Publications by authors named "Jun Chen"

5,567 Publications

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Transcriptome analysis of walnut quality formation and color change mechanism of pellicle during walnut development.

Gene Expr Patterns 2022 Jun 24:119260. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710069, China. Electronic address:

Walnuts (including those covered with a pellicle) are loved for their rich nutritional value. And the popular varieties of walnut cultivation are Juglans sigillata L. The pellicle (seed coat) of these walnut cultivars has different colors and has an indispensable influence on the walnut quality formation. However, there are few reports on the pellicle color and quality formation in different developmental stages of walnut (Juglans sigillata L.). Therefore, in this study, three walnut cultivars (F, Q, and T) with different pellicle colors were selected for transcriptome sequencing and physiological index analysis of the color and quality formation mechanisms at different development stages. The results showed that with the development of walnut fruit, the starch sucrose metabolism pathway in the pellicle was activated and promoted starch hydrolysis. Meanwhile, the expression levels of genes related to the alpha-linolenic acid metabolism pathway were significantly increased during walnut maturation, especially in F2. Some physiological indicators related to lipid oxidation were also detected and analyzed in this study, such as MDA, CAT, POD and DPPH. These results were similar to the expression patterns of corresponding regulatory genes in the RNA-Seq profile. In addition, lignin synthesis genes were up-regulated in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway, while key genes enriched in the flavonoid and anthocyanin synthesis pathways were down-regulated. The results were consistent with the results of total anthocyanins and flavonoid content detection during walnut development. Therefore, this experiment suggested that with the maturation of walnut pellicle, the gene expression in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway flowed to the branch of lignin synthesis, especially in the Q variety, resulting in lower flavonoid and anthocyanin content at the maturity stage than immature. This is also the main reason for the pale pellicle of the three walnut varieties after mature. The findings of this study showed that changes in the expression levels of regulating genes for lipid, starch, sugar, and flavonoid synthesis during walnut development influenced the accumulation of the related metabolite for walnut quality formation and pellicle color. The results of this experiment provided the molecular basis and reference for the breeding of high nutritional quality walnut varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gep.2022.119260DOI Listing
June 2022

Salinity and seasonality shaping free-living and particle-associated bacterioplankton community assembly in lakeshores of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Environ Res 2022 Jun 24:113717. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China; State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining, 810016, Qinghai, China; Institute for Ecological Research and Pollution Control of Plateau Lakes, School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China.

Microorganisms in lakeshore zones are essential for pollution interception and biodiversity maintenance. However, the biogeographic patterns of bacterioplankton communities in lakeshore zones and the mechanisms that driving them are poorly understood. We analyzed the 16 S rRNA gene sequences of particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterioplankton communities in the lakeshore zones of 14 alpine lakes in two seasons on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to investigate the bacterial diversity, composition and assembly processes. Our results revealed that PA and FL bacterioplankton communities were driven by both seasonality and salinity in the lakeshores on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Compared to FL bacterioplankton, PA bacterioplankton communities were more susceptible to seasonality than spatial salinity. FL bacterioplankton communities were more salinity constrained than the PA counterpart. Besides, the Stegen null model analyses have validated a quantitative bias on stochastic processes at different spatial scales. At a regional scale, stochasticity was the predominant assembly process in both PA and FL bacterioplankton. While at a subregional scale, dispersal limitation was the main contributor of stochastic processes for PA bacterioplankton in summer and heterogeneous selection was the dominant deterministic processes in winter, whereas the community assembly of FL bacterioplankton was more stochastic processes (i.e., dispersal limitation) dominated in the freshwater type but deterministic process (i.e., heterogeneous selection) increased with increasing salinity. Our study provides new insights into both significant spatiotemporal patterns and distinct assembly processes of PA and FL bacterioplankton in alpine lakeshores on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113717DOI Listing
June 2022

Light-Controlled Recruitable Hybridization Chain Reaction on Exosome Vehicles for Highly Sensitive MicroRNA Imaging in Living Cells.

