Publications by authors named "Jun Hu"

1,348 Publications

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Necroptotic virotherapy of oncolytic alphavirus M1 cooperated with Doxorubicin displays promising therapeutic efficacy in TNBC.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive molecular subtype among breast tumors and remains a challenge even for the most current therapeutic regimes. Here, we demonstrate that oncolytic alphavirus M1 effectively kills both TNBC and non-TNBC. ER-stress and apoptosis pathways are responsible for the cell death in non-TNBC as reported in other cancer types, yet the cell death in TNBC does not depend on these pathways. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that the M1 virus activates necroptosis in TNBC, which can be pharmacologically blocked by necroptosis inhibitors. By screening a library of clinically available compounds commonly used for breast cancer treatment, we find that Doxorubicin enhances the oncolytic effect of the M1 virus by up to 100-fold specifically in TNBC in vitro, and significantly stalls the tumor growth of TNBC in vivo, through promoting intratumoral virus replication and further triggering apoptosis in addition to necroptosis. These findings reveal a novel antitumor mechanism and a new combination regimen of the M1 oncolytic virus in TNBC, and highlight a need to bridge molecular diagnosis with virotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01869-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Autotaxin levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are associated with inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers and the clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

J Intensive Care 2021 Jun 15;9(1):44. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary Disease, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, and Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Guoxuexiang 37, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted glycoprotein that is widely present in extracellular biological fluids and has been implicated in many inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. However, the clinical impact of the release of ATX in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unclear.

Methods: Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of ATX, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, fibronectin, oncostatin M (OSM), and SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) were collected from 52 patients with ARDS within 24 h of diagnosis. All cytokines were measured by Magnetic Luminex Assay. BALF albumin (BA) and serum albumin (SA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Serum ATX, MMP-7, and BALF IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients who did not survive than in those who survived up to 28 days after diagnosis of ARDS (P < 0.05). BALF and serum ATX levels were correlated with IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-7 levels in BALF and serum, respectively. In addition, BALF ATX was positively correlated with BALF TNF-α, fibronectin, OSM, and SPARC as well as the BA/SA ratio, while serum ATX was correlated with severity of illness based on the SOFA score and PaO/FIO ratio. Furthermore, serum ATX was better able to predict 28-day ARDS-related mortality (area under the curve 0.744, P < 0.01) than the SOFA score, APACHE II score, or PaO/FIO ratio. Serum ATX independently predicted mortality in a univariate Cox regression model (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The serum ATX level is a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with ARDS. BALF ATX is associated with pulmonary biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting a role of ATX in the pathogenesis of ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-021-00559-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Dissecting the Flash Chemistry of Electrogenerated Reactive Intermediates by Microdroplet Fusion Mass Spectrometry.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Najing University, Chemistry, Xianlin Ave. 163, , 210023, Nanjing, CHINA.

A novel mass spectrometric method for probing the flash chemistry of electrogenerated reactive intermediates was developed based on rapid collision mixing of electrosprayed microdroplets by using a theta-glass capillary. The two individual microchannels of the theta-glass capillary are asymmetrically or symmetrically fabricated with a carbon bipolar electrode to produce intermediates in situ . Microdroplets containing the newly formed intermediates collide with those of the invoked reactants at sub-10 microsecond level, making it a powerful tool for exploring their ultrafast initial transformations. As a proof-of-concept, we present the identification of the key radical cation intermediate in the oxidative dimerization of 8-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and also the first revealment of previously hidden nitrenium ion involved reaction pathway in the C-H/N-H cross-coupling between N,N'-dimethylaniline and phenothiazine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202106945DOI Listing
June 2021

An excitation-reception collinear probe for ultrasonic, photoacoustic, and thermoacoustic tri-modal volumetric imaging.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Imaging systems that integrate multiple modalities can reveal complementary anatomic and functional information as they exploit different contrast mechanisms, which have shown great application potential and advantages in preclinical studies. A portable and easy-to-use imaging probe will be more conducive to transfer to clinical practice. Here, we present a tri-modal ultrasonic (US), photoacoustic (PA), and thermoacoustic (TA) imaging system with an excitation-reception collinear probe. The acoustic field, light field, and electric field of the probe were designed to be coaxial, realizing homogeneous illumination and high-sensitivity detection at the same detection position. US images can provide detailed information about structures, PA images can delineate the morphology of blood vessels in tissues, and TA images can reveal dielectric properties of the tissues. Moreover, phantoms and in vivo human finger experiments were performed by the tri-modal imaging system to demonstrate its performance. The results show that the tri-modal imaging system with the proposed probe has the ability to detect small breast tumors with a radius of only 2.5 mm and visualize the anatomical structure of the finger in three dimensions. Our work confirms that the tri-modal imaging system equipped with a collinear probe can be applied to a variety of different scenarios, which lays a solid foundation for the application of the tri-modality system in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3089243DOI Listing
June 2021

