Publications by authors named "Jun Hou"

443 Publications

Small-Molecule Inhibitors Overcome Epigenetic Reprogramming for Cancer Therapy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:702360. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.

Cancer treatment is a significant challenge for the global health system, although various pharmacological and therapeutic discoveries have been made. It has been widely established that cancer is associated with epigenetic modification, which is reversible and becomes an attractive target for drug development. Adding chemical groups to the DNA backbone and modifying histone proteins impart distinct characteristics on chromatin architecture. This process is mediated by various enzymes modifying chromatin structures to achieve the diversity of epigenetic space and the intricacy in gene expression files. After decades of effort, epigenetic modification has represented the hallmarks of different cancer types, and the enzymes involved in this process have provided novel targets for antitumor therapy development. Epigenetic drugs show significant effects on both preclinical and clinical studies in which the target development and research offer a promising direction for cancer therapy. Here, we summarize the different types of epigenetic enzymes which target corresponding protein domains, emphasize DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA-mediated cooperation with epigenetic modification, and highlight recent achievements in developing targets for epigenetic inhibitor therapy. This article reviews current anticancer small-molecule inhibitors targeting epigenetic modified enzymes and displays their performances in different stages of clinical trials. Future studies are further needed to address their off-target effects and cytotoxicity to improve their clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.702360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484527PMC
September 2021

Hlf Expression Marks Early Emergence of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Precursors With Adult Repopulating Potential and Fate.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:728057. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

In the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of mouse embryos, pre-hematopoietic stem cells (pre-HSCs) are generated from rare and specialized hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs) endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition, followed by maturation into bona fide hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As HECs also generate a lot of hematopoietic progenitors not fated to HSCs, powerful tools that are pre-HSC/HSC-specific become urgently critical. Here, using the gene knockin strategy, we firstly developed an reporter mouse model and detected Hlf-tdTomato expression exclusively in the hematopoietic cells including part of the immunophenotypic CD45 and CD45 pre-HSCs in the embryonic day (E) 10.5 AGM region. By co-culture together with long-term transplantation assay stringent for HSC precursor identification, we further revealed that unlike the CD45 counterpart in which both Hlf-tdTomato-positive and negative sub-populations harbored HSC competence, the CD45 E10.5 pre-HSCs existed exclusively in Hlf-tdTomato-positive cells. The result indicates that the cells should gain the expression of Hlf prior to or together with CD45 to give rise to functional HSCs. Furthermore, we constructed a novel mouse model and performed time-restricted genetic lineage tracing by a single dose induction at E9.5. We observed the labeling in E11.5 AGM precursors and their contribution to the immunophenotypic HSCs in fetal liver (FL). Importantly, these Hlf-labeled early cells contributed to and retained the size of the HSC pool in the bone marrow (BM), which continuously differentiated to maintain a balanced and long-term multi-lineage hematopoiesis in the adult. Therefore, we provided another valuable mouse model to specifically trace the fate of emerging HSCs during development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.728057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473784PMC
September 2021

A novel co-graft tannin-based flocculant for the mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs): The effect of charge density and molecular weight.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 22;806(Pt 1):150518. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

In this study, for the first time, we developed a series of co-graft tannin-based flocculants, TA-g-P(AM-DMDAAC), with different charge densities (CDs) and molecular weights (MWs) and evaluated their algal-removal performances. The effects of TA-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) on the cell integrity of Microcystis aeruginosa and release of extracellular organic matter (EOM) and microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) in flocculation and floc storage were also studied. Results suggested that TA-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) could not only efficiently remove algal cells over a wide pH range (pH 3-11) but also EOM. CD and MW significantly affected flocculation performance and floc characteristics of TA-g-P(AM-DMDAAC). A higher CD helped achieve a higher removal efficiency of algal cells and EOM, whereas a higher MW resulted in the formation of larger and more compact flocs. Furthermore, the larger and denser flocs could better protect algal cells and reduce the release of EOM during floc storage. Notably, algal cells in the TA-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) flocs did not appear to show signs of massive rupture nor did they release EOM and MC-LR extensively for at least 20 days of storage. The abundance and easy availability of tannin resources effectively reduce the cost of preparing tannin-based flocculants. Therefore, TA-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) can have broad application prospects in the management of cyanobacteria bloom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150518DOI Listing
September 2021

Multi-Target and Multi-Session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients With Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: A Controlled Study.

Front Neurosci 2021 8;15:641951. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Rehabilitation, Wangjing Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

To investigate the effect of multi-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the prefrontal area, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal cortices (FTPCs) in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOC) and to examine the altered cortical interconnections using non-linear electroencephalography (EEG). In this open-label controlled study, conventional treatments were implemented in both the control and tDCS groups, together with 80 tDCS sessions only in the tDCS group. The order of tDCS targets was as follows: prefrontal area, left FTPC, right FTPC, and left DLPFC. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and non-linear EEG index were evaluated before and after the treatment. Additionally, the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (mGOS) was used as a follow-up evaluation at 12 months after the disease onset. The CRS-R improved significantly in both groups after the treatment. However, the CRS-R and mGOS were more significantly improved in the tDCS group than in the control group. Among the cross approximate entropy (C-ApEn) indices, the local C-P and C-F under the affected painful stimulus condition and all local and remote indices of the unaffected side under the unaffected painful stimulus condition were significantly higher in the tDCS group than in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that group and type were the main relevant factors based on mGOS improvement. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that group, C-F, and C-MT were the main relevant factors based on CRS-R improvement under the affected painful stimulus conditions, whereas only C-MT and C-FP were relevant under the unaffected painful stimulus condition. Multi-target and multi-session tDCS could improve the cortical connections between the primary sensorimotor and frontal cortices of the affected hemisphere and the prefrontal-parietal and temporo-parietal associative cortical networks of the unaffected hemisphere. Thus, this tDCS protocol may be used as an add-on treatment for prolonged DOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.641951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456025PMC
September 2021

Intranasal administration of DHED protects against exhaustive exercise-induced brain injury in rats.

