Publications by authors named "Jun Han"

776 Publications

A comparative study of bilateral and unilateral early sucking within 2 hours of delivery on lactation.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):9715-9721. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Radiology, Taizhou Municipal Hospital Taizhou 318000, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: This study explored and analyzed the effects of bilateral and unilateral early sucking within 2 h after delivery on lactation.

Methods: From August 2019 to August 2020, 392 primiparas with full-term, singleton, natural delivery, and normal breast conditions were submitted to the Obstetrics Department of our hospital and were enrolled as the research subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group, with 196 in each group. Both groups implemented early sucking with the assistance of a midwife within 2 h after delivery. The experimental group conducted bilateral breast sucking and the control group received unilateral sucking. The onset time of colostrum, the lactation volume, and the prolactin levels at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after delivery, including neonatal urination and incidence of complications were compared between the two groups.

Results: The onset time of colostrum in the experimental group was much earlier than that in the control group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The postpartum filling time of the experimental group was shorter than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). There was a statistically insignificant difference in the distribution of lactation yield between the two groups at 6 h of postpartum (). The lactation yield distribution in the experimental group at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h was critically superior to that in control group, with statistically significant difference (). The degree of prolactin in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group (). There was no significant difference in urination frequency and the incidence of complications between the two groups of neonates at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h ().

Conclusion: The effect of bilateral early lactation within 2 h after delivery is superior to that of unilateral early lactation, which is worthy of clinical application.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430129PMC
August 2021

Efficacy of Zhuyu Pill Intervention in a Cholestasis Rat Model: Mutual Effects on Fecal Metabolism and Microbial Diversity.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:695035. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Basic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Cholestasis is a clinical condition resulting from impaired bile flow. Currently, patients with cholestasis face several barriers in seeking diagnosis and treatment. Zhuyu Pill (ZYP) is an ancient classic formula of the Coptis-Evodia herb couples (CEHC), and has been used for cholestasis treatment in the clinic, however, its underlying biological activity in cholestasis remain to be clarified. In this study, an α-naphthyl-isothiocyanate (ANIT, 50 mg/kg)-induced rat model of cholestasis was treated with ZYP. Serum biochemical indices and histopathological evaluation was performed, together with the metabolomics analyses of feces and 16S rDNA sequencing of the fecal microbiota. We evaluated the anti-cholestatic activity of ZYP and investigated the mechanisms underlying its correlation with fecal microbiota and fecal metabolite regulation. The relationships between biochemical indices and changes in gene expression associated with liver injury, levels fecal metabolites, and composition of fecal microbiota were analyzed. The results showed that both high (1.2 g/kg) and low (0.6 g/kg) doses of ZYP could effectively improve biochemical parameters in the blood of cholestasis-induced rat models; the intervention effect of high dose ZYP was superior to that that of lower dose ZYP. Based on a metabolomics test of fecal samples, significantly altered metabolites in the ANIT and ZYP treatment group were identified. In total, 734 metabolites were differentially expressed, and whose biological functions were mainly associated with amino acid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and bile secretion. In addition, sequencing of the 16S rDNA unit in fecal samples revealed that the ZYP could improve the fecal microbiota dysbiosis that ANIT had induced. Therefore, we conclude that ANIT altering of blood biochemical and metabolic profiles and of fecal microbiota could effectively be alleviated with ZYP treatment. This study contributes to the "TCM wisdom" applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cholestasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.695035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443775PMC
September 2021

Phase transition and chemical reactivity of 1H-tetrazole under high pressure up to 100 GPa.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19503-19510. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Beijing 100094, P. R. China.

The pressure-induced phase transition and polymerization of nitrogen-rich molecules are widely focused on due to their extreme importance for the development of green high-energy-density materials. Here, we present a study of the phase-transition behaviour and chemical reaction of 1H-tetrazole up to 100 GPa using Raman, IR, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction techniques and theoretical calculations. A phase transition above 2.6 GPa was identified and the high-pressure structure was determined with one molecule in a unit cell instead of two molecules as reported before. The 1H-tetrazole polymerized reversibly below 100 GPa, probably through carbon-nitrogen bonding instead of nitrogen-nitrogen bonding. Our studies update the structure model of the high-pressure phase of 1H-tetrazole, and present the possible intermolecular bonding route for the first time, which gives new insights to understand the phase transition and chemical reaction of nitrogen-rich compounds, and is of benefit for designing new high-energy-density materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02913dDOI Listing
September 2021

Dual Doping of Titania for Enhanced Na Storage Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

The sluggish sodium-ion diffusion kinetics and low electronic conductivity have severely restricted the development of the TiO anode for sodium-ion batteries. Defect engineering, such as single-heteroatom doping and oxygen vacancies, has proven to be effective methods to improve the conductivity of TiO, but a comprehensive understanding of the synergistic effect of dual-heteroatom doping and oxygen vacancies on the sodium storage performance of TiO is still lacking. Herein, we design a synergistic strategy of dual doping via the in situ doping and hydrogenation treatment to improve conductivity and cycling stability of TiO. Experiments and theoretical calculations together revealed that N and C doping reduces the band gap of TiO, while the presence of oxygen vacancies efficiently accelerates the diffusion of sodium ions. Thus N, C, and oxygen vacancies with high concentration co-doped TiO, resulting in extraordinary high-rate performance, significant stable cycling, and long-term cyclability of up to 10,000 cycles. The synthesis strategy of dual doping proposed here emphasizes the importance of defect engineering in improving material conductivity and electrode cycling stability for possible practical applications in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c10506DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrasensitive quantification of multiplexed mRNA variants splice-junction anchored DNA probes and SplintR ligase-initiated PCR.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, School of Chemistry and Biology Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

A method based on mRNA-templated ligation of splice-junction anchored DNA probes followed by PCR amplification of the ligated product has been developed for multiplexed detection of mRNA splice variants with high sensitivity and specificity. The proposed assay can detect as low as 10 aM mRNA splicing variants and has been successfully applied to detect real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03033gDOI Listing
September 2021

Preparation and characterization of sulfated inulin-type fructans from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their antitumor activity.