Exosome-delivered miR-221/222 exacerbates tumor liver metastasis by targeting SPINT1 in colorectal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the progression of many cancers through largely unelucidated mechanisms. The results of our present study identified a gene cluster, miR-221/222, that is constitutively upregulated in serum exosome samples of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with liver metastasis (LM), and this upregulation predicts a poor overall survival rate. Using an in vitro cell coculture model, we demonstrated that CRC exosomes harboring miR-221/222 activate liver hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by suppressing SPINT1 expression. Importantly, miR-221/222 plays a key role in forming a favorable premetastatic niche (PMN) that leads to the aggressive nature of CRC, which was further shown through in vivo studies. Overall, our results show that exosomal miR-221/222 promotes CRC progression and may serve as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for CRC with LM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15028DOI Listing
June 2021

Albumin-Templated BiSe-MnO Nanocomposites with Promoted Catalase-Like Activity for Enhanced Radiotherapy of Cancer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Novel and effective radiosensitizers that can enhance radiosensitivity of tumor tissues and increase the local radiation dose are highly desirable. In this work, templated by bovine serum albumin (BSA), BiSe-MnO nanocomposites ([email protected]) were fabricated via biomineralization, while BiSe nanodots act as radiosensitizers to increase the local radiation dosage because of their strong X-ray attenuation ability, and MnO with catalase-like activity can increase the oxygen concentration in tumors by triggering the decomposition of tumor endogenous HO so as to improve the hypoxia-associated radioresistance of tumors. Owing to the interaction of the two components in the interface, [email protected] showed promoted catalytic activity compared to [email protected], favoring tumor radiotherapy (RT) sensitization. BSA templating enabled the nanocomposites with high colloidal stability and biocompatibility as well as satisfactory tumor targeting both in vitro and in vivo; thus, an enhanced RT efficacy was obtained. Moreover, the proposed [email protected] exhibited excellent performances in computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, this work provides a tumor microenvironment-responsive multifunctional theranostic nanoagent with an improved performance for imaging-guided tumor RT sensitization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05669DOI Listing
June 2021

A fundamental viewpoint on the hydrogen spillover phenomenon of electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 9;12(1):3502. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Special Functional and Smart Polymer Materials of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

Hydrogen spillover phenomenon of metal-supported electrocatalysts can significantly impact their activity in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, design of active electrocatalysts faces grand challenges due to the insufficient understandings on how to overcome this thermodynamically and kinetically adverse process. Here we theoretically profile that the interfacial charge accumulation induces by the large work function difference between metal and support (∆Φ) and sequentially strong interfacial proton adsorption construct a high energy barrier for hydrogen transfer. Theoretical simulations and control experiments rationalize that small ∆Φ induces interfacial charge dilution and relocation, thereby weakening interfacial proton adsorption and enabling efficient hydrogen spillover for HER. Experimentally, a series of Pt alloys-CoP catalysts with tailorable ∆Φ show a strong ∆Φ-dependent HER activity, in which PtIr/CoP with the smallest ∆Φ = 0.02 eV delivers the best HER performance. These findings have conclusively identified ∆Φ as the criterion in guiding the design of hydrogen spillover-based binary HER electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23750-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Imaging and anatomical parameters of the lacrimal punctum and vertical canaliculus using optical coherence tomography.

Int J Med Sci 2021 23;18(12):2493-2499. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

The anatomical parameters of normal lacrimal puncta and vertical canaliculus using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the OCT imaging features of punctal lesions were analyzed to provide a basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. From June to September 2019, 40 volunteers (80 eyes) from Tongji Hospital were enrolled. The external punctal diameter (ELP) was measured using slit-lamp microscopy and OCT. The internal lacrimal punctal diameter (ILP) at 100 μm, vertical canalicular length (VCL), and tear meniscus depth were measured by OCT with open eyes. Twenty-eight volunteers (56 eyes) underwent the same examinations with their eyes closed. The OCT imaging features of 26 patients (27 eyes) with lacrimal lesions were examined. The ELP of the right and left healthy eyes under slit-lamp microscopy were 564.40 and 555.40 µm respectively. Under OCT, the ELP, ILP, and VCL of the right and left eyes were 628.20 um and 616.85 µm, 343.40 µm and 346.95 µm, 731.95 um and 709.20 µm respectively. The ELP was larger when measured by OCT than slit-lamp microscopy (p<0.05). Twenty-eight volunteers (56 eyes) had measurements taken under different conditions. The ELP, ILP, and VCL of the open and closed right eyes were 667.54 and 567.21 µm, 369.18 and 303.18 µm, 715.00 and 417.14 µm, respectively. The ELP, ILP, and VCL of the open and closed left eyes were 655.86 um and 551.68 µm, 369.25 um and 313.54 µm, 719.96 um and 433.89 µm respectively. The anatomical parameters of the open eyes were greater than those of the closed eyes (p<0.05). Thus, we identified the imaging features of lacrimal stenosis, punctal obstruction, punctal tear, lacrimal atresia, and lacrimal mass using OCT. OCT can be used to measure the anatomical parameters of lacrimal puncta and vertical canaliculus . In addition, OCT can detect punctal lesions and provide an objective basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of punctal lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.58291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176177PMC
April 2021

Fluorescent probes for and quantification of hydrogen peroxide.

