Publications by authors named "Jun Du"

605 Publications

Identification of misdiagnosis by deep neural networks on a histopathologic review of breast cancer lymph node metastases.

Sci Rep 2022 Aug 5;12(1):13482. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Digital Health China Technologies Corporation Limited, Beijing, 100080, China.

The frozen section (FS) diagnoses of pathology experts are used in China to determine whether sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer have metastasis during operation. Direct implementation of a deep neural network (DNN) in clinical practice may be hindered by misdiagnosis of the algorithm, which affects a patient's treatment decision. In this study, we first obtained the prediction result of the commonly used patch-DNN, then we present a relative risk classification and regression tree (RRCART) to identify the misdiagnosed whole-slide images (WSIs) and recommend them to be reviewed by pathologists. Applying this framework to 2362 WSIs of breast cancer lymph node metastasis, test on frozen section results in the mean area under the curve (AUC) reached 0.9851. However, the mean misdiagnosis rate (0.0248), was significantly higher than the pathologists' misdiagnosis rate (p < 0.01). The RRCART distinguished more than 80% of the WSIs as a high-accuracy group with an average accuracy reached to 0.995, but the difference with the pathologists' performance was not significant (p > 0.01). However, the other low-accuracy group included most of the misdiagnoses of DNN models. Our research shows that the misdiagnosis from deep learning model can be further enriched by our method, and that the low-accuracy WSIs must be selected for pathologists to review and the high-accuracy ones may be ready for pathologists to give diagnostic reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17606-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355979PMC
August 2022

Cooling Field Dependence of Exchange Bias in Mn-Doped Metal- Organic Framework [NH(CH)][FeFe(HCOO)].

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 Jul 29:7185-7190. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.

Herein, an intriguing exchange bias (EB) effect manifesting itself from positive to negative with an increase in the cooling field () is reported in the single crystal of Mn-doped metal-organic framework (MOF) [NH(CH)][FeFe(HCOO)] () by finely tuning the exchange interactions between the magnetic ions. Note that the doping ratio of Mn relative to the total metal ions is about 15%. Negative magnetization and EB below the compensation temperature were both observed in , and the EB field () changes its sign from positive to negative when is larger than ∼10 kOe. The abnormal dependence of EB can be interpreted explicitly by a combination of negative magnetization and couplings among the ions of Fe, Fe, and Mn with varying the . This work demonstrates a tunable EB in MOFs, in favor of designing novel magnetic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.2c01844DOI Listing
July 2022

Facile fabrication of copper-incorporating poly(ε-caprolactone)/keratin mats for tissue-engineered vascular grafts with the potential of catalytic nitric oxide generation.

J Mater Chem B 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1678 Dong Fang Road, Shanghai 200127, P. R. China.

Tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) provide a new alternative for vascular construction. Nitric oxide (NO) is capable of promoting vascular tissue regeneration and reducing restenosis caused by vascular implantation. Therefore, production of NO by catalytic decomposition of the endogenous donor is a promising strategy to fabricate a TEVG. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was first electrospun with keratin (Ker) to afford PCL/Ker mats and then incorporated with Cu(II) ions through multiple interactions. This strategy is very simple, green, and facile. Particularly, the incorporated Cu(II) ions were partially reduced to Cu(I) ions due to the reducibility of keratin. The chelated copper ions were expected to catalyze the generation of NO from endogenous -nitrosothiol (RSNO). As a result, PCL/Ker-Cu mats selectively accelerated the adhesion, migration, and growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), while inhibiting the proliferation of human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). Furthermore, these mats exhibited excellent blood compatibility and significant antibacterial activity. Vascular implantation indicated that the tubular mats could inhibit thrombus formation and retain patency for 3 months after implantation in the rabbit carotid artery. More importantly, vascular remodeling was observed during follow-up, including a complete endothelium and smooth muscle layer. Taken together, the PCL/Ker-Cu mats have great potential application in vascular tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2tb01031cDOI Listing
July 2022

A Differentiation-Related Gene Prognostic Index Contributes to Prognosis and Immunotherapy Evaluation in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cells 2022 Jul 26;11(15). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

School of Clinical Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550000, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common gastrointestinal tumor with a poor prognosis, which is associated with poor differentiation of tumor cells. However, the potential value of cell differentiation-related molecules in predicting the benefit and prognosis of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy remains unknown. Herein, to investigate the differentiation trajectory of HCC cells and their clinical significance, a differentiation-related gene prognostic index (DRGPI) based on HCC differentiation-related genes (HDRGs) was constructed to elucidate the immune characteristics and therapeutic benefits of ICI in the HCC subgroup defined by DRGPI. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and bulk RNA-seq data from four HCC samples were integrated for bioinformatics analysis. Then, PON1, ADH4, SQSTM1, HSP90AA1, and STMN1 were screened out to construct a DRGPI. More intriguingly, RT-qPCR validation of the expression of these genes yielded consistent results with the TCGA database. Next, the risk scoring (RS) constructed based on DRGPI suggested that the overall survival (OS) of the DRGPI-high patients was significantly worse than that of the DRGPI-low patients. A nomogram was constructed based on DRGPI-RS and clinical characteristics, which showed strong predictive performance and high accuracy. The comprehensive results indicated that a low DRGPI score was associated with low TP53 mutation rates, high CD8 T cell infiltration, and more benefit from ICI therapy. Homoplastically, the high DRGPI score reflected the opposite results. Taken together, our study highlights the significance of HCC cell differentiation in predicting prognosis, indicating immune characteristics, and understanding the therapeutic benefits of ICI, and suggests that DRGPI is a valuable prognostic biomarker for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells11152302DOI Listing
July 2022

Pea Peptide Supplementation in Conjunction With Resistance Exercise Promotes Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength.