Carbohydr Res 2021 Aug 28;509:108422. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Anhui Provincial Engineering Research Center for Polysaccharide Drugs, Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Screening and Re-evaluation of Active Compounds of Herbal Medicines in Southern Anhui, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Active Biological Macro-molecules, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241002, China; Drug Research & Development Center, School of Pharmacy, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002, China. Electronic address:

The modification of polysaccharides is important for enhancing their biological activities. In this study, a pure inulin-type fructan, denoted as Jerusalem artichoke polysaccharide (P-JAP), was purified from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and modified by sulfation via treatment with a sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex to produce its sulfated derivative (S-JAP). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis confirmed the successful introduction of sulfate groups. The inhibitory effects of S-JAP on the proliferation of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells was evaluated via a CCK-8 assay, and the pro-apoptotic effects were assessed using annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. The inhibition rates of various concentrations of S-JAP on HepG2 cells after 24, 48, and 72 h were significantly higher than those of P-JAP; moreover, S-JAP succeeded in promoting cell apoptosis. Thus, the sulfate-modified polysaccharide extracted from Jerusalem artichoke tubers was shown to exhibit effective antitumor activity with potential for further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2021.108422DOI Listing
August 2021

Subcutaneous, but not visceral, adipose tissue as a marker for prognosis in gastric cancer patients with cachexia.

Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 17;40(9):5156-5161. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Adipose tissue loss is one of the features in patients with cancer cachexia. However, whether subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) contribute differently to the progress of cancer cachexia in gastric cancer patients with cachexia remains unclear. This study aim to investigate the effect of SAT and VAT in gastric cancer patients with cachexia.

Methods: Gastric cancer patients who underwent surgery were divided into cancer cachexia group and non-cachexia group. A new deep learning system was developed to segment SAT and VAT from the computed tomography images at the third lumbar vertebra. Indexes of SAT (SATI) and VAT (VATI) were compared between cachexia and non-cachexia groups. The prognostic values of SATI and VATI for patients with gastric cancer cachexia were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression.

Results: A total of 1627 gastric cancer patients (411 cachexia and 1216 non-cachexia) were included in this study. A new V-Net-Based segmentation deep learning system was developed to quickly (0.02 s/image) and accurately segment SAT (dice scores = 0.96) and VAT (dice scores = 0.98). The SATI of gastric cancer patients with cachexia were significantly lower than non-cachexia patients (44.91 ± 0.90 vs. 50.92 ± 0.71 cm/m, P < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in VATI (35.98 ± 0.84 VS. 37.90 ± 0.45 cm/m, P = 0.076). Cachexia patients with low SATI showed poor survival than those with high SATI (HR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.74). In contrast, VATI did not show close correlation with survival in patients with cachexia (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.92-1.51).

Conclusion: SAT and VAT showed different effects on gastric cancer patients with cachexia. More attention should be paid to the loss of SAT during the progress of cancer cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.08.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside on HSV-1 encephalitis in vivo and in vitro.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Aug 22:136172. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Department of Neurology, Xiangyang No.1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Xiangyang City, Hubei Province, 441000,People's Republic of China.

Background: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is an acute central nervous system infectious disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HSE infection, which produces many pro-inflammatory factors. Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh) is a plant flavonoid. This study was investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of K-3-rh on encephalitis induced by HSV-1.

Methods: HSV-1 was co-cultured with VERO cells.Cells were divided into four groups, including the control group, virus group, K-3-rh group, Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) group and dexamethasone group. Flow cytometry were utilized to determine cell apoptosis, respectively. Proteins and mRNAs were estimated by western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively.

Results: After viral infection, the cytokines were significantly increased. After K-3-rh intervention, the expression of Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and nitric oxide(NO) in microglia were reduced contrast with those in the virus group, and the expression of interleukin-10(IL-10) did not change. After viral infection, the apoptotic rate increased significantly, and K-3-rh could inhibit viral-induced apoptosis in the microglial cell line. The induction of microglia apoptosis was achieved by cytochrome c and caspase-9-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Also, the pathological changes of brain tissue in mice of each drug intervention group were alleviated.

Conclusions: In conclusion, K-3-rh had the potential to reduce HSV-1-induced brain injury by reducing the secretion of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, inducing apoptosis of microglia cells, and through cytochrome C and caspase-3 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136172DOI Listing
August 2021

Albumin-encapsulated Nanoparticles of Naproxen Platinum(IV) Complexes with Inflammation Inhibitory Competence Displaying Effective Antitumor Activities in vitro and in vivo.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 14;16:5513-5529. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Institute of Biopharmaceutical Research, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, 252059, People's Republic of China.