Chem Sci 2020 Oct 27;11(44):11989-11997. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Chemistry, Morningside Laboratory for Chemical Biology, The University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-SIRI), The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road Hong Kong P. R. China

Hydrogen peroxide (HO) plays essential roles in redox signaling and oxidative stress, and its dynamic concentration is critical to human health and diseases. Here we report the design, syntheses, and biological applications of and for quantitative measurement of HO. Both probes were successfully applied to detect endogenous HO fluxes in living cells or zebrafish, and biological effects of multiple stress inducers including rotenone, arsenic trioxide, and starvation were investigated. As HO is a common by-product for oxidase oxidation, a general assay was developed for ultrasensitive detection of various metabolites (glucose, uric acid, and sarcosine). Moreover, cellular HO measurements were achieved for the first time by combining flow cytometry with live cell calibration. This study provides a pair of unique molecular tools for advanced HO bio-imaging and assay development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc04888gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162884PMC
October 2020

Preemptive Intravenous Nalbuphine for the Treatment of Post-Operative Visceral Pain: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Pain Ther 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, and The Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 678 Furong Road, Hefei, Anhui Province, China.

Introduction: Post-operative visceral pain is common in early postoperative period after laparoscopic surgery. As a kappa opioid receptor agonist, the antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine in visceral pain are consistent across a multitude of experimental conditions irrespective of species. We hypothesized that preemptive nalbuphine can decrease the visceral pain for patients with incisional infiltration of ropivacaine after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Methods: In a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 2094 participants scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive nalbuphine (Nal group, n = 1029) or placebo (Con group, n = 1027). The Nal group received intravenous nalbuphine 0.2 mg·kg and the Con group received saline in a similar way. The primary endpoint was the effect of nalbuphine on post-operative visceral pain intensity scores within 24 h postoperatively. The total amount of analgesic as well as complications were recorded.

Results: A total of 1934 participants were analyzed. Nalbuphine reduced the visceral pain both at rest (β = - 0.1189, 95% CI - 0.23 to - 0.01, P = 0.037) and movement (β = - 0.1076, 95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.01, P = 0.040) compared with placebo. Patients in the Nal group required less frequent supplemental analgesic administration during the first 24 h after surgery. There were fewer patients in the Nal group who experienced nausea and vomiting (PONV) (P = 0.008).

Conclusions: Preemptive nalbuphine administered at a dose of 0.2 mg·kg was safe and effective at reducing the postoperative visceral pain and supplemental analgesic use in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; ChiCTR1800014379.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-021-00275-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Heralded entanglement distribution between two absorptive quantum memories.

Nature 2021 Jun 2;594(7861):41-45. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Owing to the inevitable loss in communication channels, the distance of entanglement distribution is limited to approximately 100 kilometres on the ground. Quantum repeaters can circumvent this problem by using quantum memory and entanglement swapping. As the elementary link of a quantum repeater, the heralded distribution of two-party entanglement between two remote nodes has only been realized with built-in-type quantum memories. These schemes suffer from the trade-off between multiplexing capacity and deterministic properties and hence hinder the development of efficient quantum repeaters. Quantum repeaters based on absorptive quantum memories can overcome such limitations because they separate the quantum memories and the quantum light sources. Here we present an experimental demonstration of heralded entanglement between absorptive quantum memories. We build two nodes separated by 3.5 metres, each containing a polarization-entangled photon-pair source and a solid-state quantum memory with bandwidth up to 1 gigahertz. A joint Bell-state measurement in the middle station heralds the successful distribution of maximally entangled states between the two quantum memories with a fidelity of 80.4 ± 2.2 per cent (±1 standard deviation). The quantum nodes and channels demonstrated here can serve as an elementary link of a quantum repeater. Moreover, the wideband absorptive quantum memories used in the nodes are compatible with deterministic entanglement sources and can simultaneously support multiplexing, which paves the way for the construction of practical solid-state quantum repeaters and high-speed quantum networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03505-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Author Correction: Pyroelectric nanoplates for reduction of CO to methanol driven by temperature-variation.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 2;12(1):3466. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Energy, Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials Innovations, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Carbon Materials and Wearable Energy Technologies of Jiangsu Province Soochow University, 215006, Suzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23801-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172917PMC
June 2021

Research on Enhanced Detection of Benzoic Acid Additives in Liquid Food Based on Terahertz Metamaterial Devices.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 7;21(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Mechatronics & Vehicle Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China.

It is very important for human health to supervise the use of food additives, because excessive use of food additives will cause harm to the human body, especially lead to organ failures and even cancers. Therefore, it is important to realize high-sensibility detection of benzoic acid, a widely used food additive. Based on the theory of electromagnetism, this research attempts to design a terahertz-enhanced metamaterial resonator, using a metamaterial resonator to achieve enhanced detection of benzoic acid additives by using terahertz technology. The absorption peak of the metamaterial resonator is designed to be 1.95 THz, and the effectiveness of the metamaterial resonator is verified. Firstly, the original THz spectra of benzoic acid aqueous solution samples based on metamaterial are collected. Secondly, smoothing, multivariate scattering correction (MSC), and smoothing combined with first derivative (SG + 1 D) methods are used to preprocess the spectra to study the better spectral pretreatment methods. Then, Uninformative Variable Elimination (UVE) and Competitive Adaptive Reweighted Sampling (CARS) are used to explore the optimal terahertz band selection method. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models are established, respectively, to realize the enhanced detection of benzoic acid additives. The LS-SVM model combined with CARS has the best effect, with the correlation coefficient of prediction set (R) is 0.9953, the root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) is 7.3 × 10, and the limit of detection (LOD) is 2.3610 × 10 g/mL. The research results lay a foundation for THz spectral analysis of benzoic acid additives, so that THz technology-based detection of benzoic acid additives in food can reach requirements stipulated in the national standard. This research is of great significance for promoting the detection and analysis of trace additives in food, whose results can also serve as a reference to the detection of antibiotic residues, banned additives, and other trace substances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125531PMC
May 2021