Front Nutr 2022 7;9:878229. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Zhong Shi Du Qing (Shandong) Biotechnology Company, Heze, China.

It is generally considered that protein supplementation and resistance exercise significantly increase muscle mass and muscle growth. As the hydrolysis products of proteins, peptides may play the crucial role on muscle growth. In this study, male rats were orally administrated 0.4 g/kg body weight of pea peptide combined with 8 weeks of moderate intensity resistance exercise training. After treatment, the body gains, upper limb grip, muscle thickness, and wet weight of biceps brachii were tested, and the cross-sectional area of biceps brachii muscle fiber and the types of muscle fibers were determined by HE staining, immunofluorescence staining, and lactate dehydrogenase activity, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to investigate the level of growth-signaling pathway-related proteins. The results showed that pea peptide supplementation combined with resistance exercise training significantly increased body weight, upper limb grip, muscle thickness, wet weight of biceps brachii, and cross-sectional area of muscle fiber. Meanwhile, pea peptide supplementation obviously elevated the ratio of fast-twitch fiber (type II) and the expression of muscle growth-signaling pathway-related proteins. In addition, the PP2 oligopeptide in pea peptide with the amino acid sequence of LDLPVL induced a more significant promotion on C2C12 cell growth than other oligopeptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.878229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9302772PMC
July 2022

Clinical metabolomic analysis of Danlou tablets with antioxidant effects for treating stable angina pectoris.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2022 Jul 1;219:114922. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 10 Poyanghu Road, West Area, Tuanbo New Town, Jinghai District, Tianjin 301617, China. Electronic address:

The Danlou tablets (DLT) is a patented Chinese medicine that can effectively ameliorate coronary heart disease- and angina pectoris-related chest congestion and pain. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of DLT in the context of stable angina pectoris (SAP) has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to analyze serum samples from patients with SAP before and after DLT administration. The results of metabolomic analyses were verified biologically, and the mechanisms of action of DLT with respect to treating SAP were elucidated. Nineteen biomarkers were identified. Among these biomarkers, the levels of 15 reverted to those corresponding to a healthy state following DLT treatment. The main metabolic pathways associated with the functions of DLT in SAP were energy metabolism, purine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, all of which are related to oxidative stress. Biological verification revealed that DLT decreased the expression of the oxidative stress indicators, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Taken together, we revealed that DLT effectively ameliorates SAP by adjusting the oxidative stress status. This study provided an objective index for evaluating the efficacy of DLT for treating SAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2022.114922DOI Listing
July 2022

Sorption, degradation and microbial toxicity of chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing fluid and produced water in soils.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jul 12;309:119754. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW, 2232, Australia. Electronic address:

Spills of hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids and of produced water during unconventional gas extraction operations may cause soil contamination. We studied the degradation and microbial toxicity of selected HF chemical components including two biocides (methylisothiozolinone- MIT, chloromethylisothiozolinone- CMIT), a gel-breaker aid (triethanolamine -TEA), and three geogenic chemicals (phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol) in ultrapure water, HF fluid and produced water in five different soil types (surface and subsurface soils). The degradation of the two biocides (in soils treated with HF fluid or ultrapure water) and of the three geogenic chemicals (in soils treated with produced water) was rapid (in all cases DT values < 2 days in surface soils). In contrast, the loss of TEA was much slower in soils, especially in those treated with HF fluid (DT > 30 days). Sorption coefficients (K in L/Kg) in these soils ranged from 71 to 733 for TEA, 64-408 for MIT and 11-72 for CMIT. In terms of soil microbial toxicity, exposure to HF fluid and produced water reduced microbial respiration, albeit temporarily. The overall microbial activities in surface soils contaminated with produced water had fully recovered in most soils. In contrast, the HF fluid addition to soils completely inhibited the nitrification in all soils, with little recovery over the 60 day experimental period. In the case of produced water exposure, three out of five surface soils showed complete recovery in nitrification during the study period. The functional genes for nitrogen fixation (nifH) and carbon cycling (GA1) and microbial community composition (16 S rRNA) were significantly affected by HF fluid in some soils. Overall, the study shows that the HF fluid can have significant detrimental impact on soil microbial functions, especially on nitrogen cycling. More work is needed to identify the exact cause of microbial toxicity in soils contaminated with HF fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119754DOI Listing
July 2022

Personalized Nutrition Intervention Improves Health Status in Overweight/Obese Chinese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Nutr 2022 22;9:919882. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Nutrilite Health Institute, Shanghai, China.

Background: Overweight and obesity increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Personalized nutrition (PN) approaches may provide tailored nutritional advice/service by focusing on individual's unique characteristics to prevent against NCDs.