Brain Res 2021 Dec 22;1772:147665. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Cognitive & Sports Neuroscience Laboratory, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Sports Science Education, College of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China. Electronic address:

DHED (10β,17β-dihydroxyestra-1,4-dien-3-one) is a brain-selective prodrug of 17β-estradiol and has been reported to have a strong neuroprotective effect. In this study, the exhaustive swimming rat model was used to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of intranasal DHED treatment. Male eight-week-old healthy Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (Cont), exhaustive swimming (ES), and DHED + exhaustive swimming (DHED). The open-field test and beam-walking test were performed to measure exploratory behavior and general activity in rats. Immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, ELISA analysis and related assay kits were applied to measure brain damage, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis pathways. Behavioral data shows that DHED intranasal administration can prevent neurobehavioral impairment caused by exhaustive swimming. Using a series of bioanalytical assays, we demonstrated that DHED markedly abated neuronal injury compared to the exhaustive swimming group, as evidenced by the reduced expression of apoptosis-regulated proteins, the improvement of neural survival, and the prevention of myelin loss. In addition, mitochondrial fission was attenuated distinctly, and a dynamic equilibrium was restored. Intranasal administration of DHED likewise significantly suppressed reactive gliosis and the release of inflammatory cytokines in the rat cerebral motor cortex. Consistent with previous reports, DHED treatment ameliorated changes of excitatory neurotransmitters. These results provide strong support for the promising therapeutic effects of DHED on neuroprotection during exhaustive swimming. The underlying mechanisms may rely on mitochondrial dynamics, neuroinflammation, and the balance of neurotransmitters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147665DOI Listing
December 2021

Analysis of five cases of monogenic lupus related to primary immunodeficiency diseases.

Inflamm Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, No.2 Yabao Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, China.

Objective And Design: We studied five cases of PID-related monogenic lupus to explore the characteristics.

Material Or Subjects: Among 42 cases of PID patients between 2017-2020, 5 patients were diagnosed as PID-related monogenic lupus, including 2 males and 3 females, with age range from 2 years 3 months to 13 years old.

Treatments: DMARDs, biological agents and stem cell transplantation were used to treat different patients.

Methods: We collected the clinical observation indicators, auxiliary examination and treatment of the five patients.

Results: Patient 1 was diagnosed with monogenic lupus secondary to severe combined immunodeficiency and received prednisone and methotrexate treatment. Patient 2 was diagnosed with monogenic lupus secondary to activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was conducted. Patient 3 was diagnosed with monogenic lupus secondary to RAS-associated lymphoproliferative disease. The child was treated with prednisone and rituximab. Patient 4 was diagnosed with monogenic lupus secondary to PSTPIP1-associated myeloid-related proteinaemia inflammatory syndrome. The child was given methylprednisolone, methotrexate, and infliximab. Patient 5 was diagnosed with monogenic lupus secondary to A20 haploinsufficiency. The child was treated with methylprednisolone and infliximab.

Conclusions: Multiple PIDs can lead to monogenic lupus. Different PID-related monogenic lupus has different suitable targeted drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-021-01479-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation for effective simultaneous removal of sulfamethoxazole and COD from synthetic domestic wastewater.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 11;423(Pt B):127063. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

The inefficiency of conventional biological treatment for removing sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is posing potential risks to ecological environments. In this study, an intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) system consisting of Fe/g-CN and biofilm was fabricated for the treatment of synthetic domestic wastewater containing SMX. The results showed that this ICPB system could simultaneously remove 96.27 ± 5.27% of SMX and 86.57 ± 3.06% of COD, which was superior to sole photocatalysis (SMX 100%, COD 4.2 ± 0.74%) and sole biodegradation (SMX 42.21 ± 0.86%, COD 95.1 ± 0.18%). Contributors to SMX removal in the ICPB system from big to small include LED photocatalysis, biodegradation, LED photolysis, and adsorption effect of the carrier, while COD removal was largely ascribed to biodegradation. Increasing initial SMX concentration inhibits SMX removal rate, while increasing photocatalyst dosage accelerates SMX removal rate, and both had no impact on COD removal. Our analysis of biofilm activity showed that microorganisms in this ICPB system maintained a high survival rate and metabolic activity, and the microbial community structure of the biofilm remained stable, with Nakamurella and Raoultella being the two dominant genera of the biofilm. This work provides a new strategy to effectively treat domestic wastewater polluted by antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127063DOI Listing
September 2021

Iodide-Induced Fragmentation of Polymerized Hydrophilic Carbon Nitride for High Performance Quasi-Homogeneous Photocatalytic H2O2 Production.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Hohai University, College of Environment, CHINA.

Polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) as a class of two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e - ORR) photocatalyst has attracted much attention for H 2 O 2 production. However, the low activity and inferior selectivity of 2e - ORR greatly restrict the H 2 O 2 production efficiency. Herein, we develop a new strategy to synthesize hydrophilic, fragmented PCN photocatalyst by the terminating polymerization (TP-PCN) effect of iodide ions . The obtained TP-PCN with abundant edge active sites (AEASs), which can form quasi-homogeneous photocatalytic system, exhibits superior H 2 O 2 generation rate (3265.4 µM h -1 ), far surpassing PCN and other PCN-based photocatalysts. DFT calculations further indicate that TP-PCN is more favorable for electron transiting from β spin-orbital to the π* orbitals of O 2 , which optimizes O 2 activation and reduces the energy barrier of H 2 O 2 formation. This work provides a new concept for designing functional photocatalysts and understanding the mechanism of O 2 activation in ORR for H 2 O 2 production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202111769DOI Listing
September 2021

Polystyrene nanoplastics change the functional traits of biofilm communities in freshwater environment revealed by GeoChip 5.0.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 6;423(Pt B):127117. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xikang Road 1st, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China,. Electronic address:

There is an increasing concern regarding the potential effects of nanoplastics (NPs) on freshwater ecosystems. Considering the functional values of biofilms in freshwater, knowledge on whether and to what extent NPs can influence the ecosystem processes of biofilms were still limited. Herein, the freshwater biofilms cultured in lab were exposed to 100 nm polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) of different dosages (1 and 10 mg/L) for 14 days. Confocal laser scanning microscope observation indicated that biofilms were dominated by filamentous, and spiral algae species and the intensity of extracellular polymeric substances increased under PS-NPs exposure. GeoChip 5.0 analysis revealed that PS-NPs exposure triggered a significant increase in functional genes α diversity (p < 0.05) and altered biofilms' functional structure. Furthermore, the abundance of genes involved in the total carbon and nitrogen cycling were increased under PS-NPs exposure. The abundance of nitrogen fixation genes experienced the most pronounced increase (24.4%) under 1 mg/L PS-NPs treatment, consistent with the increase of ammonium in overlying water. Whereas antibiotic resistance genes and those related to photosynthetic pigments production were suppressed. These results provided direct evidence for PS-NPs' effects on the biofilm functions in terms of biogeochemical cycling, improving our understanding of the potentials of NPs on freshwater ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127117DOI Listing
September 2021

The effect of carbonization temperature on the capacity and mechanisms of Pb(II) adsorption by microalgae residue-derived biochar.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 13;225:112750. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

This study investigated the adsorption characterizations and mechanisms of lead (Pb) on biochar-derived microalgae residue (MB) produced at different pyrolytic temperatures. Six different MB samples were prepared from Chlorella sp. (CB) and Spirulina sp. (SB) in the temperature range of 200-600 ℃, and microalgae residue power (MP) was used as a control. The effect of pH, adsorption kinetics and isotherms were studied for the different MBs, and a chemical analysis of Pb-loaded MP and MB was performed by SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, FTIR, and Boehm titration. The results showed that Pb adsorption on MP and MB was a monolayer chemical adsorption process. Precipitation with minerals, metal ion exchange, oxygen/nitrogen-containing functional groups (OFGs/NFGs), and coordination of Pb with π electrons jointly contributed to Pb adsorption on MP and MB. More specifically, the contribution of each mechanism depended on the pyrolytic temperature. The contribution of surface complexation and ion exchange decreased with increasing pyrolytic temperature due to the loss of OFGs/NFGs and decreasing metal ion content, while the contribution of precipitation and Pb-π interaction significantly increased. Overall, precipitation with minerals and ion exchange dominated Pb adsorption on MP and MB, which accounted for 65.20-74.40% of the total adsorption capacity. Surface precipitation contributed to a maximum adsorption capacity for high-temperature CB and SB (600 ℃) of up to 131.41 mg/g and 154.56 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, MB adsorbents are a promising material for the remediation of heavy metal-bearing aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112750DOI Listing
December 2021

Attenuation effects of iron on dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic bioreactor: Evolution of quorum sensing, quorum quenching and dynamics of community composition.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 18;416:126136. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Zero valent iron (ZVI) coupled with bioreactors is arising as a promising technology for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) mitigation, whereas the succession and behaviors of microbes caused by ZVI in relieving ARGs propagation remain unclear. Herein, the effects of ZVI on microbial quorum sensing (QS), quorum quenching (QQ) system and community dynamics were examined in anaerobic bioreactor fed with oxytetracycline (tet), to illustrate the roles of evolutive microbial communication and community composition in ARGs attenuation. With the addition of 5 g/L ZVI, the total absolute abundance of tet ARGs was retarded by approximate 95% and 72% in sludge and effluent after 25 days operation. The abundance of mobile genetic elements and the heredity of antibiotic resistant bacteria revealed the declined horizontal and vertical transfer of ARGs, which directly led to the reduced ARGs propagation. Potential mechanisms are that the positive effects of ZVI on QQ activity via the functional bacteria enrichment inhibited QS system and thus ARGs transfer. Partial least--squares path modeling further demonstrated that ARGs abundance was strongly limited by the dynamics of bacterial composition and thereby less frequent microbial communication. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistome remission in anaerobic bioreactor modified by ZVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126136DOI Listing
August 2021