Anal Chem 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Sensitive imaging of intracellular microRNA (miRNA) in living cells is of great significance. Isothermal hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based methods, although have been widely used to monitor intracellular low-abundance miRNA, are still subjected to the challenges of limited signal amplification efficiency and compromised imaging resolution. In this work, we design a light-controlled recruitable HCR (LCR-HCR) strategy that enables us to well overcome these limitations. Exosomes as delivery and recruitment vehicles are modified with three cholesterol-modified hairpins (H, H, and H), in which H is for anchoring target miRNA and H and H with photocleavable linkers (PC-linkers) are designed for spatiotemporal HCR. By controllably releasing probes with high local concentrations to efficiently trigger HCR and further recruiting the generated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) polymers instead of dispersion in the cytoplasm, the LCR-HCR method can significantly improve the imaging contrast by confining all of the reactants on exosome vehicles. For a proof-of-concept demonstration, the miR-21 was analyzed by LCR-HCR with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 3.3 pM (corresponding to 165 amol per 50 μL) in vitro and four times higher response than traditional HCR in vivo. In general, the LCR-HCR method provides a powerful tool for sensitive miRNA imaging in living cells and cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c00974DOI Listing
June 2022

Wushu Routine Movement and Diagnosis Based on Deep Learning and Symmetric Difference Algorithm.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 17;2022:1615923. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Physical Education, Handan University, Handan 056000, Hebei, China.

Wushu is one of the traditional cultural symbols of the Chinese nation. It is also one of the most popular sports activities among the people. With the attention and love of contemporary people to sports activities, Wushu is also constantly developing and innovating. The requirements for professional martial arts routines of martial arts athletes are higher than ever. The development of martial arts has also made martial arts competitions more intense, and often a small detail of martial arts movements can determine the success or failure of the competition. Therefore, various Wushu teams pay more and more attention to the analysis and diagnosis of Wushu routines. It ensures that coaches and athletes can obtain more quantitative indicators of technical movement training. The analysis and diagnosis of martial arts routines are inseparable from the support of reliable science and technology and related algorithms. This article aims to study the analysis and diagnosis of martial arts routines based on deep learning and symmetric difference algorithm. It combines deep learning and symmetric difference algorithm to analyze and diagnose martial arts routines. The article concludes that the level of martial arts routines of martial arts athletes has the greatest influence on their martial arts competition performance, and its comprehensive influence index is as high as 4.3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1615923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9232334PMC
June 2022

Phagocytic microglia and macrophages in brain injury and repair.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Aims: Phagocytosis is the cellular digestion of extracellular particles, such as pathogens and dying cells, and is a key element in the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia and macrophages are the professional phagocytes of the CNS. By clearing toxic cellular debris and reshaping the extracellular matrix, microglia/macrophages help pilot the brain repair and functional recovery process. However, CNS resident and invading immune cells can also magnify tissue damage by igniting runaway inflammation and phagocytosing stressed-but viable-neurons.

Discussion: Microglia/macrophages help mediate intercellular communication and react quickly to the "find-me" signals expressed by dead/dying neurons. The activated microglia/macrophages then migrate to the injury site to initiate the phagocytic process upon encountering "eat-me" signals on the surfaces of endangered cells. Thus, healthy cells attempt to avoid inappropriate engulfment by expressing "do not-eat-me" signals. Microglia/macrophages also have the capacity to phagocytose immune cells that invade the injured brain (e.g., neutrophils) and to regulate their pro-inflammatory properties. During brain recovery, microglia/macrophages engulf myelin debris, initiate synaptogenesis and neurogenesis, and sculpt a favorable extracellular matrix to support network rewiring, among other favorable roles. Here, we review the multilayered nature of phagocytotic microglia/macrophages, including the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern microglia/macrophage-induced phagocytosis in acute brain injury, and discuss strategies that tap into the therapeutic potential of this engulfment process.

Conclusion: Identification of biological targets that can temper neuroinflammation after brain injury without hindering the essential phagocytic functions of microglia/macrophages will expedite better medical management of the stroke recovery stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13899DOI Listing
June 2022

Responses of Soil Microbiota to Different Control Methods of the in the Yellow River Delta.