Objective: We aimed to compare the effect of PN intervention with the traditional "one size fits all" intervention on health status in overweight/obese Chinese adults.

Methods: In this 12-week randomized controlled trial, 400 adults with BMI ≥24 kg/m were randomized to control group (CG, = 200) and PN group (PNG, = 200). The CG received conventional health guidance according to the and , whereas the PNG experienced PN intervention that was developed by using decision trees based on the subjects' anthropometric measurements, blood samples (phenotype), buccal cells (genotype), and dietary and physical activity (PA) assessments (baseline and updated).

Results: Compared with the conventional intervention, PN intervention significantly improved clinical outcomes of anthropometric (e.g., body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference) and blood biomarkers (e.g., blood lipids, uric acid, homocysteine). The improvement in clinical outcomes was achieved through behavior change in diet and PA. The subjects in the PNG had higher China dietary guidelines index values and PA levels. Personalized recommendations of "lose weight," "increase fiber" and "take multivitamin/mineral supplements" were the major contributors to the decrease of BMI and improvement of lipid profile.

Conclusion: We provided the first evidence that PN intervention was more beneficial than conventional nutrition intervention to improve health status in overweight/obese Chinese adults. This study provides a model of framework for developing personalized advice in Chinese population.Chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1900026226).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.919882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9258630PMC
June 2022

Optimal Strategy on Radiation Estimation for Calculating Universal Thermal Climate Index in Tourism Cities of China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 1;19(13). Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Tibet Institute of Plateau Atmospheric and Environmental Science Research, Tibet Autonomous Meteorological Administration, Lhasa 850001, China.

The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is believed to be a very powerful tool for providing information on human thermal perception in the domain of public health, but the solar radiation as an input variable is difficult to access. Thus, this study aimed to explore the optimal strategy on estimation of solar radiation to increase the accuracy in UTCI calculation, and to identify the spatial and temporal variation in UTCI over China. With daily meteorological data collected in 35 tourism cities in China from 1961 to 2020, two sunshine-based Angstrom and Ogelman models, and two temperature-based Bristow and Hargreaves models, together with neural network and support vector machine-learning methods, were tested against radiation measurements. The results indicated that temperature-based models performed the worst with the lowest and highest . The machine-learning methods performed better in calibration, but the predictive ability decreased significantly in validation due to big data requirements. In contrast, the sunshine-based Angstrom model performed best with high (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) of 0.84 and low (Root Mean Square Error) of 35.4 J/m s in validation, which resulted in a small of about 1.2 °C in UTCI calculation. Thus, Angstrom model was selected as the optimal strategy on radiation estimation for UTCI calculation over China. The spatial distribution of UTCI showed that days under no thermal stress were high in tourism cities in central China within a range from 135 to 225 days, while the largest values occurred in Kunming and Lijiang in southwest China. In addition, days under no thermal stress during a year have decreased in most tourism cities of China, which could be attributed to the asymmetric changes in significant decrease in frost days and slightly increase in hot days. However, days under no thermal stress in summer time have indeed decreased, accompanying with increasing days under strong stress, especially in the developed regions such as Yangze River Delta and Zhujiang River Delta. Based on the study, we conclude that UTCI can successfully depict the overall spatial distribution and temporal change of the thermal environments in the tourism cities over China, and can be recommend as an efficient index in the operational services for assessing and predicting thermal perception for public health. However, extreme cold and heat stress in the tourism cities of China were not revealed by UTCI due to mismatch of the daily UTCI with category at hourly scale, which makes it an urgent task to redefine category at daily scale in the next research work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266112PMC
July 2022

Upregulation of cadherin-11 contributes to cholestatic liver fibrosis.

Pediatr Investig 2022 Jun 22;6(2):100-110. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai China.

Importance: Cadherin-11 (CDH11), a cell-to-cell adhesion molecule, is implicated in the fibrotic process of several organs. Biliary atresia (BA) is a common cholestatic liver disease featuring cholestasis and progressive liver fibrosis in children. Cholestatic liver fibrosis may progress to liver cirrhosis and lacks effective therapeutic strategies. Currently, the role of CDH11 in cholestatic liver fibrosis remains unclear.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the functions of CDH11 in cholestatic liver fibrosis.

Methods: The expression of in BA livers was evaluated by database analysis and immunostaining. Seven BA liver samples were used for immunostaining. The wild type (Wt) and knockout ( ) mice were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) to induce cholestatic liver fibrosis. The serum biochemical analysis, liver histology, and western blotting were used to assess the extent of liver injury and fibrosis as well as activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad pathway. The effect of CDH11 on the activation of hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 cells was investigated.

Results: Analysis of public RNA-seq datasets showed that expression levels were significantly increased in livers of BA, and CDH11 was correlated with liver fibrosis in BA. BDL-induced liver injury and liver fibrosis were attenuated in mice compared to Wt mice. The protein expression levels of phosphorylated Smad2/3 were decreased in livers of BDL mice compared to Wt BDL mice. knockdown inhibited the activation of LX-2 cells.

Interpretation: CDH11 plays an important role in cholestatic liver fibrosis and may represent a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease, such as BA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218970PMC
June 2022

Determination of Nucleotide Sequences within Promoter Regions Affecting Promoter Compatibility between and .