Spatiotemporal and Functional Heterogeneity of Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Competent Hemogenic Endothelial Cells in Mouse Embryos.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:699263. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are derived from hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs) during embryogenesis. The HSC-primed HECs increased to the peak at embryonic day (E) 10 and have been efficiently captured by the marker combination CD41CD43CD45CD31CD201KitCD44 (PK44) in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of mouse embryos most recently. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal and functional heterogeneity of PK44 cells around the time of emergence of HSCs. First, PK44 cells in the E10.0 AGM region could be further divided into three molecularly different populations showing endothelial- or hematopoietic-biased characteristics. Specifically, with the combination of Kit, the expression of CD93 or CD146 could divide PK44 cells into endothelial- and hematopoietic-feature biased populations, which was further functionally validated at the single-cell level. Next, the PK44 population could also be detected in the yolk sac, showing similar developmental dynamics and functional diversification with those in the AGM region. Importantly, PK44 cells in the yolk sac demonstrated an unambiguous multilineage reconstitution capacity after incubation. Regardless of the functional similarity, PK44 cells in the yolk sac displayed transcriptional features different from those in the AGM region. Taken together, our work delineates the spatiotemporal characteristics of HECs represented by PK44 and reveals a previously unknown HSC competence of HECs in the yolk sac. These findings provide a fundamental basis for in-depth study of the different origins and molecular programs of HSC generation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.699263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385538PMC
August 2021

The COVID-19 epidemic and other notifiable infectious diseases in China.

Microbes Infect 2021 Aug 19:104881. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Institute of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, 100 Middle Street of 4(th) West Ring Road, Beijing 100039, China. Electronic address:

Many infection control measures have been implemented to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the other notifiable infectious diseases in China, including respiratory infectious diseases, diseases transmitted through the digestive tract and animal-borne diseases. Compared with 2019, the overall decline rate of respiratory infectious diseases in 2020 is the highest (60-90%), and the diseases transmitted by the digestive tract and animal-borne diseases are similar at 20-30%. Both hepatitis and sexually transmitted diseases decreased significantly in February, and there were basically no significant changes in other months compared with previous years. The series of measures taken by China government to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 are also very effective in preventing the spread of respiratory infectious diseases. But they also have a certain degree of prevention against notifiable infectious diseases spread by other routes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2021.104881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375246PMC
August 2021

Periphytic Biofilm Formation on Natural and Artificial Substrates: Comparison of Microbial Compositions, Interactions, and Functions.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:684903. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.

Periphytic biofilms have been widely used in wastewater purification and water ecological restoration, and artificial substrates have been progressively used for periphyton immobilisation to substitute natural substrates. However, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the interaction network structure and microbial functions in biofilm communities on artificial substrates, which are essential attribute affecting their applications in biofilm immobilisation. This study compared the community structure, co-occurrence network, and metabolic functions of bacterial and microeukaryotic periphytic biofilms during a 35-day indoor cultivation on artificial substrates, such as artificial carbon fibre (ACF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and natural substrates, such as pebble and wood. Results demonstrated that different types of artificial substrates could affect the community composition and functional diversity of bacterial and microeukaryotic biofilms. The bacterial and microeukaryotic community on ACF and PVC showed significantly higher Simpson index compared to those on wood. Bacterial networks on artificial substrates were more complex than those on natural substrates, while the keystone species on natural substrates were more abundant, indicating that the bacterial communities on artificial substrates had stronger stability and resistance to external interference. Furthermore, the functional metabolic profiles predicted showed the abilities of bacterial communities to metabolise nitrogen and carbon sources colonised on artificial substrates were stronger than those on natural substrates. These findings demonstrated that artificial substrates could be special niches for microbial colonisation, possibly altering microbial compositions, interactions, and functions. Therefore, this study provides a powerful theoretical basis for choosing suitable artificial substrates for microbial aggregation and immobilisation technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.684903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350161PMC
July 2021

Biofilm influenced metal accumulation onto plastic debris in different freshwaters.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 24;285:117646. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Microbial biofilms can rapidly colonize plastic debris in aquatic environments and subsequently, accumulate chemical pollutants from the surrounding water. Here, we studied the microbial colonization of different plastics, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene (PE) exposed in three freshwater systems (the Qinhuai River, the Niushoushan River, and Donghu Lake) for 44 days. We also assessed the biofilm mass and associated metals attached to plastics. The plastics debris characteristics, such as contact angle and surface roughness, greatly affected the increased biofilm biomass. All types of metal accumulation onto the plastic substrate abundances significantly higher than the concentrations of heavy metal in the water column, such as Ba (267.75 μg/g vs. 42.12 μg/L, Donhu Lake), Zn (254 μg/g vs. 0.023 μg/L the Qinhuai River), and Cr (93.75 μg/g vs. 0.039 μg/L, the Niushoushan River). Compared with other metals, the heavy metal Ba, Cr and Zn accumulated easily on the plastic debris (PET, PP, PVC, and PE) at all incubation sites. Aquatic environmental factors (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended solids concentrations) largely shaped metal accumulation onto plastic debris compared with plastic debris properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117646DOI Listing
September 2021

[Aging Process and DOC Analysis of Four Different Types of Plastic Particles in Freshwater Systems].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3829-3836

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

Although the pollution of freshwater systems by microplastics and the resulting ecological effects have attracted widespread attention from scholars at home and abroad, the fragmentation of different types of microplastics in the natural environment has not yet received enough attention. To analyze the fragmentation processes and products of different types of microplastics, a 40 d natural light fragmentation experiment was carried out using four microplastics commonly found in water:polystyrene (PS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The pH, ORP, EC, and DO of the four types of plastic-aging liquids changed significantly during the aging process. During the weathering process, cracks and pores formed on the surface of LDPE and were later identified through scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry indicated that the carbonyl index of LDPE increased the most in the experiment (an increase of 31.48%), suggesting that PP experienced significant aging. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a product of microplastics fragmentation, increased as weathering time progressed, and the concentration of DOC increased significantly after weathering for about 40 d. Compared with the baseline value, the concentration of DOC from PHB, PP, and LDPE in the leaching solution increased significantly, by 61.29%, 69.49%, and 89.15%, respectively. These results suggest that evident aging of microplastics in natural aquatic environments releases significant amounts of dissolved organic matter, and the ecological effects of this should be the subject of future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202011227DOI Listing
August 2021

Evolution of the interactions between GII.4 noroviruses and histo-blood group antigens: Insights from experimental and computational studies.