Background: Platinum(IV) complexes with inflammation inhibitory properties are much favored in improving antitumor activities. Nanodrug-delivery system as a preferable measure for antitumor therapy are widely explored in platinum(IV) drug delivery.

Purpose: The aim for this study was to develop novel bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) based on naproxen platinum(IV) complexes to display a synergistic antitumor mechanism targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

Methods: Herein, we reported the preparation of two BSA NPs of naproxen platinum(IV) complexes, and their antitumor activities were investigated in vitro and in vivo.

Results: Both NPs possessed relatively uniform size and good stability for 30 days in aqueous solution. They exhibited prominent antitumor activities in vitro, and showed great potential in reversing drug resistance. Furthermore, these two NPs played superior tumor growth suppression in vivo in contrast to the free compounds, which were comparable to that of cisplatin and oxaliplatin, but induced lower toxic influences than platinum(II) drugs especially to spleen and liver. Moreover, the naproxen platinum(IV) NPs could decrease tumor inflammation targeting COX-2, MMP-9 and iNOs, and decreasing NO production, which would be in favor of enhancing the antitumor competence, and reducing toxicity.

Conclusion: Taken together, BSA NPs of naproxen platinum(IV) complexes demonstrated a powerful antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The platinum(IV) NPs with inflammation inhibitory competence targeting multiple enzymes reported in this work afford a new strategy for the development of antitumor therapy to overcome drawbacks of clinical platinum(II) drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S322688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375242PMC
August 2021

Phosphorylation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (DRP1) Regulates Mitochondrial Dynamics and Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Cancer Cachexia.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:673618. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of General Surgery/Shanghai Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle atrophy, and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent research studies have shed light on a noteworthy link between mitochondrial dynamics and muscle physiology. In the present study, we investigate the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a pivotal factor of mitochondrial dynamics, in myotube atrophy during cancer-associated cachexia.

Methods: Seventy-six surgical patients, including gastrointestinal tumor and benign disease, were enrolled in the study and divided to three groups: control, non-cachexia, and cancer-associated cachexia. Demographic data were collected. Their rectus abdominis samples were acquired intraoperatively. Muscle fiber size, markers of ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), mitochondrial ultrastructure, and markers of mitochondrial function and dynamics were assayed. A cachexia model was established coculturing a C2C12 myotube with media from C26 colon cancer cells. A specific DRP1 inhibitor, Mdivi-1, and a lentivirus of DRP1 knockdown/overexpression were used to regulate the expression of DRP1. Muscle diameter, mitochondrial morphology, mass, reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane potential, and markers of UPS, mitochondrial function, and dynamics were determined.

Results: Patients of cachexia suffered from a conspicuous worsened nutrition status and muscle loss compared to patients of other groups. Severe mitochondrial swelling and enlarged area were observed, and partial alterations in mitochondrial function were found in muscle. Analysis of mitochondrial dynamics indicated an upregulation of phosphorylated DRP1 at the ser616 site. , cancer media resulted in the atrophy of myotube. This was accompanied with a prominent unbalance of mitochondrial dynamics, as well as enhanced mitochondrial ROS and decreased mitochondrial function and membrane potential. However, certain concentrations of Mdivi-1 and DRP1 knockdown rebalanced the mitochondrial dynamics, mitigating this negative phenotype caused by cachexia. Moreover, overexpression of DRP1 aggravated these phenomena.

Conclusion: In clinical patients, cachexia induces abnormal mitochondrial changes and possible fission activation for the atrophied muscle. Our cachexia model further demonstrates that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics contributes to this atrophy and mitochondrial impairment, and rebuilding the balance by regulating of DRP1 could ameliorate these alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.673618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375307PMC
August 2021

Long-term Therapeutic Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy: An Analysis of 608 Patients from Low-endemic Regions of China.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Aug 17;41(4):737-745. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Head Neck Oncology, Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcome and prognostic factors of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from low-endemic regions of China who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

Methods: The clinical data from 608 patients with newly-diagnosed non-metastatic NPC who have received initial treatment at our cancer center from January, 2008 to December, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received definitive IMRT, and 87.7% received platinum-based chemotherapy.

Results: The median follow-up duration was 51 months (follow-up rate, 98.5%; range, 10-106 months) for the entire cohort. The 5-year overall survival rate was 79.7%. The 5-year local relapse-free survival rate, regional relapse-free survival rate, distant metastasis-free survival rate and progression-free survival rate were 92.4%, 93.3%, 79.2% and 74.3%, respectively. A total of 153 patients had experienced treatment failure, with distant metastasis as the primary cause in 77.1% (118/153). Patients with T4 or N3 diseases had a significantly poorer prognosis than other subcategories. Stage T4 and N3 were closely associated with distant metastasis, with the metastatic rate of 29.3% and 45.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: IMRT provides patients with non-metastatic NPC with satisfactory long-term survival. Both T stage and N stage are important prognostic factors for NPC patients. Patients with T4 or N3 diseases have significantly increased distant metastatic rates and poor survival time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2405-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Lower blood malondialdehyde is associated with past pesticide exposure: findings in Gulf War illness and healthy controls.

Mil Med Res 2021 08 17;8(1):46. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Background: Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a candidate general marker of oxidative stress (OS). We sought to assess the relation of MDA to Gulf War illness (GWI) and to a variety of exposures.