Ultrasound responsive erythrocyte membrane-derived hybrid nanovesicles with controlled drug release for tumor therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 31;13(22):9945-9951. Epub 2021 May 31.

National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

An ultrasound responsive erythrocyte membrane-derived hybrid nanovesicle drug delivery system (DOX/[email protected]) is constructed by the membrane fusion functionalization strategy for controlled drug release and enhanced tumor therapy. The reliability and effectiveness of the membrane fusion strategy are confirmed through characterization of the particle size and zeta potential, Förster energy resonance transfer and fluorescence co-localization analyses. The DOX/[email protected] could be triggered for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation under ultrasound stimulation. And the unsaturated phospholipids in DOX/[email protected] can be oxidized by ROS, leading to the destruction of the structure of the hybrid membrane to achieve the controlled release of drugs, thereby enhancing their tumor cell killing effect. Besides, the linkage of the folate targeting group also enhances the tumor targeting ability of DOX/[email protected] H22 tumor-bearing mice were intravenously injected with DOX/[email protected] and treated with ultrasound, they achieved better than expected tumor sonodynamic response treatment effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01916cDOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic Models for Nonmetastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Based on the Pretreatment Serum Tumor Markers with Machine Learning.

J Oncol 2021 15;2021:6641421. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Breast Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jie-Fang Rd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China.

Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive disease with poorer prognosis than other subtypes. We aimed to investigate the prognostic efficacy of multiple tumor markers and constructed a prognostic model for stage I-III TNBC patients. . We included stage I-III TNBC patients whose serum tumor markers levels were measured prior to the treatment. The optimal cut-off value of each tumor marker was determined by X-tile. Then, we adopted two survival models (lasso Cox model and random survival forest model) to build the prognostic model and AUC values of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were calculated. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot the survival curves and the log-rank test was used to test whether there was a significant difference between the predicted high-risk and low-risk groups. We used univariable and multivariable Cox analysis to identify independent prognostic factors and did subgroup analysis further for the lasso Cox model.

Results: We included 258 stage I-III TNBC patients. CEA, CA125, and CA211 showed independent prognostic value for DFS when using the optimal cut-off values; their HRs and 95% CI were as follows: 1.787 (1.056-3.226), 2.684 (1.200-3.931), and 2.513 (1.567-4.877). AUC values of lasso Cox model and random survival forest model were 0.740 and 0.663 for DFS at 60 months, respectively. Both the lasso Cox model and random survival forest model demonstrated excellent prognostic value. According to tumor marker risk scores (TMRS) computed by the lasso Cox model, the high TMRS group had worse DFS (HR = 3.138, 95% CI: 1.711-5.033, < 0.0001) and OS (3.983, 1.637-7.214, =0.0011) than low TMRS group. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of N-N patients in the lasso Cox model indicated that TMRS still had a significant prognostic effect on DFS (2.278, 1.189-4.346) and OS (2.982, 1.110-7.519).

Conclusions: Our study indicated that pretreatment levels of serum CEA, CA125, and CA211 had independent prognostic significance for TNBC patients. Both lasso Cox model and random survival forest model that we constructed based on tumor markers could strongly predict the survival risk. Higher TMRS was associated with worse DFS and OS both in stage I-III and N-N TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6641421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147528PMC
May 2021

Program Website Evaluation of Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency and Fellowship Programs.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess the comprehensiveness of Canadian obstetrics and gynaecology residency and fellowship program websites to understand the quality of information available to prospective students and make recommendations, if needed.

Methods: All active residency and fellowship program websites (as of May 2020) were evaluated and compared using 72-point criteria in the following domains: Recruitment, Faculty, Current Residents/Fellows, Research and Education, Surgical Procedures, Clinical Work, Benefits and Incentives, Wellness, and Environment. Programs without websites were excluded from the study. Program website information availability was compared by geographic region.

Results: Out of the identified 80 residency and fellowship programs, 68.75% (55) were from central Canada, 6.25% (5) from Atlantic Canada, and 25% (20) from western Canada. The mean score for residency websites was 25.4 ± 7.59 (35.6% of criteria complete). The domains with the highest and lowest inclusion rates were Research and Education (46.3% criteria complete) and Current Residents (16.2% criteria complete). The mean score of fellowship websites was 27.9 ± 8.89 (38.8% criteria complete). For fellowship websites, Wellness had the highest inclusion rate (66.0% criteria complete), while Current Fellows had the lowest (13.2% criteria complete). Overall, fellowship websites scored higher than residency websites (27.9 ± 8.89 and 25.4 ± 7.59 out of 72 criteria, respectively).