PLoS Pathog 2021 07 12;17(7):e1009745. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

The Sixth Laboratory, National Vaccine and Serum Institute, Beijing, China.

Norovirus (NoV) is the major pathogen causing the outbreaks of the viral gastroenteritis across the world. Among the various genotypes of NoV, GII.4 is the most predominant over the past decades. GII.4 NoVs interact with the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) to invade the host cell, and it is believed that the receptor HBGAs may play important roles in selecting the predominate variants by the nature during the evolution of GII.4 NoVs. However, the evolution-induced changes in the HBGA-binding affinity for the GII.4 NoV variants and the mechanism behind the evolution of the NoV-HBGA interactions remain elusive. In the present work, the virus-like particles (VLPs) of the representative GII.4 NoV stains epidemic in the past decades were expressed by using the Hansenula polymorpha yeast expression platform constructed by our laboratory, and then the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based HBGA-binding assays as well as the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MMGBSA) calculations were performed to investigate the interactions between various GII.4 strains and different types of HBGAs. The HBGA-binding assays show that for all the studied types of HBGAs, the evolution of GII.4 NoVs results in the increased NoV-HBGA binding affinities, where the early epidemic strains have the lower binding activity and the newly epidemic strains exhibit relative stronger binding intensity. Based on the MD simulation and MMGBSA calculation results, a physical mechanism that accounts for the increased HBGA-binding affinity was proposed. The evolution-involved residue mutations cause the conformational rearrangements of loop-2 (residues 390-396), which result in the narrowing of the receptor-binding pocket and thus tighten the binding of the receptor HBGAs. Our experimental and computational studies are helpful for better understanding the mechanism behind the evolution-induced increasing of HBGA-binding affinity, which may provide useful information for the drug and vaccine designs against GII.4 NoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297928PMC
July 2021

MDM2 Binding Protein Induces the Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Molecular Targeting Agents Enhancing the Transcription Factor Activity of the Pregnane X Receptor.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:715193. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Endoscopy Center, Department of Hepatology, The Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The MDM2 binding protein (MTBP) has been considered an important regulator of human malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that the high level of MTBP's endogenous expression is correlated with poor prognosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who received sorafenib. MTBP interacted with the Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and enhanced the transcription factor activity of PXR. Moreover, MTBP enhanced the accumulation of PXR in HCC cells' nuclear and the recruitment of PXR to its downstream gene's () promoter region. Mechanically, the knockdown of MTBP in MHCC97-H cells with high levels of MTBP decelerated the clearance or metabolism of sorafenib in HCC cells and led to the resistance of HCC cells to sorafenib. Whereas overexpression of MTBP in in MHCC97-L cells with low levels of MTBP showed the opposite trend. By establishing the interaction between MTBP and PXR, our results indicate that MTBP could function as a co-activator of PXR and could be a promising therapeutic target to enhance the sensitivity of HCC cells to molecular targeting agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.715193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264664PMC
June 2021

Potential Role of Macrophage Phenotypes and CCL2 in the Pathogenesis of Takayasu Arteritis.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:646516. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Rheumatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: To investigate vascular macrophage phenotype as well as vascular and peripheral chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression during different stages of disease progression in patients with Takayasu Arteritis (TA).

Methods: In this study, 74 patients with TA and 50 controls were recruited. TA disease activity was evaluated with Kerr scores. Macrophage phenotype and CCL2 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry in vascular specimens from 8 untreated and 7 treated TA patients, along with 4 healthy controls. Serum CCL2 were quantified by enzyme-linked immune-absorbent assay from TA patients at baseline (n=59), at 6-months (n=38), and from 46 healthy volunteers. Vascular macrophage phenotype, vascular CCL2 expression and serum CCL2 levels during different stages, as well as the relationship between serum CCL2 and disease activity or other inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were investigated.

Results: In untreated patients, vascular M1 macrophages and CCL2 showed increased expression, mainly in the adventitia. In contrast, in treated patients, vascular adventitial M1 and CCL2 expression were decreased, while vascular medial M2 macrophages and CCL2 levels were increased. Distribution of macrophages and CCL2 was consistent within the TA vascular lesions regardless of the disease stage. Furthermore, peripheral CCL2 was elevated in patients with TA (TA: 160.30 ± 120.05 vs. Control: 65.58 ± 54.56 pg/ml, P < 0.001). CCL2 levels were found to correlate with ESR, CRP, and IL-6 (all R values between 0.55 and 0.6, all P < 0.001). Receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated that CCL2 (at the cut-off value of 100.36 pg/ml) was able to predict disease activity (area under the curve = 0.74, P = 0.03). Decrease in CCL2 level was observed in patients with clinical remission (CR), but not in patients without CR, after 6 months of treatment (CR patients: baseline 220.18 ± 222.69 vs. post-treatment 88.71 ± 55.89 pg/ml, P = 0.04; non-CR patients: baseline 142.45 ± 104.76 vs. post-treatment 279.49 ± 229.46 pg/ml, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Macrophages contribute to vascular pathological changes in TA by undergoing phenotype transformation. CCL2 is an important factor for recruiting macrophages and a potential biomarker for disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.646516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165246PMC
September 2021

CCL23 suppresses liver cancer progression through the CCR1/AKT/ESR1 feedback loop.

