applied to knock down the P450 ds and ds genes in the FAW larvae. Droplet feeding of the dsRNAs ( and ) via an artificial diet significantly increased mortality rates in the indoxacarb treated population. A shorter larval developmental time of FAW was detected in all dsRNAs-fed larvae. Correspondingly, larval mass was reduced by dsRNAs in indoxacarb resistant populations of fall armyworm. Larval feeding assays demonstrate that dsRNAs targeting, specifically of and enzymes, could be a beneficial technique in the management of indoxacarb resistant populations. Further study on the potential use of dsRNA and its application should be conducted in efforts to counter the development of resistance in FAW against various insecticides in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.884447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125154PMC
May 2022

Microelectronic structure changes electron utilization: Core-shell structure catalysts with electron library and quantum dots for photocatalytic hydrogen production.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Oct 16;623:660-673. Epub 2022 May 16.

MOE Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Norferrous Metals and Materials, Guangxi key Laboratory of Processing for Norferrous Featured Metals and Materials, School of Resources, Environment and Materials, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, PR China.

Photocatalysis is facing huge challenges especially the separation and efficient utilization of photocarriers. Herein, we report that a ternary hollow core-shell photocatalyst is synthesized by template and self-assembled method. The experimental results show that the electron separation efficiency and utilization efficiency are significantly improved, not only because the ternary hollow core-shell structure spatially separates the oxidation area MnOx from the reduction area Co-MOF, but also because lots of emergent electrons are stored in Co-MOF as an electronic library, contributing to the formation of surface polarization to support the requirement call from the CoP quantum dots (QDs) as active-sites. It's the first report that the effectively separated electron-rich and electron-poor microelectronic states of the tunable Co-MOF promotes electron utilization by affecting the storage capacity of the electron library promoting photocatalytic hydrogen production. The tests show that [email protected] QDs/MCN (35.31 mmol/h/g), [email protected] QDs/BCN (23.69 mmol/h/g) and [email protected] QDs (11.08 mmol/h/g) have the better hydrogen production performances, which is about 38 times, 26 times and 12 times higher than CdS (0.9244 mmol/h/g), respectively. The pioneering exploration about the ternary hollow core-shell structure bonded with MOFs materials with abundant CoP QDs will open up a new perspective to design high-performance for solar-chemical energy conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.05.048DOI Listing
October 2022

Concise Synthesis of 7-Deoxypsammaplysins K and O and 7-Deoxyceratinamide A by 1,3-Dipole Cycloaddition.

Org Lett 2022 06 23;24(21):3786-3791. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics and Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China.

A spiro-oxepin isoxazoline skeleton was constructed via 1,3-dipole cycloaddition as a key step, which enabled the total syntheses of 7-deoxyceratinamide A and 7-deoxypsammaplysins K and O. The developed chemistry could be applied to total synthesis of structurally diverse spiro-oxepin isoxazoline-based marine natural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c01298DOI Listing
June 2022

Microbiota in Tumors: From Understanding to Application.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 May 23:e2200470. Epub 2022 May 23.

Institutes of Biology and Medical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Microbes with complex functions have been found to be a potential component in tumor microenvironments. Due to their low biomass and other obstacles, intratumor microbiota is poorly understood. Mucosal sites and normal adjacent tissues are important sources of intratumor microbiota, while hematogenous spread also leads to the invasion of microbes. Intratumor microbiota affects the progression of tumors through several mechanisms, such as DNA damage, activation of oncogenic pathways, induction of immunosuppression, and metabolization of drugs. Notably, in different types of tumors, the composition and abundance of intratumor microbiota are highly heterogeneous and may play different roles in the progression of tumors. Because of the concern in this field, several techniques such as omics and immunological methods have been used to study intratumor microbiota. Here, recent progress in this field is reviewed, including the potential sources of intratumor microbiota, their functions and related mechanisms, and their heterogeneity. Techniques that can be used to study intratumor microbiota are also discussed. Moreover, research is summarized into the development of strategies that can be used in antitumor treatment and prospects for possible future research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202200470DOI Listing
May 2022

Remote Floating-Gate Field-Effect Transistor with 2-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer for Reliable Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Proteins.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 20;14(21):24187-24196. Epub 2022 May 20.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States.