Methods: This is an observational study involving subjects from Southern California recruited from October 2011 to May 2014. MDA was assessed in 81 participants (41 GWI-cases, 40 controls). General and Gulf-specific exposures were elicited. MDA case-control comparison was restricted to 40 matched pairs. The potential association between MDA and exposures was assessed using regression analyses. Gulf-specific exposures were incorporated into a case-specific model.

Results: Plasma MDA was significantly lower in GWI-cases than controls. Composite pesticide and fuel-solvent exposures negatively predicted MDA in the total sample, as well as in the analyses that included either GWI-cases or controls only. Self-reported exposure to organophosphate (OP) nerve gas was a strong predictor for lower MDA level in veterans with GWI.

Conclusion: Past pesticide exposures predicted lower MDA in both veterans with GWI and in healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-021-00337-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369730PMC
August 2021

Preventive effects of tamsulosin for postoperative urinary retention after lower limb arthroplasty: A randomized controlled study.

Investig Clin Urol 2021 Sep 3;62(5):569-576. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Urology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong, Korea.

Purpose: This prospective, randomized, controlled study investigated the use of tamsulosin, a selective alpha-blocker, as a prophylactic medication to prevent postoperative urinary retention (POUR) following lower limb arthroplasty.

Materials And Methods: The criterion for diagnosing POUR was used a postoperative bladder volume over 400 mL with incomplete emptying. Patients who underwent primary total hip or knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to tamsulosin treatment and non-treatment groups at a single center from September 2018 to November 2018. The treatment group received 0.2 mg of tamsulosin orally once at night for 3 days starting on postoperative day 1. During this 3-day period, an indwelling Foley catheter was maintained. The incidence of POUR according to tamsulosin treatment following lower limb arthroplasty was the primary outcome.

Results: In total, 100 patients were enrolled, of whom 5 discontinued participation. POUR was diagnosed in 20 of the remaining 95 patients (21.1%). The treatment group contained 48 patients, of whom 6 (12.5%) developed POUR, whereas POUR occurred in the 14 of the 47 patients (29.8%) in the non-treatment group. Tamsulosin treatment reduced the risk of POUR by two-thirds (odds ratio [OR], 0.337; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.117-0.971; p=0.044). The risk reduction associated with tamsulosin treatment remained robust post-adjustment for potential covariates (OR, 0.250; 95% CI, 0.069-0.905; p=0.038).

Conclusions: Tamsulosin administration immediately after lower limb arthroplasty reduced the incidence of urinary retention and diminished the need for long-term catheterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.20200523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421999PMC
September 2021

Experimental study on anchorage performance of rockbolts by adding steel aggregates into resin anchoring agents.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0255046. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Mining, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin, China.

Pull-out testing was carried out to evaluate the effects of shape, size and concentration of steel aggregates on anchorage performance. Steel grit with particle sizes of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.8 mm and steel shot diameters of 1.4, 2.0, and 2.5 mm were used as steel aggregates and were added into the resin anchoring agent. For each kind of steel aggregate, either 30, 40 or 50 aggregates were used to evaluate the effects of different steel aggregate densities. Anchorage specimens were prepared using ϕ20mm rebar bolts and steel sleeves. Compressive and shear strengths of resin containing steel aggregates, the pullout curve, and the circumferential strain of the sleeves were measured, and the energy consumption was calculated. Results show that compressive and shear strengths of resin containing steel grit and steel shot are increased by 8.4%-17.0% compared to pure resin. For the aggregate numbers of 30, 40 and 50, the anchoring force is increased by 7.9%, 7.5% and 6.5%; energy consumption is increased by 19.2%, 15.0% and 18.6%; and the circumferential strain of the specimen is increased by 28.4%, 25.1% and 39.5%, respectively. The effect of aggregate size on anchoring performance is significant; that is, the aggregate sizes of 1.4~1.5, 2.0 and 2.5~2.8 mm increase the anchoring force, energy consumption and sleeve circumferential strain by 8.5%, 4.6% and 8.7%, 16.0%, 8.4% and 28.4%, and 17.9%, 23.3% and 51.9%, respectively. The relationships of the anchoring force, energy consumption, and circumferential strain with steel aggregate quantity and size are formulated. Results show that the addition of steel aggregates increases the compressive and shear strengths of the resin, and steel aggregate quantity and size have significant impact on anchoring performance. This paper provides the basis for optimization of resin anchoring agents used in the mining industry. The impact of anchoring agent shear strength and residual shear strength on the anchoring effect were also discussed based on the failure analysis of the anchoring section.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255046PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318225PMC
July 2021

Enhanced antitumor activity of inulin-capped Se nanoparticles synthesized using Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

Glycoconj J 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Anhui Provincial Engineering Research Center for Polysaccharide Drugs, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Active Biological Macro-Molecules, Anhui Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Screening and Re-Evaluationvaluation of Active Compounds of Herbal Medicines in Southern Anhui, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, 241002, China.