Cancer Sci 2021 Aug 19;112(8):3099-3110. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases/The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, China.

With the ability to activate certain signaling pathways, chemokines and their receptors may facilitate tumor progression at key steps, including proliferation, immunomodulation, and metastasis. Nevertheless, their prognostic value and regulatory mechanism warrant thorough studies in liver cancer. Here, by screening the expression profiles of all known chemokines in independent liver cancer cohorts, we found that CCL23 was frequently downregulated at mRNA and protein levels in liver cancer. Decreased CCL23 correlated with shortened patient survival, enrichment of signatures related to cancer stem cell property, and metastatic potential. In addition to serving as a tumor suppressor through recruiting CD8 T cell infiltration in liver cancer, CCL23 could repress cancer cell proliferation, stemness, and mobility. Mechanistically, the expression of CCL23 was transcriptionally regulated by ESR1. On the other hand, CCL23 could suppress the activation of AKT signaling and thus promote the expression of ESR1, forming a feedback loop in liver cancer cells. Collectively, these findings reveal that loss of CCL23 drives liver cancer progression by coordinating immune evasion and metastasis initiation. Targeting the ESR1/CCL23/CCR1/AKT regulatory axis could be an effective therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353945PMC
August 2021

Future changes in the intensity and frequency of precipitation extremes over China in a warmer world: Insight from a large ensemble.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(5):e0252133. Epub 2021 May 24.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disaster, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Sufficient samples of extreme precipitation events are needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the probability of their occurrence. Here, we use a large ensemble simulation with 50 members from the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario to give future projection of the intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events under different warming levels relative to the current climate over China. A bias-correction method based on quantile mapping is first used to remove systematic biases in the ensemble. The return value and return period are obtained by fitting enough annual maximum precipitation samples with the generalized extreme value to represent the intensity and frequency of extreme events, respectively. The results show that the average intensity of extreme precipitation in China will increase by nearly 8% per 1°C of global warming, which closely follows the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. Rarer extreme events will experience greater changes in frequency, especially under higher warming. The nationally averaged extreme precipitation events, presently expected to occur every 50 years (100 years) under the current climate conditions, are expected to occur approximately every 41 years (82 years), 32 years (62 years), 22 years (42 years) and 15 years (29 years) under warming levels of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0°C, respectively. Northwestern China (NW), southwestern China (SW) and the Yangtze River valley (YZ) exhibit the greatest increase in probability ratio (PR) under future climate condition. The risk of extreme precipitation events, currently expected to occur once every 50 years, will be nearly 11 (21) times more likely to occur under a climate warming by 3.0°C (4.0°C). Limiting warming to 1.5°C will help avoid approximately 40%-50%, 70%-80% and over 90% of the increase in the risk of extreme events in almost all subregions if the global mean surface temperature (GMST) continues warming to 2.0°C, 3.0°C and 4.0°C, respectively. Our study provides a useful information for the understanding the impact of climate change on the future risk of extreme events over China.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252133PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143384PMC
May 2021

Patient hematology during hospitalization for viral pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS-CoV-2 agents: a retrospective study.

Eur J Med Res 2021 May 14;26(1):45. Epub 2021 May 14.

Research Center of Clinical and Translational Medicine, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese, PLA General Hospital, 100 Middle Street of 4th West Ring Road, Beijing, 100039, China.

Background: Hematological comparison of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and other viral pneumonias can provide insights into COVID-19 treatment.

Methods: In this retrospective case-control single-center study, we compared the data of 126 patients with viral pneumonia during different outbreaks [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, influenza A (H1N1) in 2009, human adenovirus type 7 in 2018, and COVID-19 in 2020].

Results: One of the COVID-19 characteristics was a continuous decline in the hemoglobin level. The neutrophil count was related to the aggravation of COVID-19 and SARS. Thrombocytopenia occurred in patients with SARS and severe COVID-19 even at the recovery stage. Lymphocytes were related to the entire course of adenovirus infection, recovery of COVID-19, and disease development of SARS.

Conclusions: Dynamic changes in hematological counts could provide a reference for the pathogenesis and prognosis of pneumonia caused by respiratory viruses in clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-021-00515-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120019PMC
May 2021

Simultaneous Removal of Selenite and Selenate by Nanosized Zerovalent Iron in Anoxic Systems: The Overlooked Role of Selenite.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 11;55(9):6299-6308. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States.