ACS Synth Biol 2022 Jun 30. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, and School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China.

A promoter plays a crucial role in controlling the expression of the target gene in cells, thus being one of the key biological parts for synthetic biology practices. Although significant efforts have been made to identify and characterize promoters with different strengths in various microorganisms, the compatibility of promoters within different hosts still lacks investigation. In this study, we chose the native P promoter of to investigate nucleotide sequences within promoter regions affecting promoter compatibility between and . P is one of the strongest promotors in that has many excellent characteristics to be developed as microbial cell factories. Using EGFP as a reporter, a -derived P mutant library was constructed and sorted in , with candidate promoters exhibiting high fluorescence intensity collected. A total of 53 variants were finally selected and sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The sequencing results grouped these variants into 12 different P variant types, among which seven types presented higher promoter strength than native P in . The next-generation sequencing technique was then employed to identify key mutations within the P promoter region that affect the promoter compatibility. Finally, six important sites were identified and confirmed to help increase P strength in while keeping similar strength of native P in . Compared to native P, synthetic promoters combining these sites had enhanced strength; especially, P-6M combining all six sites exhibited 20-fold greater strength than native P in . This study thus not only determined six important sites affecting promoter compatibility but also confirmed a series of P promoter variants with strong promoter activity in both and . In addition, a strategy was established in this study to investigate and determine nucleotide sequences in promoter regions affecting promoter compatibility, which can be applied in other microorganisms to help reveal universal factors affecting promoter compatibility and design promoters with desired strengths among different microbial cell factories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.2c00187DOI Listing
June 2022

Toxic metals in rice-fish co-culture systems and human health.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Aug 24;241:113797. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Fisheries Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 611731, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

The threat of contamination with toxic metals (TMs) to food security and human health has become a high priority in recent decades. Hence, countless studies have investigated the safe cultivation of rice and fish, respectively, as the main food crop and protein source worldwide. For the present study, a literature search of the PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases identified 11 studies that met the inclusion criteria and provided sufficient data to assess the relationship between TM contamination of rice, fish, and shrimp products from rice-fish co-culture systems and carcinogenic risk (CR) and non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) to humans. The result showed that consumption of Monopterus albus and rice contaminated with a single TM had a slight non-CR, which is synergistically increased by multiple TMs. Consumption of Procambarus clarkii posed no non-CR to humans. The CR of all studies ranged from 1.77 × 10 to 5.65 × 10, and less than 1 × 10, indicating that under current food safety guidelines, rice and fish produced by rice-fish co-culture systems pose no CR. Rice-fish co-culture systems can greatly reduce the CR and non-CR of TMs to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113797DOI Listing
August 2022

International student perceptions of online medical education during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2022 07 21;50(4):414-420. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

This study aimed to investigate how international students enrolled on medical and surgical bachelor's degree programs (MBBS) in China perceived online medical education course, compared to native Chinese students during the Covid-19 pandemic. The perceptions of 38 MBBS and 31 Chinese sophomores were surveyed using the Chaoxing platform. The international student group's mean satisfaction with online teaching was 2.737 on a 5-point scale, much lower than the Chinese students' mean score of 4.355 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the international students expressed less satisfaction than the Chinese learners with other aspects of the course, including the teacher's level, at 3.964 ± 0.818 versus 4.445 ± 0.548 (p < 0.05); curriculum organization, at 3.651 ± 0.848 versus 4.333 ± 0.568 (p < 0.05); and self-learning level, at 3.634 ± 0.996 versus 3.686 ± 0.949 (p > 0.05), respectively. There were also noteworthy differences between the progress made by the international students in Chinese language learning, which was positively correlated with satisfaction with teaching on the online medical education (p < 0.05). The results suggest that, while online teaching was a necessary response to the Covid-19 pandemic, satisfaction with this mode of education is lower among international students than their Chinese counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmb.21641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9350362PMC
July 2022

Electric Control of Exchange Bias at Room Temperature by Resistive Switching via Electrochemical Metallization.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China.

Electric field control of exchange bias (EB) plays an important role in spintronics due to its attractive merit of lower energy consumption. Here, we propose a novel method for electrically tunable EB at room temperature in a device with the stack of Si/SiO/Ta/Pt/Ag/Mn-doped ZnO (MZO)/Pt/FeMn/Co/ITO by resistive switching (RS) via electrochemical metallization (ECM). The device shows enhanced and weakened EB when set at high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS), respectively. For the device at LRS, the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) characterizations unambiguously reveal that the Ag filaments grow initially from the Ag anode and then elongate toward the ITO cathode. It is inferred that at LRS, a small portion of Ag filaments have passed through the MZO and the intervening thin Pt layer and extended into the FeMn layer. After applying reverse voltage, these Ag filaments are electrochemically dissolved and ruptured near the MZO/Pt interface. This is considered to be the main mechanism responsible for RS and switchable EB as well. This work presents a new strategy for designing low-power, nonvolatile magnetoelectric random access memory devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c05764DOI Listing
June 2022

Toxic Metals in a Paddy Field System: A Review.

Toxics 2022 May 16;10(5). Epub 2022 May 16.

Fisheries Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 611731, China.