An inulin polysaccharide with a molecular weight of ~ 2600 Da was derived from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and referred to as "JAP". Previous studies have shown that inulin can improve glucose tolerance and the liver lipid profile; however, its antitumor activity remains to be examined in detail. Therefore, to investigate the possible improvement of the antitumor activity of JAP, a novel nanostructured biomaterial was constructed by capping Se nanoparticles with JAP using sodium selenite, via a redox reaction with ascorbic acid, and referred to as "JAP-SeNPs". Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the average diameter of JAP-SeNPs is ~ 50 nm, and the C:Se mass ratio in JAP-SeNPs was found to be 15.4:1 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The well-dispersed JAP-SeNPs exhibited a significant in vitro antiproliferative effect on mouse forestomach carcinoma cells at a concentration of 400 μg/mL when incubated for 48 h, with an inhibition rate of 41.5%. Moreover, 38.9% of later apoptotic cells were observed. These results reveal that a combination of Se and JAP can effectively enhance the antitumor activity of polysaccharides obtained from Jerusalem artichoke tubers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10011-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel noncoding RNA CircPTK2 regulates lipolysis and adipogenesis in cachexia.

Mol Metab 2021 Jul 23;53:101310. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Cancer-associated cachexia is a devastating pathological disorder characterized by skeletal muscle wasting and fat storage depletion. Circular RNA, a newly discovered class of noncoding RNAs with important roles in regulating lipid metabolism, has not been fully understood in the pathology of cachexia. We aimed to identify circular RNAs that are upregulated in adipose tissues from cachectic patients and explore their function and mechanism in lipid metabolism.

Methods: Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing was used to screen for differentially expressed circRNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was applied to detect the expression level of circPTK2 in adipose tissues. The diagnostic value of circPTK2 was evaluated in adipose tissues from patients with and without cachexia. Then, function experiments in vitro and in vivo were performed to evaluate the effects of circPTK2 on lipolysis and adipogenesis. Mechanistically, luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization were performed to confirm the interaction between circPTK2 and miR-182-5p in adipocytes.

Results: We detected 66 differentially expressed circular RNA candidates and proved that circPTK2 was upregulated in adipose tissues from cachectic patients. Then we identified that circPTK2 was closely related to the pathological process of cachexia and could be used as a diagnostic marker. Mechanistically, circPTK2 bound competitively to miR-182-5p and abrogated the suppression on its target gene JAZF1, which finally led to promotion of lipolysis and inhibition of adipogenesis. In vivo experiments demonstrated that overexpression of circPTK2 inhibited adipogenesis and enhanced lipolysis.

Conclusions: Our findings reveal the novel role of circPTK2 in promoting lipolysis and reducing adipogenesis via a ceRNA mechanism and provide a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer-associated cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365522PMC
July 2021

FOXP3 Inhibits the Metastasis of Breast Cancer by Downregulating the Expression of MTA1.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:656190. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Biotechnology Center, School of Pharmacy, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: FOXP3, as a tumour suppressor gene, has a vital function in inhibiting the metastasis of breast cancer cells, but the mechanisms by which it inhibits metastasis have not been fully elucidated. This study intended to explore a new mechanism by which FOXP3 inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

Methods: Bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify potential downstream molecules of FOXP3. The function of FOXP3 in inhibiting MTA1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was verified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The interaction between FOXP3 and the MTA1 promoter was verified by transcriptomic experiments. and experiments were used to determine whether the regulation of MTA1 by FOXP3 affected the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to explore the correlation between the expression levels of FOXP3 and MTA1 in breast cancer samples.

Results: Bioinformatics-based sequencing suggested that MTA1 is a potential downstream molecule of FOXP3. FOXP3 downregulated the expression of MTA1 in breast cancer cells by directly inhibiting MTA1 promoter activity. Importantly, FOXP3's regulation of MTA1 affected the ability of breast cancer cells to invade and metastasize and . Moreover, analysis of clinical specimens showed a significant negative correlation between the expression levels of FOXP3 and MTA1 in breast cancer.

Conclusion: We systematically explored a new mechanism by which FOXP3 inhibits breast cancer metastasis the FOXP3-MTA1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.656190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293273PMC
July 2021

α-Mangostin Alleviated Inflammation in Rats With Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis by Disrupting Adipocytes-Mediated Metabolism-Immune Feedback.

Front Pharmacol 2021 7;12:692806. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, China.

A previously identified anti-rheumatic compound -mangostin (MAN) possesses notable metabolism regulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the immune implication of MAN-altered fat metabolism on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Seven days after AIA induction, the rats received oral treatment of MAN at 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Metabolic indicators and basic clinical parameters were evaluated using samples collected on day 20 and 38 since immunization. Expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-), stearoyl-coa desaturase 1 (SCD-1), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2), ()-JNK, ()-p65 and IL-1β were investigated by either RT-qPCR or immunobloting methods. In experiments, we treated (pre)-adipocytes with monocytes/macrophages and MAN, and investigated the changes of macrophages brought by pre-adipocytes co-culture. Generally, MAN restored the impaired fat anabolism in AIA rats, indicated by increased fat reservoir, leptin and adiponectin secretion, and PPAR- and SCD-1 expression. Meanwhile, it decreased circulating IL-1β and IL-6 levels, restored serological lipid profile changes, and relieved oxidative stresses, demonstrating potent therapeutic effects on AIA. AIA rats-derived monocytes inhibited mRNA PPAR- and SCD-1 expression in pre-adipocytes. Contrarily, MAN facilitated adipocyte differentiation , and increased free fatty acids production. It also significantly increased PPAR- and SCD-1 expression, which can be abrogated by PPAR- inhibitor T0070907. Similarly, lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages inhibited PPAR- expression in the co-cultured pre-adipocytes, which was reversed by MAN. In the same co-culture system, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation was amplified by the co-existence of pre-adipocytes. More secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 and higher levels expression of COX-2, p-JNK, p-p65 and TLR4 were observed in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages when co-cultured by pre-adipocytes. The intensified inflammatory situation was eased by MAN. The treatment with pre-adipocytes culture medium achieved similar effects. Medium from lipopolysaccharide-treated adipocytes promoted IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1 production in separately cultured macrophages, and COX-2, p-JNK, p-p65 and TLR4 expression were increased at the meantime. MAN treatment on pre-adipocytes impaired these changes. It suggests that fat anabolism in AIA rats was deficient due to increased energy expenditure caused by inflammatory conditions. MAN restored fat metabolism homeostasis by up-regulating PPAR-, and reshaped secretion profile of adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.692806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293671PMC
July 2021