The application of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) for reductive immobilization of selenite (Se(IV)) or selenate (Se(VI)) alone has been extensively investigated. However, as the predominant species, Se(IV) and Se(VI) usually coexist in the environment. Thus, it is essential to remove both species simultaneously in the solution by nZVI. Negligible Se(VI) removal (∼7%) by nZVI was observed in the absence of Se(IV). In contrast, the Se(VI) was completely removed in the presence of Se(IV), and the removal rate and electron selectivity of Se(VI) increased from 0.12 ± 0.01 to 0.29 ± 0.02 h and from 1% to 4.5%, respectively, as the Se(IV) concentration increased from 0.05 to 0.20 mM. Se(IV) was rapidly removed by nZVI, and Se(VI) exerted minor influence on Se(IV) removal. Se(IV) promoted the generation of corrosion products that were mainly composed of magnetite (26%) and lepidocrocite (67%) based on the Fe K-edge XANES spectra and -weighted EXAFS analysis. Fe(II) released during the Se(IV) reduction was not the main reductant for Se(VI) but accelerated the transformation of F(0) to magnetite and lepidocrocite. The formation of lepidocrocite contributed to the enrichment of Se(VI) on the nZVI surface, and magnetite promoted electron transfer from Fe(0) to Se(VI). This study demonstrated that Se(IV) acted as an oxidant to activate nZVI, thus improving the reactivity of nZVI toward Se(VI), which displays a potential application of nZVI in the remediation of Se(IV)- and Se(VI)-containing water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08142DOI Listing
May 2021

cyst fluid suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting TRAF6 signalling in macrophages.

Parasitology 2021 06 29;148(7):887-894. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato has complex defence mechanisms that protect it from the anti-parasitic immune response for long periods. Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (EgCF) is involved in the immune escape. Nevertheless, whether and how EgCF modulates the inflammatory response in macrophages remains poorly understood. Here, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that EgCF could markedly attenuate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-6 but increase the expression of IL-10 at mRNA and protein levels in mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanically, western blotting and immunofluorescence assay showed that EgCF abolished the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK1/2 signalling pathways by LPS stimulation in mouse macrophages. EgCF's anti-inflammatory role was at least partly contributed by promoting proteasomal degradation of the critical adaptor TRAF6. Moreover, the EgCF-promoted anti-inflammatory response and TRAF6 proteasomal degradation were conserved in human THP-1 macrophages. These findings collectively reveal a novel mechanism by which EgCF suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting TRAF6 and the downstream activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in both human and mouse macrophages, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the E. granulosus-induced immune evasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182021000548DOI Listing
June 2021

Biochar produced from the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and waste tires for cadmium and tetracycline adsorption from water.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Mar;83(6):1429-1445

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

Application of sewage sludge biochar as an adsorbent for pollutant removal has obtained special attention due to their low cost and surface functionality. In this research, sludge-tire composite biochar (STB) was successfully prepared through co-pyrolysis at 300, 500 and 700 °C, respectively. Cadmium (Cd) and tetracycline (TC) were selected as the target pollutant. The results indicated that STB has the highest surface area (49.71 m/g), more inorganic minerals (Kaolinite) as well as relatively stable physicochemical properties with 10% tire particles (TP) at 700 °C. The adsorption results indicated that the pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir isotherm model could better describe the adsorption of Cd and TC by STB. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd and TC was 50.25 mg/g and 90.09 mg/g, respectively. The main mechanism of the adsorption process of STB for Cd mainly involves anion binding adsorption and ion exchange. The main mechanism of the adsorption process of STB for TC mainly involves complexation and cation exchange. The present study could set a scientific foundation for further research on the recycle of sewage sludge and tires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.058DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of Multidisciplinary Team Management on the Survival Rate of Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Cohort Study Meta-analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:630906. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the more common malignant tumors that threaten human health worldwide. Multidisciplinary team management (MDTM) in HNC treatment has been introduced in the past several decades to improve patient survival rates. This study reviewed the impact of MDTM on survival rates in patients with HNC compared to conventional treatment methods. Only cohort studies were identified for this meta-analysis that included an exposure group that utilized MDTM and a control group. Heterogeneity and sensitivity also were assessed. Survival rate data for HNC patients were analyzed using RevMan 5.2 software. Five cohort studies ( = 39,070) that examined survival rates among HNC patients were included. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the random effect model. The results revealed that exposure groups treated using MDTM exhibited a higher survival rate [HR = 0.84, 95% CI (0.76-0.92), = 0.0004] with moderate heterogeneity ( = 68%, = 0.01). For two studies that examined the effect of MDTM on the survival rate for patients specifically with stage IV HNC, MDTM did not produce any statistically significant improvement in survival rates [HR = 0.81, 95% CI (0.59-1.10), = 0.18]. The application of MDTM based on conventional surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy improved the overall survival rate of patients with HNC. Future research should examine the efficacy of MDTM in patients with cancer at different stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.630906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982739PMC
March 2021

[Adsorption and Desorption Behaviors of Antibiotics on TWP and PVC Particles Before and After Aging].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Apr;42(4):1901-1912

College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

In recent years, microplastics (MPs), a new type of pollutant, have been widely dispersed in aquatic ecosystems. Compared with typical MPs (PVC, PP, PE, and PS), tire wear particles (TWP) exhibit significant differences in composition, additives, and characteristics. In this study, the adsorption and desorption of organic pollutants were compared between the typical MPs and TWP. With TWP and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles as adsorbents, oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) as adsorbates, the adsorption and desorption of organic pollutants by TWP and PVC particles before and after aging were studied. Correctly understanding the behavior of MPs in an aquatic environment is of great significance. The results indicated that during the UV aging process, both TWP and PVC exhibited cracks, pits, and bulges on the particle surface, increased specific surface areas, increased strength of oxygen-containing functional groups, and enhanced hydrophilicity. The adsorption modes of TWP and PVC before and after aging were in two stages:surface adsorption and liquid film diffusion. TWP has a better fit for the Freundlich model, belonging to multi-layer adsorption, while PVC has a better fit for the Langmuir model, belonging to monolayer adsorption. The carrier effect of TWP on antibiotics was better than that of PVC, with the adsorption capacity of OTC on virgin TWP and PVC reaching 5.14 mg·g and 1.38 mg·g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of OTC on the aged TWP and PVC reached 5.82 mg·g and 2.13 mg·g, respectively, which was better than with the virgin samples. The desorption capacity of aged TWP and PVC for antibiotics was better than the virgin materials, while the desorption rate was lower. In the same desorption solution, the desorption effect of TWP on antibiotics before and after ageing was better than that of PVC. The desorption effect of TWP and PVC on antibiotics in a simulated intestinal fluid environment was significantly better than that in an ultra-pure water environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202008179DOI Listing
April 2021