Despite intensive research of nanomaterials-based field-effect transistors (FETs) as a rapid diagnostic tool, it remains to be seen for FET sensors to be used for clinical applications due to a lack of stability, reliability, reproducibility, and scalability for mass production. Herein, we propose a remote floating-gate (RFG) FET configuration to eliminate device-to-device variations of two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sensing surfaces and most of the instability at the solution interface. Also, critical mechanistic factors behind the electrochemical instability of rGO such as severe drift and hysteresis were identified through extensive studies on rGO-solution interfaces varied by rGO thickness, coverage, and reduction temperature. rGO surfaces in our RFGFET structure displayed a Nernstian response of 54 mV/pH (from pH 2 to 11) with a 90% yield (9 samples out of total 10), coefficient of variation (CV) < 3%, and a low drift rate of 2%, all of which were calculated from the absolute measurement values. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrated highly reliable, reproducible, and label-free detection of spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a saliva-relevant media with concentrations ranging from 500 fg/mL to 5 μg/mL, with an value of 0.984 and CV < 3%, and a guaranteed limit of detection at a few pg/mL. Taken together, this new platform may have an immense effect on positioning FET bioelectronics in a clinical setting for detecting SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c04969DOI Listing
June 2022

Analysis of complex chromosomal rearrangements using a combination of current molecular cytogenetic techniques.

Mol Cytogenet 2022 May 19;15(1):20. Epub 2022 May 19.

Prenatal Diagnosis Center, Affiliated Foshan Maternity & Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University (Foshan Maternity & Child Healthcare Hospital), Foshan, Guangdong, China.

Background: Using combined fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high-throughput whole-genome sequencing (WGS) molecular cytogenetic technology, we aim to analyze the junction breakpoints of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) that were difficult to identify by conventional karyotyping analysis and further characterize the genetic causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

Results: By leveraging a combination of current molecular techniques, including chromosome karyotype analysis, FISH, and WGS, we comprehensively characterized the extremely complex chromosomal abnormalities in this patient with recurrent spontaneous abortions. Here, we demonstrated that combining these current established molecular techniques is an effective and efficient workflow to identify the structural abnormalities of complex chromosomes and locate the rearrangement of DNA fragments.

Conclusions: In conclusion, leveraging results from multiple molecular and cytogenetic techniques can provide the most comprehensive genetic analysis for genetic etiology research, diagnosis, and genetic counseling for patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and embryonic abortion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-022-00597-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118736PMC
May 2022

CD4 T-cell epitope-based heterologous prime-boost vaccination potentiates anti-tumor immunity and PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 05;10(5)

Institute of Immunology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China

Background: Antitumor therapeutic vaccines are generally based on antigenic epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecules to induce tumor-specific CD8 T cells. Paradoxically, continuous T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation from tumor-derived CD8 T-cell epitopes can drive the functional exhaustion of tumor-specific CD8 T cells. Tumor-specific type-I helper CD4 T (T1) cells play an important role in the population maintenance and cytotoxic function of exhausted tumor-specific CD8 T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Nonetheless, whether the vaccination strategy targeting MHC-II-restricted CD4 T-cell epitopes to induce tumor-specific T1 responses can confer effective antitumor immunity to restrain tumor growth is not well studied. Here, we developed a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy to effectively induce tumor-specific T1 cells and evaluated its antitumor efficacy and its capacity to potentiate PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.

Methods: vector and influenza A virus (PR8 strain) vector stably expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein-specific I-A-restricted CD4 T cell epitope (GP) or ovalbumin-specific CD4 T cell epitope (OVA) were constructed and evaluated their efficacy against mouse models of melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein and ovalbumin. The impact of CD4 T cell epitope-based heterologous prime-boost vaccination was detected by flow-cytometer, single-cell RNA sequencing and single-cell TCR sequencing.