Laboratory Study of Deformation Behaviour of Two New Reinforcing Polymeric TSLs and Their Potential Application in Deep Underground Coal Mine.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 3;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

College of Mining, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China.

Thin spray-on liner (TSL) is a surface protection technology used by spraying a polymer film, which is widely used for mine airtightness and waterproofing. A reinforcing TSL can replace steel mesh, which is a new method for roadway support. This paper reviews the development of a reinforcing TSL. Considering the deterioration of geological conditions in deep underground mining and the demand for reinforcing automation, two kinds of polymeric reinforcing TSL (RPTSL) materials are developed. The mechanical characteristics of the new TSL materials are studied experimentally. Results show that the average compressive strength, tensile strength, cohesion, and internal friction angle of the two TSL materials are 52 and 32 MPa, 12 and 8 MPa, 6.2 and 17.2 MPa, and 33.6° and 25.9°, respectively. The bonding strength between the two materials and coal is greater than the tensile strength of coal itself, and the mechanical properties of the material for comparison are lower than those of both materials. Based on the TSL support mechanism, we examine the application of the two TSL materials to the mining environment and compare the mechanical properties of polymer materials and cement-based materials. The advantages of polymer materials include versatile mechanical properties, good adhesion, and high early strength. This study provides a new support material to replace steel mesh for roadway surface support, which satisfies the needs of different surface support designs under complex geological conditions, and promotes the automation of roadway support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13132205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271717PMC
July 2021

Detection of pseudorabies virus with a real-time recombinase-aided amplification assay.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, P. R. China.

Pseudorabies (PR) is an acute infectious disease of pigs caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), which has caused great economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Reliable and timely diagnose is crucial for the surveillance, control and eradication of PR. Here, a real-time fluorescent recombinase-aided amplification (real-time RAA) assay was established to detect PRV. Primers and probes were designed based on the conserved regions of the PRV gE gene. The assay was specific for the detection of wild-type PRV, showing no cross-reactivity with other important porcine viruses (including PRV gE-deleted vaccine strains). Analytical sensitivity of the assay was three 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID ) of PRV DNA per reaction with 95% reliability, which is comparable to that of a PRV-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. In diagnosis of 206 clinical tissue samples, the diagnose accordance rate between the real-time RAA assay and qPCR assay was 97.57% (201/206). Interestingly, the amplified products of real-time RAA could be visualized under a portable blue light instrument, making it possible for the rapid detection of PRV in resource-limited settings and on-site screening. Therefore, our developed real-time RAA assay is a diagnostic method for the rapid detection of PRV in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14241DOI Listing
July 2021

A comparative study of [Ag(PrS)(dppb)] and [AgS(BuS)(dppb)]: templating effect on structure and photoluminescence.

Dalton Trans 2021 Aug;50(30):10561-10566

State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074, China.

Atomically precise silver clusters with tunable photoluminescence (PL) properties have attracted extensive attention due to their great value for basic science and future applications. Here, we report that the addition of a sulfido template into a triangular thiolated silver cluster [Ag11(iPrS)9(dppb)3]·2CF3SO3·CH3OH (Ag11, dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane), which is emissive at 660 nm under ambient conditions, produced another silver cluster [[email protected](sBuS)12(dppb)3]·CF3SO3·H2O (Ag15) that displays 716 nm emission with a 56 nm redshift aided by the ligand sec-butyl mercaptan. The sulfido template, which affects the geometrical and electronic structures, results in a redshift of Ag11 room-temperature PL as a result of opening up the template-to-metal charge transfer (TMCT) and disturbing the electronic transition between the metal core and ligands at the periphery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01111aDOI Listing
August 2021

Acceleration of age-induced proteolysis in the guinea pig lens nucleus by in vivo exposure to hyperbaric oxygen: A mass spectrometry analysis.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Sep 4;210:108697. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Mass Spectrometry Research Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37242, USA. Electronic address:

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment of animals or ocular lenses in culture recapitulates many molecular changes observed in human age-related nuclear cataract. The guinea pig HBO model has been one of the best examples of such treatment leading to dose-dependent development of lens nuclear opacities. In this study, complimentary mass spectrometry methods were employed to examine protein truncation after HBO treatment of aged guinea pigs. Quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the membrane fraction of guinea pig lenses showed statistically significant increases in aquaporin-0 (AQP0) C-terminal truncation, consistent with previous reports of accelerated loss of membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis spatially mapped the acceleration of age-related αA-crystallin truncation in the lens nucleus. The truncation sites in αA-crystallin closely match those observed in human lenses with age. Taken together, our results suggest that HBO accelerates the normal lens aging process and leads to nuclear cataract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2021.108697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429224PMC
September 2021

Depressive State in the Emergency Department During COVID-19: A National Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:566990. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliate Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Wulumuqi, China.