Adsorption and desorption behaviors of antibiotics by tire wear particles and polyethylene microplastics with or without aging processes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 28;771:145451. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China. Electronic address:

Tire wear particles (TWP), as the significant proportion of microplastics (MPs), has adsorbed much attention due to its widespread presence in aquatic ecosystem. However, compared with traditional MPs, few studies have investigated the interaction between TWP and coexisting contaminants. The adsorption-desorption behavior of chlortetracycline (CTC) and amoxicillin (AMX) by original and aged TWP was studied, and polyethylene (PE) was studied for comparison. After aging, small holes and cracks were produced on the surfaces of the TWP and PE. Meanwhile, the specific surface areas (S) of TWP and PE increased, but the aged TWP had a larger S than the aged PE, which indicated that TWP was more likely to degrade than PE. The adsorption kinetics results showed that the adsorption of CTC and AMX by TWP and PE conformed to the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm results showed that the Freundlich model could describe the adsorption isotherm data of TWP and PE. The adsorption capacity of antibiotics by TWP increased by 1.13-23.40 times, and by 1.08-14.24 times on PE, after aging. Desorption experiments showed that the desorption amount of antibiotics on TWP and PE in simulated gastric fluid was greater than that in ultrapure water. The desorption amount and rate of CTC and AMX from TWP were higher than those of PE, indicating that TWP might be more harmful to the aquatic environment and organisms. These findings indicated that, compared with PE, TWP might have stronger carrier effects on antibiotics, which might pose more serious potential risks to the aquatic environment and organisms, especially considering the effects of the aging process. This study would expand the research on environmental risk of MPs and contribute to providing new insights into the evaluation of tire material particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145451DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcome Prediction in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State by Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of the EEG.

Front Neurol 2021 22;12:510424. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Rehabilitation, Wangjing Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to investigate the role of non-linear dynamic analysis (NDA) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in predicting patient outcome in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study. A total of 98 and 64 UWS and MCS cases, respectively, were assessed. During admission, EEGs were acquired under eyes-closed and pain stimulation conditions. EEG nonlinear indices, including approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn, were calculated. The modified Glasgow Outcome Scale (mGOS) was employed to assess functional prognosis 1 year following brain injury. The mGOS scores were improved in 25 (26%) patients with UWS and 42 (66%) with MCS. Under the painful stimulation condition, both non-linear indices were lower in patients with UWS than in those with MCS. The frontal region, periphery of the primary sensory area (S1), and forebrain structure might be the key points modulating disorders of consciousness. The affected local cortical networks connected to S1 and unaffected distant cortical networks connecting S1 to the prefrontal area played important roles in mGOS score improvement. NDA provides an objective assessment of cortical excitability and interconnections of residual cortical functional islands. The impaired interconnection of the residual cortical functional island meant a poorer prognosis. The activation in the affected periphery of the S1 and the increase in the interconnection of affected local cortical areas around the S1 and unaffected S1 to the prefrontal and temporal areas meant a relatively favorable prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.510424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937604PMC
February 2021

Antibiotic resistance genes attenuation in anaerobic microorganisms during iron uptake from zero valent iron: An iron-dependent form of homeostasis and roles as regulators.

Water Res 2021 May 26;195:116979. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, 1 Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098, PR China. Electronic address:

Zero valent iron (ZVI) has been previously documented to attenuate the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in microbes, while how ZVI affects the evolution of ARGs remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the influences of ZVI on ARGs dissemination in anaerobic bioreactor treating oxytetracycline (tet) containing wastewater, by deciphering the roles of iron homeostasis and regulatory effects. A net reduction of tet gene targets ranging from 0.75 to 1.88 and 0.67 to 2.08 log unit in intracellular and extracellular DNA was achieved at the optimal dosage of 5 g/L ZVI, whereas 20 g/L ZVI made no effects on ARGs reduction. The reduced ARGs abundance by ZVI was directly related to the inhibited horizontal transfer of ARGs and decreased proliferation of resistant strains (mainly Paludibacter and WCHB1-32). The potential mechanisms included the increased antioxidant capacity, the depressed efflux pump system and the weakened energy driving force by Fur regulon in microbes (especially for Cloacibacterium and Dechloromonas). The negligible influence of 20 g/L ZVI on ARGs reduction was ascribed to the iron-catalyzed oxidative damage and reduced physiological activity. This study firstly illustrated the potential relationships among activation of iron uptake regulator leading to protection against oxidative stress, alternation of physiological metabolisms and reduction of ARGs dissemination. This work extents our understanding about the priority of ZVI in mitigating ARGs proliferation and sheds light on its potential application in wastewater treatment plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116979DOI Listing
May 2021
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