The threat of toxic metals to food security and human health has become a high-priority issue in recent decades. As the world's main food crop source, the safe cultivation of rice has been the focus of much research, particularly the restoration of toxic metals in paddy fields. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the effects of toxic metals on rice, as well as the removal or repair methods of toxic metals in paddy fields. We also provide a detailed discussion of the sources and monitoring methods of toxic metals pollution, the current toxic metal removal, and remediation methods in paddy fields. Finally, several important research issues related to toxic metals in paddy field systems are proposed for future work. The review has an important guiding role for the future of heavy metal remediation in paddy fields, safe production of rice, green ecological fish culture, and human food security and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9148070PMC
May 2022

Phosphinoamido ligand supported heterobimetallic rare-earth metal-palladium complexes: versatile structures and redox reactivities.

Dalton Trans 2022 Jun 7;51(22):8777-8785. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education; Anhui Laboratory of Molecule-Based Materials; College of Chemistry and Materials Science; Anhui Normal University, S 189, Jiuhua Road, Wuhu, Anhui 241002, P. R. China.

Heterobimetallic Ln(III)-Pd(0) complexes (Ln = Y, Sm, Gd, Yb) featuring tetranuclear structures with COD as bridges were obtained the metallation of tris(phosphinoamido) rare-earth metal complexes [PhPNAd]Ln (Ad = adamantyl) with (COD)Pd(CHSiMe). Notably, the Sc(III)-Pd(0) complex possesses a -symmetry with a very short Sc-Pd bond length of 2.432(2) Å, while the tetranuclear complexes exhibited versatile structures both in solution and in the solid state. Reduction of the trivalent complex (PhPNAd)Yb with one equivalent of KC in the presence of 18-c-6 afforded the divalent complex [(PhPNAd)Yb][(18-c-6)K(THF)], which was further reacted with (PhP)Pd to form the first Yb(II)-Pd(0) complex. The Pd(0) → Yb dative interaction weakened significantly from Yb(III) to Yb(II) based on computational studies, which was attributed to the attenuated Lewis acidity of the Yb(II) center. Reactions of Ln(III)-Pd(0) complexes (Ln = Sc and Yb) with the disulfide PhSSPh showed that the Pd(0) center served as a two-electron donor while the reaction apparently occurred on the Ln(III) centers to form Ln(III)-Pd(0) bis-sulfide complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt01084dDOI Listing
June 2022

Mptx2 defends against peritoneal infection by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Jul 21;108:108856. Epub 2022 May 21.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Research, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistance. There is an urgent need for developing novel approaches to combat MRSA infection. Mucosal pentraxin 2 (Mptx2) is predicted to be a member of the pentraxin family, but its biological function is still unknown. This study is aimed to explore the roles of Mptx2 in MRSA-associated peritoneal infection. The recombinant Mptx2 protein is used to evaluate its antibacterial activity. Biofilm formation assay and macrophage phagocytic experiment are performed to explore the involved mechanisms. The effects of Mptx2 on peritoneal infection are investigated in a MRSA-induced peritoneal infected model. We here show that addition of Mptx2 suppresses the growth and biofilm formation of MRSA in vitro. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding analysis shows that Mptx2 protein directly binds to the MRSA. Additionally, Mptx2 supplementation promotes macrophages to phagocytize and clear the MRSA. In the MRSA-infected peritonitis model, Mptx2 administration reduces MRSA loading in peritoneal organs and alleviates peritoneal damage. Mptx2 knockout aggravates MRSA infection-induced peritoneal injury. In conclusion, our findings reveal that Mptx2 has bactericidal activity against MRSA both in vitro and in vivo, which may shed light on the discovery and development of novel strategies for MRSA-infected peritonitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108856DOI Listing
July 2022

Heat Stress Weakens the Skin Barrier Function in Sturgeon by Decreasing Mucus Secretion and Disrupting the Mucosal Microbiota.

Front Microbiol 2022 26;13:860079. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, China.

Heat stress induced by global warming has damaged the well-being of aquatic animals. The skin tissue plays a crucial role as a defense barrier to protect organism, however, little is known about the effect of heat stress on fish skin, particularly in cold-water fish species. Here, we investigated the effects of mild heat stress (24°C, MS) and high heat stress (28°C, HS) on Siberian sturgeon skin using RNA-seq, histological observation, and microbial diversity analysis. In RNA-seq, 8,819 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in MS vs. C group and 12,814 DEGs in HS vs. C group were acquired, of which the MS vs. C and HS vs. C groups shared 3,903 DEGs, but only 1,652 DEGs were successfully annotated. The shared DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways associating with mucins synthesis. Histological observation showed that the heat stresses significantly reduced the number of skin mucous cells and induced the damages of epidermis. The microbial diversity analysis elicited that heat stress markedly disrupted the diversity and abundance of skin microbiota by increasing of potential pathogens (, , and ) and decreasing of probiotics ( and ). In conclusion, this study reveals that heat stress causes adverse effects on sturgeon skin, reflecting in decreasing the mucus secretion and disordering the mucosal microbiota, which may contribute to develop the preventive strategy for heat stress caused by global warming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.860079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9087187PMC
April 2022

Cold Pressor Test in Primary Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 25;9:860322. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of patients with primary hypertension who had positive responses to the cold pressor test (CPT).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2018 to November 2019, and the CPT was performed in patients with primary hypertension in 48 hospitals. The demographic characteristics and complications were collected through a questionnaire and physical examinations. A 12-month follow-up was conducted to identify the occurrence of the following events: a) all-cause mortality; b) myocardial infarction; c) stroke; d) hospitalized for heart failure.