Microorganisms 2022 May 30;10(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266005, China.

invasion has negative effects on the structure and functioning of coastal wetland ecosystems. Therefore, many methods for controlling invasion have been developed. control methods can affect plant community, which results in changes in microbial communities and subsequent changes in soil ecological processes. However, the effects of controlling on soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We aimed to examine the responses of bacterial and fungal communities to invasion control methods (cutting plus tilling treatment: CT; mechanical rolling treatment: MR). Soil bacterial and fungal community diversity and composition structure were assessed using high-throughput sequencing technology. The findings of the study showed that bacterial diversity and richness in the CT treatment reduced substantially, but fungal diversity and richness did not show any remarkable change. Bacterial and fungal diversity and richness in the MR treatment were not affected considerably. In addition, the two control methods significantly changed the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of bacteria negatively associated with nutrient cycling increased considerably in the CT treatment. The considerable increases in the relative abundance of certain bacterial taxa in the MR treatment may promote soil nutrient cycling. Compared with mechanical rolling, soil bacterial community diversity and structure were more sensitive to cutting plus tilling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061122DOI Listing
May 2022

Exploring the Core Genes of Schizophrenia Based on Bioinformatics Analysis.

Genes (Basel) 2022 May 27;13(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Clinical Research Center and Division of Mood Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China.

Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome composed of a group of symptoms involving many obstacles such as perception, thinking, emotion, behavior, and the disharmony of mental activities. Schizophrenia is one of the top ten causes of disability globally, accounting for about 1% of the global population. Previous studies have shown that schizophrenia has solid genetic characteristics. However, the diagnosis of schizophrenia mainly depends on symptomatic manifestations, and no gene can be used as a clear diagnostic marker at present. This study explored the hub genes of schizophrenia by bioinformatics analysis. Three datasets were selected and downloaded from the GEO database (GSE53987, GSE21138, and GSE27383). GEO2R, NCBI's online analysis tool, is used to screen out significant gene expression differences. The genes were functionally enriched by GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. On this basis, the hub genes were explored through Cytoscape software, and the immune infiltration analysis and diagnostic value of the screened hub genes were judged. Finally, four hub genes (NFKBIA, CDKN1A, BTG2, GADD45B) were screened. There was a significant correlation between two hub genes (NFKBIA, BTG2) and resting memory CD4 T cells. The ROC curve results showed that all four hub genes had diagnostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13060967DOI Listing
May 2022

Recovering metals from flue dust produced in secondary copper smelting through a novel process combining low temperature roasting, water leaching and mechanochemical reduction.

J Hazard Mater 2022 05 16;430:128497. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Flue dust from secondary copper smelting (FDSC) is a hazardous waste as well as a secondary resource due to the high content of Cl, Br, and valuable metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd). Herein, a novel process, combined low-temperature roasting, water leaching, and mechanochemical reduction, was developed for recovering metals from the FDSC. The phase conversion and behavior of the main elements in the whole process were explored based on thermodynamic analysis, experimental research, and various characterization. First, thermodynamics calculation revealed that adding HSO could significantly decrease the roasting temperature and promote the generation of soluble metal sulfates. The experimental results showed that more than 99% of Cl and Br were removed by roasting at 325 °C and 1.5 times HSO addition. Subsequently, the Cu, Zn, and Cd were almost completely leached by water under the conditions of 80 ℃, 2 h and L/S = 5 mL·g, while Pb was rejected and enriched in the residue. Finally, using iron powder as a reductant, 96.7% of PbSO was reduced to elemental lead at room temperature with the aid of mechanical force. The findings illustrated that the recovery performance of metals and environmental benefits will be greatly improved by the proposed process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128497DOI Listing
May 2022

Chemical pressure in functional materials.

Chem Soc Rev 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Institute of Solid State Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

Chemical pressure, a strange but familiar concept, is a lattice internal force caused by lattice strain with chemical modifications and arouses great interest due to its diversity and efficiency to synthesize new compounds and tune functional materials. Different from physical pressure loaded by an external force that is positive, chemical pressure can be either positive or negative (contract a lattice or expand it), often through flexible and mild chemical synthesis strategies, which are particularly important as a degree of freedom to manipulate material behaviors. In this tutorial review, we summarize the features of chemical pressure as a methodology and demonstrate its role in synthesizing and discovering some typical magnetically, electrically, and thermally responsive functional materials. The measure of chemical pressure using experimental lattice strain and elastic modulus was proposed, which can be used for quantitative descriptions of the correlation between lattice distortion and properties. From a lattice strain point of view, we classify chemical pressure into different categories: (i) chemical substitution, (ii) chemical intercalation/de-intercalation, (iii) size effect, and (iv) interface constraint, Chemical pressure affects chemical bonding and rationalizes the crystal structure by modifying the electronic structure of solids, regulating the lattice symmetry, local structure, phonon structure effects , emerging as a general and effective method for synthesizing new compounds and tuning functional materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00563dDOI Listing
June 2022