Results: CD4 T cell epitope-based heterologous prime-boost vaccination efficiently suppressed both mouse melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. This vaccination primarily induced tumor-specific T1 response, which in turn enhanced the expansion, effector function and clonal breadth of tumor-specific CD8 T cells. Furthermore, this vaccination strategy synergized PD-L1 blockade mediated tumor suppression. Notably, prime-boost vaccination extended the duration of PD-L1 blockade induced antitumor effects by preventing the re-exhaustion of tumor-specific CD8 T cells.

Conclusion: CD4 T cell epitope-based heterologous prime-boost vaccination elicited potent both tumor-specific T1 and CTL response, leading to the efficient tumor control. This strategy can also potentiate PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) against cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-004022DOI Listing
May 2022

[Application of anterolateral thigh bridge flap with free skin graft wrapping vascular bridge in complex calf soft tissue defects].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 May;36(5):619-624

The Microscopic Repair and Reconstruction Department of Hand and Foot, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei Anhui, 230022, P. R. China.

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of anterolateral thigh bridge flap with free skin graft wrapping vascular bridge in repairing complex calf soft tissue defects.

Methods: The clinical data of 11 patients with complex calf soft tissue defects between April 2018 and October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, including 9 males and 2 females, aged 11-60 years, with a median age of 39 years. There were 8 cases of calf soft tissue defect caused by traffic accident, and 3 cases of calf skin infection caused by chronic osteomyelitis. The skin and soft tissue defects ranged from 10 cm×8 cm to 35 cm×10 cm after thorough debridement and accompanied with bone and tendon exposure. There was only one main vessel in calf of 9 cases and no blood vessel that could be anastomosed with the flap vessel could be found in the recipient site of 2 cases. The anterolateral thigh skin flap (the flap size ranged from 12 cm×10 cm to 37 cm×12 cm) was taken to repair the soft tissue defect. The donor site of the flap was treated with direct suture (8 cases) or partial suture followed by skin grafting (3 cases), and the vascular bridge was wrapped with medium-thickness skin graft.

Results: The flaps of 11 patients survived completely without necrosis, infection, and vascular crisis. The blood supply of the vascular bridge was unobstructed and the pulse was good. The color of the medium-thickness skin graft were ruddy. All 11 patients were followed up 2-40 months, with an average of 19.4 months. The flaps healed well with the surrounding tissues without obvious exudation and color difference. The flaps had normal color and temperature, good blood supply, and soft texture. The shape of the flap and calf contour were satisfactory and the function of the limb recovered well. The donor area of thigh flap healed by first intention without obvious scar formation. The donor area of skin healed well with a longitudinal oblong scar only and the appearance was satisfactory.

Conclusion: The anterolateral thigh bridge flap transplantation with free skin wrapping vascular bridge is an effective method for the treatment of complex calf soft tissue defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202201093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9108651PMC
May 2022

The positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and/or additional aeration on the purification efficiency of combined heavy metals in vertical flow constructed wetlands.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.

Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and additional aeration (AA), as two approaches to improve the functioning of treatment wetlands, can further promote the capacity of wetlands to purify pollutants. The extent to which, and mechanisms by which, AMF and AA purify wetlands polluted by combined heavy metals (HMs) are not well understood. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of AMF and/or AA on combined HMs removal in vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) with the Phragmites australis (reeds) were investigated at different HMs concentrations. The results showed that (1) AA improved the AMF colonization in VFCWs and AMF accumulated the combined HMs in their structures; (2) AMF inoculation and/or AA significantly promoted the reeds growth and antioxidant enzymes activities, thereby alleviating oxidative stress; (3) AMF inoculation and AA significantly enhanced the removal rates of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd under the stress of high combined HMs concentrations comparing to the control check (CK) treatment (autoclaved AMF inoculation and no aeration), which increased by 22.72%, 30.31%, 12.64%, and 50.22%, respectively; (4) AMF inoculation and/or AA significantly promoted the combined HMs accumulation in plant roots and substrates and altered the distribution of HMs at the subcellular level. We therefore conclude that AMF inoculation and/or AA in VFCWs improves the purification of combined HM-polluted water, and the VFCWs-reeds-AMF/AA associations exhibit great potential for application in remediation of combined HM-polluted wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20759-0DOI Listing
May 2022

Charge Density and Hydrophobicity-Dominated Regimes in the Phase Behavior of Complex Coacervates.