Conclusion: Overall, Canadian postgraduate obstetrics and gynaecology program websites include information on many topics relevant to prospective students, such as research, education, and wellness. Programs should provide more information about work hours, call schedules, and current trainees. Lastly, there is an opportunity for programs in western and Atlantic Canada to increase the comprehensiveness of their websites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2021.04.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Cucurbit[8]uril facilitated Michael addition for regioselective cysteine modification.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(49):6086-6089

Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100069, China and Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Utilizing the interactions between tryptophan, methyl viologen and cucurbit[8]uril, we found that the distance between the targeted peptides/protein and the reactive peptide was shortened, which facilitated the Michael addition reaction between cysteine and dehydroalanine. The highest acceleration was observed on cysteines with suitable pKa and spatial location to tryptophan, suggesting that our system can be used for regioselective cysteine modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01404hDOI Listing
June 2021

Compact Magneto-Fluorescent Colloids by Hierarchical Assembly of Dual-Components in Radial Channels for Sensitive Point-of-Care Immunoassay.

Small 2021 May 25:e2100862. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, P. R. China.

Exploring signal amplification strategies to enhance the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is of great significance for point-of-care (POC) testing of low-concentrated targets in the field of in vitro diagnostics. Here, a highly-sensitive LFIA platform using compact and hierarchical magneto-fluorescent assemblies as both target-enrichment substrates and optical sensing labels is demonstrated. The large-pored dendritic templates are utilized for high-density incorporation of both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs) and quantum dots (QDs) within the vertical channels. The hierarchical structure is built via affinity-driven assembly of IOs and QDs from organic phase with silica surface and mercapto-organosilica intermediate layer, respectively. The sequential assembly with central-radial channels enables 3D loading of dual components and separately controlling of discrete functionalities. After the alkyl-organosilica encapsulation and silica sealing, the composite spheres exhibit high stabilities and compatibility with LFIA for procalcitonin (PCT) detection. With the assistance of liquid-phase antigen-capturing, magnetic enrichment, and fluorescence-signal amplification, a limit of detection of 0.031 ng mL for PCT is achieved with a linear range from 0.012 to 10 ng mL . The current LFIA is robust and validated for PCT detection in real serum, which holds great diagnostic significance for precise guidance of antibiotic therapy with POC manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100862DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhanced dechlorination of an enzyme-catalyzed electrolysis system by ionic liquids: Electron transfer, enzyme activity and dichloromethane diffusion.

Chemosphere 2021 May 17;281:130913. Epub 2021 May 17.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chao-wang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, China. Electronic address:

Enzyme-catalyzed electrolysis system (EES) is a promising technique for the efficient dechlorination of pollutants. In this study, ionic liquids (ILs) was first introduced to enhance the dichloromethane dechlorination performance of an EES. An imidazole-based IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazole tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF]), was chosen due to its excellent performance on dechlorination enhancement than other three ILs. The cyclic voltammograms with different scan rates shows that the presence of IL increased the apparent electron transfer rate constant (k) from 0.008 to 0.013 s. The calculated surface electroactive species concentration (τ) also increased from 7.8 × 10 to 9.5 × 10 mol cm. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis illustrates that the IL mainly weakened the interfacial resistance between electrolyte and cathode to accelerate the electron communication in the EES. The introduction of IL facilitated the regeneration of reduced glutathione from oxidized glutathione, whereas inhibited the catalytic activity of dehalogenase via the disruption of secondary structure shown in circular dichroism spectra. The presence of IL was also facilitated the dichloromethane diffusion from electrolyte to cathode. The mass transfer rate constants of dichloromethane (k) increased by 6.9 times after the addition of IL. The optimum volume concentration, pH value, reaction temperature and applied voltage were 20%, 7, 35 °C and -0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively. The study is helpful to understand the promotion mechanism of IL on the dechlorination performance of EES when it is adopted as a treatment technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130913DOI Listing
May 2021

A Nomogram Based on Clinical and Ultrasound Characteristics to Predict Central Lymph Node Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:666315. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou First People's Hospital, Changzhou, China.

Background: The status of lymph nodes in the central compartment is crucial to determining the surgical strategies for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We aimed to develop a nomogram for predicting central lymph node metastasis (CLNM).

Methods: A total of 886 PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy with central neck dissection (CND) from July 2019 to June 2020 were retrospectively retrieved. Clinical and ultrasound features were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine risk factors of CLNM. A nomogram for predicting CLNM was developed, internal and external calibration was performed for the established model.

Results: Variables (sex, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, tumor size, the number of foci, tumor location, margin) significantly associated with CLNM were included in the nomogram. The nomogram showed excellent calibration in the training group and validation group, with area under curves of 0.806 (95% CI, 0.771 to 0.825), and 0.799 (95% CI, 0.778-0.813) respectively.