Results: The CPT was positive in 30.7% of the patients. Compared with the negative CPT group, the positive CPT group was associated with a lower rate of blood pressure control, and was more likely to have a high salt diet, diabetes, hyperuricemia, left ventricular wall thickening, carotid plaques, coronary heart disease and heart failure. A high-salt diet (OR = 1.228, 95%CI: 1.037-1.456) was found to be correlated with the positive result of CPT. Among patients in the positive CPT group, those using diuretics had a significantly higher rate of blood pressure control than those not using diuretics (54.6 vs.42.6%, x = 6.756, = 0.009). After a 12-month follow-up, the incidence of heart failure in the positive CPT group was significantly higher than that in the negative CPT group (7.35 vs.5.01%, x = 3.945, = 0.047).

Conclusions: Patients with positive responses to the CPT had lower rates of BP control and a high risk of heart failure, which may be related to their preference for a high-salt diet. The use of diuretics helps to better control blood pressure in those patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.860322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081644PMC
April 2022

Boosting photocatalytic CO reduction Schottky junction with ZnCr layered double hydroxide nanoflakes aggregated on 2D TiCT cocatalyst.

Nanoscale 2022 May 26;14(20):7538-7546. Epub 2022 May 26.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China.

Designing efficient photocatalysts is vital for the photoreduction of CO to produce solar fuels, helping to alleviate issues of fossil fuel depletion and global warming. In this work, a novel ZnCr-LDH/TiCT Schottky junction is successfully synthesized using an coprecipitation method. ZnCr-LDH nanoflakes collectively grow on the surface of TiCT MXene nanosheets. When using TiCT MXene as a cocatalyst in the prepared heterojunction, the light absorption intensity, photo-induced electron separation and migration efficiency increase. As a result, the composite ZnCr-LDH/TiCT results in significant improvement in the performance of photocatalytic CO reduction under simulated solar irradiation. The optimized sample ZCTC25 has the highest photocatalytic CO reduction rates of 122.45 μmol g CO and 19.95 μmol g CH (after 6 h of irradiation). These values are approximately 2.65 times higher than those of pristine ZnCr-LDH. The product selectivity towards CO is 86%. This work provides a new method for the construction of novel 2D semiconductor photocatalysts and enriches the application of an unusual type of layered double hydroxides in the photoreduction of CO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr01448cDOI Listing
May 2022

High MICAL-L2 expression and its role in the prognosis of colon adenocarcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2022 May 2;22(1):487. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211166, China.

Background: MICAL-like protein 2 (MICAL-L2), a member of the molecules interacting with CasL (MICAL) family of proteins, is strongly associated with the malignancy of multiple types of cancer. However, the role of MICAL-L2 in colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) has not been well characterized.

Methods: In this study, we analyzed the role of MICAL-L2 in COAD using datasets available from public databases. The mRNA and protein expression of MICAL-L2 was investigated using TCGA, UALCAN, and independent immunohistochemical assays. Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of COAD patients were assessed based on the MICAL-L2 expression level using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analysis was employed to determine whether MICAL-L2 could serve as an independent prognostic indicator of OS. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were further utilized to explore the possible cellular mechanism underlying the role of MICAL-L2 in COAD. In addition, the correlation between MICAL-L2 expression and immune cell infiltration levels was investigated via single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA).

Results: Data from TCGA, HPA, and UALCAN datasets indicated that MICAL-L2 expression was significantly higher in COAD tissue than in adjacent normal tissues, and this was confirmed by immunohistochemical assays. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with MICAL-L2 had shorter OS and DSS. Furthermore, multivariate Cox analysis indicated that MICAL-L2 was an independent risk factor for OS in COAD patients. ROC analysis confirmed the diagnostic value of MICAL-L2, and a prognostic nomogram involving age, M stage, and MICAL-L2 expression was constructed for OS. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that transport-related activity was closely associated with the role of MICAL-L2 in COAD. Regarding immune infiltration levels, MICAL-L2 was found to be positively associated with CD56 NK cells.

Conclusions: Our results suggested that MICAL-L2 is a promising biomarker for determining prognosis and correlated with immune infiltration levels in COAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09614-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9063352PMC
May 2022

Optimal scheduling of integrated energy system based on improved grey wolf optimization algorithm.

Sci Rep 2022 05 2;12(1):7095. Epub 2022 May 2.

State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., Ltd Lianyungang Power Supply Branch, No. 1, Xingfu Road, Haizhou District, Lianyungang City, 222000, Jiangsu Province, China.