ACS Macro Lett 2021 08 22;10(8):1029-1034. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, United States.

The role of hydrophobicity, and particularly of nonionic hydrophobic comonomers, in the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte complex coacervates is not well-understood. Here, we address this problem by synthesizing a library of polymers with a wide range of charge densities and nonionic hydrophobic side chain lengths, and characterizing their phase behavior by optical turbidity. The polymers were prepared by postpolymerization modification of poly(-acryloxy succinimide), targeting charge densities between 40 and 100% and nonionic aliphatic side chains with lengths from 0 to 12 carbons long. Turbidity measurements on pairs of polycations and polyanions with matched charge densities and nonionic side chain lengths revealed a complex salt response with distinct charge density-dominated and hydrophobicity-dominated regimes. The polymer solubilities were not directly correlated with the phase behavior of the coacervates, indicating the difficulty of understanding the coacervate phase behavior in terms of the polymer-water interaction parameter. This result suggests that there is significant room for further work to understand the mechanisms by which specific molecular-scale interactions moderate the phase behavior of complex coacervates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.1c00382DOI Listing
August 2021

Intrapleural Perfusion With Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C for Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Clustered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 25;9:816973. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of General Practice, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Introduction: The staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), a commercially available bio-product from (), has been widely used to control MPE.

Objectives: We designed and performed a new systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis to clarify the perfusion protocols with SEC, determine their clinical effectiveness and safety, and reveal the indication and optimum usage for achieving the desired responses.

Methodology: All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about SEC for MPE were collected from electronic databases (from inception until July 2021), and clustered into multiple logical topics. grading of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) approach.

Results: All 114 were clustered into SEC alone or plus chemical agents. The SEC alone showed a better complete response (CR), a lower pleurodesis failure, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and a higher fever than cisplatin (DDP) alone. The SEC and chemical agents developed 10 perfusion protocols. . The SEC (100-200 ng per time, one time a week for one to four times) with DDP (30-40 mg, or 50-60 mg each time) significantly improved clinical responses for patients with moderate to large volume, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores ≥40, ≥50, or ≥60, and anticipated survival time (AST) ≥2 or 3 months. Most results were moderate to low quality.

Conclusion: Current pieces of evidence indicate that super-antigen SEC is a pleurodesis agent, which provides an attractive alternative to existing palliative modalities for patients with MPE. Among 10 protocols, the SEC and DDP perfusion is a most commonly used, which shows a significant improvement in clinical responses with low ADRs. These findings also a possible indication and optimal usage for SEC and DDP perfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.816973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081816PMC
April 2022

Horizontal planetary mechanochemical method for rapid and efficient remediation of high-concentration lindane-contaminated soils in an alkaline environment.

J Hazard Mater 2022 08 5;436:129078. Epub 2022 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Advanced Interdisciplinary Institute of Environment and Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai 519087, China.

Lindane is a persistent organic pollutant that has attracted worldwide attention because of its threat to human health and environmental security. A horizontal planetary mechanochemical method was developed for rapid and efficient degradation of lindane in soil in an alkaline environment. Under the condition of a very low reagent-to-soil ratio (R = 2%), ball-to-powder ratio (C = 6:1), rotation speed (r = 300 rpm) and high soil single treatment capacity (S = 60 g), the lindane in four typical soils (~ 100 mg/kg) can be degraded up to 96.30% in 10 min. This method can also remediate high-concentration lindane-contaminated soil (833 ± 26 mg/kg). The experimental results and theoretical calculations proved that the stepwise dechlorination and final carbonization of lindane in soil are mainly attributed to the combined action of mechanical energy and alkalinity. The bimolecular elimination (E2) reaction was the first step of lindane destruction. Subsequently, the unimolecular elimination (E1) reaction tended to occur with the weakening of alkalinity. Then, benzene was obtained through stepwise hydrogenolysis reaction. The last was the generation of carbon substances by fragmentation or condensation of benzene rings. This work proposes a practical remediation technology for organic contaminated soil and improves the understanding of the degradation pathways of lindane in soil in alkali-assisted mechanochemical system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129078DOI Listing
August 2022
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