Conclusion: Through this accurate and easy-to-use nomogram, the possibility of CLNM can be objectively quantified preoperatively. Clinicians can use this nomogram to evaluate the status of lymph nodes in PTC patients and consider prophylactic CND for those with high scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.666315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115120PMC
April 2021

Risk Prediction Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population Based on a Risk Scoring System.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Jun 15;12(6):1721-1734. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, No. 321, Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Accurate models for early prediction of GDM are lacking. This study aimed to explore an early risk prediction model to identify women at high risk of GDM through a risk scoring system.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 785 control pregnancies and 855 women with GDM. Maternal clinical characteristics and biochemical measures were extracted from the medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain coefficients of selected predictors for GDM in the training cohort. The discrimination and calibration of the risk scores were evaluated by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and a Hosmer-Lemeshow test in the internal and external validation cohort, respectively.

Results: In the training cohort (total = 1640), two risk scores were developed, one including predictors collected at the first antenatal care visit for early prediction of GDM, such as age, height, pre-pregnancy body mass index, educational background, family history of diabetes, menstrual history, history of cesarean delivery, GDM, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, and fasting blood glucose (FBG), and the total risk score also including FBG and triglyceride values during 14-20 gestational weeks. Our total risk score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.845 (95% CI = 0.805-0.884). This performed better in an external validation cohort, with an AUC of 0.886 (95% CI = 0.856-0.916).

Conclusion: The GDM risk score, which incorporates several potential clinical features with routine biochemical measures of GDM, appears to be a sensitive and reliable screening tool for earlier detection of GDM risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-021-01066-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179863PMC
June 2021

A prognostic predictive model constituted with gene mutations of , , , , and in colorectal cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):680

Department of Colorectal Oncology, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Tianjin, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant tumor that seriously threatens human health. A CRC predictive model can be used as an effective method to provide an appropriate treatment for CRC patients.

Methods: A total of 34 CRC patients were enrolled in this study. After performing 1000-gene panel targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), high-frequency mutation genes were screened, and their functional terms and pathways were enriched. In The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CRC cases, the risk factors for overall survival (OS) were screened by univariate and multivariate analysis, and a predictive model was constructed and verified. Subsequently, the relationship among mutation status, gene expression, methylation level, and OS was analyzed to explore the molecular mechanism of CRC progression.

Results: A total of 26 high-frequency mutation genes were screened, which were mainly enriched in breast cancer and proteoglycans in cancer pathways. The clinical parameters of age, stage, recurrence and metastasis, the mutation status of , , , , and were identified as risk factors for the construction of the predictive model. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.734, 0.754, 0.774, and 0.74 for 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-year survival in the model group, respectively.

Conclusions: We identified several mutated genes and clinical parameters affecting OS and established a model to better predict the OS of CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106061PMC
April 2021

Iodinated disinfection byproduct formation in a MnO/I/EPS system.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 4;280:130643. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Manganese dioxide (MnO) is a Mn deposit widely accumulated in the corrosion layer of pipelines, and iodide (I) is a halogen ion frequently detected in waters. The biofilm dwelling on the corrosion scales often secretes extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) into drinking water. The paper aimed to study the I oxidation by MnO and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) formation with biofilm EPS as a precursor. More than 93% of formed free iodine was finally converted into organic iodine in the MnO/I/EPS system. Compared with humic acid, EPS had a lower carbonaceous I-DBPs (C-IDBPs) formation while a higher nitrogenous I-DBPs (N-IDBPs) formation. The formation of iodomethanes (I-THMs), iodoacetonitriles (I-HANs) and iodoacetic acids (I-HAAs) decreased with the increase of pH due to the weakening of polarization effect and redox potential, while the iodoacetamides (I-HAcAms) formation achieved the maximum at pH 6.0 due to the difference between the hydrolysis rate of I-HANs and decomposition rate of I-HAcAms. The I-DBPs formation was positively correlated with I concentration, while negatively correlated with MnO dose. Protein components displayed a higher formation of N-IDBPs and C-IDBPs than polysaccharide components due to higher nitrogen proportion and more iodination sites. Among 20 protein monomers, aspartic acid was considered as the most important precursor of the four investigated I-DBPs species. The paper is helpful to understand the I-DBPs formation when I in the bulk water come into contact with Mn deposits attached by biofilm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130643DOI Listing
October 2021

Accurate prediction of protein-ATP binding residues using position-specific frequency matrix.

Anal Biochem 2021 Aug 7;626:114241. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Information Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310023, China. Electronic address:

Knowledge of protein-ATP interaction can help for protein functional annotation and drug discovery. Accurately identifying protein-ATP binding residues is an important but challenging task to gain the knowledge of protein-ATP interactions, especially for the case where only protein sequence information is given. In this study, we propose a novel method, named DeepATPseq, to predict protein-ATP binding residues without using any information about protein three-dimension structure or sequence-derived structural information. In DeepATPseq, the HHBlits-generated position-specific frequency matrix (PSFM) profile is first employed to extract the feature information of each residue. Then, for each residue, the PSFM-based feature is fed into two prediction models, which are generated by the algorithms of deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and support vector machine (SVM) separately. The final ATP-binding probability of the corresponding residue is calculated by the weighted sum of the outputted values of DCNN-based and SVM-based models. Experimental results on the independent validation data set demonstrate that DeepATPseq could achieve an accuracy of 77.71%, covering 57.42% of all ATP-binding residues, while achieving a Matthew's correlation coefficient value (0.655) that is significantly higher than that of existing sequence-based methods and comparable to that of the state-of-the-art structure-based predictors. Detailed data analysis show that the major advantage of DeepATPseq lies at the combination utilization of DCNN and SVM that helps dig out more discriminative information from the PSFM profiles. The online server and standalone package of DeepATPseq are freely available at: https://jun-csbio.github.io/DeepATPseq/for academic use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2021.114241DOI Listing
August 2021