The optimal scheduling problem of integrated energy system (IES) has the characteristics of high-dimensional nonlinearity. Using the traditional Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) to solve the problem, it is easy to fall into a local optimum in the process of optimization, resulting in a low-quality scheduling scheme. Aiming at the dispatchability of electric and heat loads, this paper proposes an electric and heat comprehensive demand response model considering the participation of dispatchers. On the basis of incentive demand response, the group aggregation model of electrical load is constructed, and the electric load response model is constructed with the goal of minimizing the deviation between the dispatch signal and the load group aggregation characteristic model. Then, a heat load scheduling model is constructed according to the ambiguity of the human body's perception of temperature. On the basis of traditional GWO, the Fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm is used to group wolves, which increases the diversity of the population, uses the Harris Hawk Optimizer (HHO) to design the prey to search for the best escape position, and reduces the local The optimal probability, and the use of Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) and Bat Optimizer (BO) to design the moving modes of different positions, increase the ability to find the global optimum, so as to obtain an Improved Gray Wolf Optimizer (IGWO), and then efficiently solve the model. IGWO can improve the defect of insufficient population diversity in the later stage of evolution, so that the population diversity can be better maintained during the entire evolution process. While taking into account the speed of optimization, it improves the algorithm's ability to jump out of the local optimum and realizes continuous deep search. Compared with the traditional intelligent Optimizer, IGWO has obvious improvement and achieved better results. At the same time, the comprehensive demand response that considers the dispatcher's desired signal improves the accommodation of new energy and reduces the operating cost of the system, and promotes the benign interaction between the source and the load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10958-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9061848PMC
May 2022

Integrated analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in Leiocassis longirostris at gonadal maturation.

Funct Integr Genomics 2022 Aug 25;22(4):655-667. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Fisheries Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu, 611731, Sichuan, China.

Leiocassis longirostris is a commercially important fish species that shows a sexually dimorphic growth pattern. A lack of molecular data from the gonads of this species has hindered research and selective breeding efforts. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the expression profile of miRNA and mRNA to explore their regulatory roles in the gonadal maturation stage of L. longirostris. We identified 60 differentially expressed miRNAs and 20,752 differentially expressed genes by sequencing. A total of 90 miRNAs and 21 target genes involved in gonad development and sex determination were identified. Overall, the results of this study enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination and differentiation and provide valuable genomic information for the selective breeding of L. longirostris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-022-00857-5DOI Listing
August 2022

Method for extraction and analysis of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances in contaminated asphalt.

Anal Methods 2022 05 5;14(17):1678-1689. Epub 2022 May 5.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Land and Water, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, South Australia, Australia.

The legacy use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) has led to the generation of large volumes of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)-contaminated asphalt materials, especially at airports and fire training areas. The management of such PFAS-contaminated asphalt materials requires an understanding of PFAS concentrations in these materials. This study, therefore, aimed to develop a suitable extraction methodology for the analysis of 22 target PFAS (, carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids and fluorotelomers) in asphalt materials. A series of experiments was conducted to optimise extraction solvent composition, as well as to assess the performance of the chosen method under various conditions (, sonication temperature, PFAS contamination level, asphalt core composition and timing of stable isotope addition used as internal standard). The methanol-based extractants performed best due to their accuracy and precision, which were within the acceptable range (extraction efficiency between 70 and 130% and RSD < 20%). The method which involved three successive extractions with methanol/1% NH by ultrasonication at 25 °C was selected due to its performance and ease of operation. The mean recovery of a vast majority of PFAS was found to be in the acceptable range. Tests on the timing of addition of stable isotope (SI)-labelled PFAS internal standards indicate that the recoveries obtained, regardless of when the stable isotopes were added, were within the acceptable range for PFAS. The accuracy and precision of PFAS recoveries were not affected by PFAS spike level (2 μg kg and 200 μg kg), as well as sample composition (based on the location of asphalt material in the field). Low RSDs were achieved for asphalt cores collected from a contaminated site covering a wide range of concentrations (from LOQ to 2135 mg kg), demonstrating the suitability of the sample preparation method for real-world samples. The results from the interlaboratory testing were also in good agreement and validated the proposed PFAS extraction and analytical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ay00221cDOI Listing
May 2022

Lanthanide-doped bismuth-based nanophosphors for ratiometric upconversion optical thermometry.

RSC Adv 2022 Mar 21;12(14):8743-8749. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

School of Materials and Chemistry, Institute of Bismuth and Rhenium Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology Shanghai 200093 China

Nanothermometry could realize stable, efficient, and noninvasive temperature detection at the nanoscale. Unfortunately, most applications of nanothermometers are still limited due to their intricate synthetic process and low-temperature sensitivity. Herein, we reported a kind of novel bismuth-based upconversion nanomaterial with a fast and facile preparation strategy. The bismuth-based upconversion luminophore was synthesized by the co-precipitation method within 1 minute. By optimizing the doping ratio of the sensitizer Yb ion and the activator Er ion and adjusting the synthetic solvent strategy, the crystallinity of the nanomaterials was increased and the upconversion luminescence intensity was improved. Ratiometric upconversion optical measurements of temperature in the range of 278 K to 358 K can be achieved by ratiometric characteristic emission peaks of thermally sensitive Er ion. This method of rapidly constructing nanometer temperature probes provides a feasible strategy for the construction of novel fluorescent temperature probes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01181fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8985227PMC
March 2022

BSA-encapsulated cyclometalated iridium complexes as nano-photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of tumor cells.