Chinese emergency department (ED) staff encountered significant mental stress while fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to investigate the prevalence and associated factors for depressive symptoms among ED staff (including physicians, nurses, allied health, and auxiliary ED staff). A cross-sectional national survey of ED staff who were on duty and participated in combating the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted March 1-15, 2020. A total of 6,588 emergency medical personnel from 1,060 hospitals responded to this survey. A majority of respondents scored above 10 points on the PHQ-9 standardized test, which is associated with depressive symptoms. Those aged 31-45, those working in the COVID-19 isolation unit, and those with relatives ≤ 16 or ≥70 years old at home all had statistically significant associations with scoring >10 points. Depressive symptoms among Chinese emergency medical staff were likely quite common during the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce the importance of targeted ED staff support during future outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.566990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236535PMC
June 2021

Fabrication and characterization of resistive double square loop arrays for ultra-wide bandwidth microwave absorption.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 17;11(1):12767. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Nano Mechatronics Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea.

Microwave absorbers using conductive ink are generally fabricated by printing an array pattern on a substrate to generate electromagnetic fields. However, screen printing processes are difficult to vary the sheet resistance values for different regions of the pattern on the same layer, because the printing process deposits materials at the same height over the entire surface of substrate. In this study, a promising manufacturing process was suggested for engraved resistive double square loop arrays with ultra-wide bandwidth microwave. The developed manufacturing process consists of a micro-end-milling, inking, and planing processes. A 144-number of double square loop array was precisely machined on a polymethyl methacrylate workpiece with the micro-end-milling process. After engraving array structures, the machined surface was completely covered with the developed conductive carbon ink with a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq. It was cured at room temperature. Excluding the ink that filled the machined double square loop array, overflowed ink was removed with the planing process to achieve full filled and isolated resistive array patterns. The fabricated microwave absorber showed a small radar cross-section with reflectance less than - 10 dB in the frequency band range of 8.0-14.6 GHz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91868-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211790PMC
June 2021

Reconstructing Unsteady Flow Data from Representative Streamlines via Diffusion and Deep Learning Based Denoising.

IEEE Comput Graph Appl 2021 Jun 16;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

We propose VFR-UFD, a new deep learning framework that performs vector field reconstruction (VFR) for unsteady flow data (UFD). Given integral flow lines (i.e., streamlines), we first generate low-quality UFD via diffusion. VFR- UFD then leverages a convolutional neural network to reconstruct spatiotemporally coherent, high-quality UFD. The core of VFR-UFD lies in recurrent residual blocks that iteratively refine and denoise the input vector fields at different scales, both locally and globally. We take consecutive time steps as input to capture temporal coherence and apply streamline-based optimization to preserve spatial coherence. To show the effectiveness of VFR-UFD, we experiment with several vector field data sets to report quantitative and qualitative results and compare VFR-UFD with two VFR methods and one compression algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2021.3089627DOI Listing
June 2021

[Analysis of Predictive Value of Laboratory Indexes for Malignant Lymphoma Patients with Bone Marrow Involvement].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):763-771

Department of Hematology, Wanbei Coal and Electricity Group General Hospital, Suzhou 234011, Anhui Province, China.

Objective: To analyze the influence of bone marrow involvement (BMI) in patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) on laboratory indexes, and evaluate the laboratory markers that can be used to predict/diagnose BMI.

Methods: The clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes of 137 ML patients were analyzed retrospectively, from which the indexes of BMI in ML patients was studied. The logistic regression analysis and receiver operating curve (ROC) were used to evaluate independent risk factors and predictors of BMI diagnosis in ML patients.

Results: Compared with non-BMI group, the red blood cell distribution width, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, β-microglobulin, transferrin, CA153, CA125, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were increased while platelet (PLT) count was decreased in BMI group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The blood indexes related to BMI and the statistically significant indexes in the univariate regression analysis were corrected by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The corrected results showed that T cell-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (adjusted OR=2.18, 95%CI: 1.48-4.90, P<0.001), clinical stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (adjusted OR=3.32, 95%CI: 2.16-5.83, P<0.001), sIL-2R (adjusted OR=4.26, 95%CI: 2.95-12.85, P<0.001) were the risk factors for ML patients with BMI, while PLT (adjusted OR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.55-0.96, P= 0.003) was a protective factor. ROC analysis showed that the areas under the ROC curve of PLT and sIL-2R predicting BMI in ML patients was 0.712 (95%CI: 0.646-0.776, P<0.001) and 0.796 (95%CI: 0.739-0.853, P<0.001), respectively. The best cut-off point of PLT and sIL-2R was 160×10/L and 2 568 U/ml, respectively. The diagnostic specificities of the two indexes here were both greater than 80%.