Transferrin receptor 1 ablation in satellite cells impedes skeletal muscle regeneration through activation of ferroptosis.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 6;12(3):746-768. Epub 2021 May 6.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Satellite cells (SCs) are critical to skeletal muscle regeneration. Inactivation of SCs is linked to skeletal muscle loss. Transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) is associated with muscular dysfunction as muscle-specific deletion of Tfr1 results in growth retardation, metabolic disorder, and lethality, shedding light on the importance of Tfr1 in muscle physiology. However, its physiological function regarding skeletal muscle ageing and regeneration remains unexplored.

Methods: RNA sequencing is applied to skeletal muscles of different ages to identify Tfr1 associated to skeletal muscle ageing. Mice with conditional SC ablation of Tfr1 were generated. Between Tfr1 and Tfr1 (n = 6-8 mice per group), cardiotoxin was intramuscularly injected, and transverse abdominal muscle was dissected, weighted, and cryosectioned, followed by immunostaining, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining. These phenotypical analyses were followed with functional analysis such as flow cytometry, tread mill, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscopy to identify pathological pathways that contribute to regeneration defects.

Results: By comparing gene expression between young (2 weeks old, n = 3) and aged (80 weeks old, n = 3) mice among four types of muscles, we identified that Tfr1 expression is declined in muscles of aged mice (~80% reduction, P < 0.005), so as to its protein level in SCs of aged mice. From in vivo and ex vivo experiments, Tfr1 deletion in SCs results in an irreversible depletion of SCs (~60% reduction, P < 0.005) and cell-autonomous defect in SC proliferation and differentiation, leading to skeletal muscle regeneration impairment, followed by labile iron accumulation, lipogenesis, and decreased Gpx4 and Nrf2 protein levels leading to reactive oxygen species scavenger defects. These abnormal phenomena including iron accumulation, activation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation are orchestrated with the occurrence of ferroptosis in skeletal muscle. Ferroptosis further exacerbates SC proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, could not rescue ferroptosis. However, intramuscular administration of lentivirus-expressing Tfr1 could partially reduce labile iron accumulation, decrease lipogenesis, and promote skeletal muscle regeneration. Most importantly, declined Tfr1 but increased Slc39a14 protein level on cellular membrane contributes to labile iron accumulation in skeletal muscle of aged rodents (~80 weeks old), leading to activation of ferroptosis in aged skeletal muscle. This is inhibited by ferrostatin-1 to improve running time (P = 0.0257) and distance (P = 0.0248).

Conclusions: Satellite cell-specific deletion of Tfr1 impairs skeletal muscle regeneration with activation of ferroptosis. This phenomenon is recapitulated in skeletal muscle of aged rodents and human sarcopenia. Our study provides mechanistic information for developing novel therapeutic strategies against muscular ageing and diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200440PMC
June 2021

Stimulation of α7-nAChRs coordinates autophagy and apoptosis signaling in experimental knee osteoarthritis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 5;12(5):448. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 210029, Nanjing, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease in the elderly population. Growing evidence indicates that a balance between autophagy and apoptosis in chondrocytes plays a key role in OA's cartilage degradation. Thus, drugs targeting the balance between apoptosis and autophagy are potential therapeutic approaches for OA treatment. In previous studies, we found that the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) alleviated monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced joint degradation and osteoarthritis pain. To explore the potential functions of α7-nAChRs in autophagy and apoptosis signaling in knee OA, we compared the expression of α7-nAChRs in human knee articular cartilage tissues from normal humans and OA patients. We found that knee joint cartilage tissues of OA patients showed decreased α7-nAChRs and an imbalance between autophagy and apoptosis. Next, we observed that α7-nAChRs deficiency did not affect cartilage degradation in OA development but reversed the beneficial effects of nicotine on mechanical allodynia, cartilage degradation, and an MIA-induced switch from autophagy to apoptosis. Unlike in vivo studies, we found that primary chondrocytes from α7-nAChRs knockout (KO) mice showed decreased LC3 levels under normal conditions and were more sensitive toward MIA-induced apoptosis. Finally, we found that α7-nAChRs deficiency increased the phosphorylation of mTOR after MIA treatment, which can also be observed in OA patients' tissues. Thus, our findings not only confirmed that nicotine alleviated MIA-induced pain behavior and cartilage degradation via stimulating the α7-nAChRs/mTOR signal pathway but found the potential role of α7-nAChRs in mediating the balance between apoptosis and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03726-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100296PMC
May 2021

π-Stacked Donor-Acceptor Dendrimers for Highly Efficient White Electroluminescence.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, 130022, P. R. China.