RSC Adv 2021 Apr 23;11(25):15323-15331. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute of Bismuth Science, College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology Shanghai 200093 China

Photodynamic therapy is a promising treatment method. The development of suitable photosensitizers can improve therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report three iridium complexes (Ir1, Ir2, and Ir3), and encapsulate them within bovine serum albumin (BSA) to form nano-photosensitizers ([email protected], [email protected], and [email protected]) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells. In the structures of Ir(iii) complexes, we use the pyrazine heterocycle as part of the C^N ligands and explore the effect of different ligands on the ability to generate singlet oxygen (O) by changing the conjugation length of the ligand and increasing the coplanarity of the ligand. Besides, the fabricated nano-photosensitizers are beneficial to improve water dispersibility and increase cellular uptake ability. Through studying photophysical properties, O generation capacity, and cellular uptake performance, the results show that [email protected] has the best photodynamic therapeutic effect on 4T1 tumor cells. This study provides an effective research basis for the further design of new nano-photosensitizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra01740cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698255PMC
April 2021

Gypenoside-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Bladder Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2022 29;2022:9304552. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Urology the Cancer Hospital of China Medical University & Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shenyang, Liaoning 110042, China.

(Thunb.) Makino () is a natural herbal drug that has been widely used to treat many diseases. The antitumor effects of were first described in the illustrated catalog of plants. Gypenosides are the major active components of , and they have been widely reported to possess antitumor effects in prostate cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer. However, research on the use of gypenoside in the treatment of bladder cancer has not been conducted. In this study, we explored the potential molecular mechanisms of gypenosides in the treatment of bladder cancer using network pharmacology and experimental validation. First, we used a network pharmacology-based method to identify both the effective components of gypenosides and the molecular mechanism underlying their antibladder cancer effects. The results were further confirmed by molecular docking, CCK8 and colony formation assays, and cell cycle and cell apoptosis analyses. Additionally, a mouse xenograft model of bladder cancer was used to investigate the antitumor effect of gypenosides in vivo. We identified 10 bioactive ingredients and 163 gene targets of gypenosides. Network exploration suggested that VEGFA, STAT3, and PI3KCA may be candidate agents for the antibladder cancer effect of gypenosides. In addition, analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway revealed that the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway may play a crucial role in the mechanism of action of gypenosides against bladder cancer. Molecular docking revealed that gypenosides combine well with PI3K, AKT, and mTOR. As expected, gypenosides displayed apoptosis-inducing properties in bladder cancer cells by inactivating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in vitro. Furthermore, gypenosides significantly ( < 0.05) inhibited the growth of bladder cancer cells in vivo. Mechanistically, gypenosides induced the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells via inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9304552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8984741PMC
April 2022

Ultrasound-triggered reactive oxygen species effector nanoamplifier for enhanced combination therapy of mutant p53 tumors.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 Jul 4;215:112489. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System, the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage is a crucial method with which to inhibit tumor cell proliferation; however, tumor cells can reduce ROS damage by modulating multiple repair mechanisms, thus, reducing the efficacy of ROS damage in tumor therapy. In this study, we built an ultrasound-triggered ROS damage nanoamplifier using a synergistic strategy consisting of ROS damage and decreased tumor self-protection capability to enhance the treatment efficacy of mutant p53 tumors. A ROS damage nanoamplifier ([email protected]) was fabricated using amphiphilic polyglutamic acid (PTGA) to load with a sonosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) and an MTH1 inhibitor (TH287). Under ultrasonic excitation, PpIX catalyzes oxygen to produce singlet oxygen and release TH287 to inhibit MTH1 activity, thereby causing the accumulation of 8-oxo-dGTP, which enhances DNA damage and further induces cell apoptosis. In addition, TH287 allies with ROS to eliminate the mutated p53 protein in tumor cells, thus reducing the self-protective capacity of tumor cells. As a result, the "internal and external" aspects were combined to enhance sensitization for mutant p53 tumor therapy. The construction of a ROS nanoamplifier not only provides an effective strategy for the treatment of mutant p53 tumors but also supplies an integrated platform for tumor diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2022.112489DOI Listing
July 2022

Genetic diversity of two color morphs of Northern snakehead () unveiled by the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 1;7(3):515-520. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Fishery Institute of the Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu, China.

To analyze the genetic background of 'white' type Northern snakehead (), and provide atheoretical basis for breeding of , the investigation of genetic diversity and population structure were investigated based on the complete sequences of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region for three cultured 'white' type populations, and four 'bicolor' type populations were used to compare with them; 28 mutation loci and 30 haplotypes were found in the D-loop sequence of all individuals with a total length of 907 bp. The highest haplotype diversity ( ) and nucleotide diversity ( ) in the 'white' type populations were 0.505 and 0.00057, respectively, which lower than those in the 'bicolor' type populations ( = 0.911, = 0.00326). Population differentiation values ( ) show that the four 'bicolor' type populations had obvious genetic differentiation (: 0.21902-0.49428.  < 0.01), but not in the three 'white' type populations (: -0.00571 to 0.07261.  > 0.05). The phylogenetic tree and Median Joining (MJ) network showed that the genetic distance among 'white' type populations is very close. Therefore, much attention should be paid to protecting population genetic diversity and avoiding inbreeding in the breeding of 'white' type .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2029601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8979526PMC
April 2022
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