Conclusion: PLT and sIL2R show good diagnostic value for ML patients with BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.03.018DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of an Intramolecular Switch That Controls the Interaction of Helicase nsp10 with Membrane-Associated nsp12 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

J Virol 2021 Aug 10;95(17):e0051821. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural Universitygrid.22935.3f, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A critical step in replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses is the assembly of replication and transcription complexes (RTC). We have recently mapped the nonstructural protein (nsp) interaction network of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and provided evidence by truncation mutagenesis that the recruitment of viral core replicase enzymes (nsp9 and nsp10) to membrane proteins (nsp2, nsp3, nsp5, and nsp12) is subject to regulation. Here, we went further to discover an intramolecular switch within the helicase nsp10 that controls its interaction with the membrane-associated protein nsp12. Deletion of nsp10 linker region amino acids 124 to 133, connecting domain 1B to 1A, led to complete relocalization and colocalization in the cells coexpressing nsp12. Moreover, single-amino-acid substitutions (e.g., nsp10 E131A and I132A) were sufficient to enable the nsp10-nsp12 interaction. Further proof came from membrane floatation assays that revealed a clear movement of nsp10 mutants, but not wild-type nsp10, toward the top of sucrose gradients in the presence of nsp12. Interestingly, the same mutations were not able to activate the nsp10-nsp2/3 interaction, suggesting a differential requirement for conformation. Reverse genetics analysis showed that PRRSV mutants carrying the single substitutions were not viable and were defective in subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) accumulation. Together, our results provide strong evidence for a regulated interaction between nsp10 and nsp12 and suggest an essential role for an orchestrated RTC assembly in sgRNA synthesis. Assembly of replication and transcription complexes (RTC) is a limiting step for viral RNA synthesis. The PRRSV RTC macromolecular complexes are comprised of mainly viral nonstructural replicase proteins (nsps), but how they come together remains elusive. We previously showed that viral helicase nsp10 interacts nsp12 in a regulated manner by truncation mutagenesis. Here, we revealed that the interaction is controlled by single residues within the domain linker region of nsp10. Moreover, the activation mutations lead to defects in viral sgRNA synthesis. Our results provide important insight into the mechanisms of PRRSV RTC assembly and regulation of viral sgRNA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00518-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354221PMC
August 2021

Evolutionary Patterns of Codon Usage in Major Lineages of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China.

Viruses 2021 05 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is economically important and characterized by its extensive variation. The codon usage patterns and their influence on viral evolution and host adaptation among different PRRSV strains remain largely unknown. Here, the codon usage of ORF5 genes from lineages 1, 3, 5, and 8, and MLV strains of type 2 PRRSV in China was analyzed. A compositional property analysis of ORF5 genes revealed that nucleotide C is most frequently used at the third position of codons, accompanied by rich GC3s. The effective number of codon (ENC) and codon pair bias (CPB) values indicate that all ORF5 genes have low codon bias and the differences in CPB scores among four lineages are almost not significant. When compared with host codon usage patterns, lineage 1 strains show higher CAI and SiD values, with a high similarity to pig, which might relate to its predominant epidemic propensity in the field. The CAI, RCDI, and SiD values of ORF5 genes from different passages of MLV JXA1R indicate no relation between attenuation and CPB or codon adaptation decrease during serial passage on non-host cells. These findings provide a novel way of understanding the PRRSV's evolution, related to viral survival, host adaptation, and virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13061044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228872PMC
May 2021

Solid Form and Phase Transformation Properties of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride during Wet Granulation Process.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China.

The quality control of drug products during manufacturing processes is important, particularly the presence of different polymorphic forms in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during production, which could affect the performance of the formulated products. The objective of this study was to investigate the phase transformation of fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD) and its influence on the quality and performance of the drug. Water addition was key controlling factor for the polymorphic conversion from Form I to Form II (hydrate) during the wet granulation process of FXD. Water-induced phase transformation of FXD was studied and quantified with XRD and thermal analysis. When FXD was mixed with water, it rapidly converted to Form II, while the conversion is retarded when FXD is formulated with excipients. In addition, the conversion was totally inhibited when the water content was <15% /. The relationship between phase transformation and water content was studied at the small scale, and it was also applicable for the scale-up during wet granulation. The effect of phase transition on the FXD tablet performance was investigated by evaluating granule characterization and dissolution behavior. It was shown that, during the transition, the dissolved FXD acted as a binder to improve the properties of granules, such as density and flowability. However, if the water was over added, it can lead to the incomplete release of the FXD during dissolution. In order to balance the quality attributes and the dissolution of granules, the phase transition of FXD and the water amount added should be controlled during wet granulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13060802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229471PMC
May 2021

genome editing in single mammalian brain neurons through CRISPR-Cas9 and cytosine base editors.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 25;19:2477-2485. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Convergence of Basic Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea.

Gene manipulation is a useful approach for understanding functions of genes and is important for investigating basic mechanisms of brain function on the level of single neurons and circuits. Despite the development and the wide range of applications of CRISPR-Cas9 and base editors (BEs), their implementation for an analysis of individual neurons remained limited. In fact, conventional gene manipulations are generally achieved only on the population level. Here, we combined either CRISPR-Cas9 or BEs with the targeted single-cell electroporation technique as a proof-of-concept test for gene manipulation in single neurons . Our assay consisted of CRISPR-Cas9- or BEs-induced gene knockout in single Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of both gene editing and base editing in single cells in the intact brain, providing a tool through which molecular perturbations of individual neurons can be used for analysis of circuits and, ultimately, behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.04.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113754PMC
April 2021
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