π-Stacked dendrimers consisting of cofacially aligned donors and acceptors are developed by introducing three dendritic teracridan donors with orthogonal configuration and three triazine acceptors in periphery of hexaphenylbenzene skeleton. The dendritic structure and orthogonal configuration of teracridan not only make their outer acridan segments approaching to acceptor in close distance, but also fix donor and acceptor in face-to-face alignment, leading to through-space charge transfer emission with thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) effect. By regulating charge transfer strength via substituent effect of acceptor, emission color of the dendrimers can be tuned from blue to yellow/red region. Solution-processed two-color white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on blue and yellow π-stacked donor-acceptor dendrimers exhibit the maximum external quantum efficiency of 20.6 % and maximum power efficiency of 58.9 lm W , representing the state-of-the-art efficiency for all-TADF white OLEDs by solution process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104145DOI Listing
May 2021

Structural resolution of disaccharides through halogen anion complexation using negative trapped ion mobility spectrometry.

Talanta 2021 Aug 30;230:122348. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Analysis, Institute of Mass Spectrometry, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, PR China; School of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, PR China. Electronic address:

Carbohydrates are an indispensable part of early life evolution. The determination of their structures is a key step to analyze their critical roles in biological systems. A variation of composition, glycosidic linkage, and (or) configuration between carbohydrate isomers induces structure diversity and brings challenges for their structural determination. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), an emerging gas-phase ion separation technology, has been considered as a promising tool for performing carbohydrate structure elucidation. In this work, eight disaccharides were analyzed by trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) in the negative ion mode as the complexed form of [M + X], where M = disaccharide, and X = Cl, Br, and I. As compared to the positive ion analysis of the selected disaccharide in a sodiated form, a reversal charge state provided the ability to eliminate or even reverse the collision cross section (CCS) difference between disaccharide isomers. By the combination of TIMS analysis and the calculation of density functional theory, the only observed two conformers of ions [lactulose + I] may result from different adduction sites for an iodide anion. Based on the comparison of different halogen adducts, the [M + I] ion form exhibited more powerful ability for isomeric disaccharide differentiation with an average resolution (R) of 1.17, which results in a 34.5% improvement as compared to the corresponding chloride adducts. This result indicates that the use of negative charge states, especially the complexation of an iodide anion, could be a supplemental strategy to commonly used positive ion analysis for carbohydrate separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122348DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficient Photooxidation of Methane to Liquid Oxygenates over ZnO Nanosheets at Atmospheric Pressure and Near Room Temperature.

Nano Lett 2021 May 29;21(9):4122-4128. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P. R. China.

Direct CH photoconversion into liquid oxygenates under mild conditions still represents a huge challenge. Herein, two-dimensional oxide semiconductors are designed to generate abundant active O species for activating C-H bond of methane. Taking the synthetic ZnO nanosheets as an example, in situ electron paramagnetic resonance spectra verified their lattice oxygen atoms could capture photoexcited holes and generate active O species, which could efficiently abstract H from CH to generate ·CH radicals. Gibbs free energy calculations and in situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy corroborated the rate-limiting step was the first C-H bond activation process, whereas the exoergic oxidation of *CHO to HCOOH was easier than the endoergic overoxidation to CO, accounting for the selective production of liquid oxygenates. As a result, the formation rate of liquid oxygenates over ZnO nanosheets reached 2.21 mmol g h with a selectivity of 90.7% at atmospheric pressure and approximately 50 °C, outperforming previously reported photocatalysts under similar conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01204DOI Listing
May 2021

Prognostic Value of Angiopoietin-Like 4 in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Shock 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

*Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, and Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Guoxuexiang 37, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China †Department of Critical Care Medicine, Haikou Municipal Hospital, and Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine Affiliated Haikou Hospital.

Background: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted glycoprotein that plays an important role in endothelial injury and the inflammatory response. Experimental models have implicated ANGPTL4 in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its impact on the progression of ARDS is unclear.

Methods: Paired bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples were obtained from patients with ARDS (n = 56) within 24 h of diagnosis and from control subjects (n = 32). ANGPTL4, angiopoietin-2, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were measured by magnetic Luminex assay. BALF albumin (BA) and serum albumin (SA) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: BALF and serum ANGPTL4 concentrations were higher in patients with ARDS than in controls and were even higher in survivors than in non-survivors. The serum ANGPTL4 level was higher in indirect (extrapulmonary) ARDS than in direct (pulmonary) ARDS. Furthermore, BALF and serum ANGPTL4 levels correlated well with angiopoietin-2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in BALF and serum. BALF ANGPTL4 was positively correlated with the BA/SA ratio (an indicator of pulmonary vascular permeability), and serum ANGPTL4 was associated with the severity of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome based on SOFA and APACHE II scores. Moreover, serum ANGPTL4 was better able to predict 28-day ARDS-related mortality (AUC 0.746, p < 0.01) than the APACHE II score or PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Serum ANGPTL4 was identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in a univariate Cox regression model (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: ANGPTL4 levels were elevated in patients with ARDS and significantly correlated with disease severity and mortality. ANGPTL4 may be a novel prognostic biomarker in ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001734DOI Listing
January 2021