Case Report: Pathologic Complete Response to Induction Therapy in a Patient With Potentially Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 6;12:898119. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Immune monotherapy does not appear to work in patients with pancreatic cancer so far. We are conducting a clinical trial that combines programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitor with chemotherapy and concurrent radiotherapy as induction therapy for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC). Here, we report a case with a pathologic complete response (pCR) and no postoperative complications after the induction therapy. The patient received four cycles of induction therapy and achieved a partial response (PR) with a significant decline of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Also, peripheral blood samples were collected during the treatment to investigate serial circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) dynamic changes in predicting the tumor response and outcomes in patients. Our result suggested that PD-1 blockade plus chemotherapy and concurrent radiotherapy is a promising mode as induction therapy for patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer. In this case, serial ctDNA alterations accurately provide a comprehensive outlook of the tumor status and monitor the response to the therapy, as validated by standard imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.898119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207502PMC
June 2022

Effects of cell wall polysaccharides on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, polyphenols, and minerals: an overview.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 Jun 22:1-14. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, PR China.

Carotenoids, polyphenols, and minerals (CPMs) are representative bioactive compounds and micronutrients in plant-based foods, showing many potentially positive bioactivities. Bioaccessibility is a prerequisite for bioactivities of CPMs. Cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) are major structural components of plant cell wall, and they have been proven to affect the bioaccessibility of CPMs in different ways. This review summarizes recent literatures about the effects of CWPs on the bioaccessibility of CPMs and discusses the potential mechanisms. Based on the current findings, CWPs can inhibit the bioaccessibility of CPMs in gastrointestinal tract. The effects of CWPs on the bioaccessibility of polyphenols and minerals mainly attributes to bind between them, while CWPs affect the bioaccessibility of carotenoids by changing the digestive environment. Further, this review overviews the factors (environmental conditions, CWPs properties and CPMs characteristics) affecting the interactions between CWPs and CWPs. This review may help to better design healthy and nutritious foods precisely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2089626DOI Listing
June 2022

Development and validation of reassigned CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE-based models for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis prediction.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 22;22(1):686. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: The majority of lung cancer(LC) patients are diagnosed at advanced stage with a poor prognosis. However, there is still no ideal diagnostic and prognostic prediction model for lung cancer.

Methods: Data of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE test of patients with LC and benign lung diseases (BLDs) or healthy people from Physical Examination Center was collected. Samples were divided into three data sets as needed. Reassign three kinds of tumor markers (TMs) according to their distribution characteristics in different populations. Diagnostic and prognostic models were thus established, and independent validation was conducted with other data sets.

Results: The diagnostic prediction model showed good discrimination ability: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) differentiated LC from healthy people and BLDs (diagnosed within 2 months), being 0.88 and 0.84 respectively. Meanwhile, the prognostic prediction model did great in prediction: AUC in training data set and test data set were 0.85 and 0.8 respectively.

Conclusion: Reassigned CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE can effectively predict the diagnosis and prognosis of LC. Compared with the same TMs that were considered individually, this diagnostic prediction model can identify high-risk population for LC screening more accurately. The prognostic prediction model could be helpful in making more scientific treatment and follow-up plans for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09728-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Nrf2-Dependent Protective Effect of Paeoniflorin on-[Formula: see text]Naphthalene Isothiocyanate-Induced Hepatic Injury.

Am J Chin Med 2022 Jun 22:1-18. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Pharmacy, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P. R. China.

The pathological mechanism of cholestatic hepatic injury is associated with oxidative stress, hepatocyte inflammation, and dysregulation of hepatocyte transporters. Pall. and its compound can improve hepatic microcirculation, dilate bile duct, and promote bile flow, which is advantageous to ameliorate liver damage. Paeoniflorin (PEA), as the main efficacy component of Pall., has multiple pharmacological effects. PEA improves liver injury, but it remains obscure whether the protective action on [Formula: see text]-naphthalene isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestatic liver injury is dependent on the NF-E2 p45-related Factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were administrated with 80 mg⋅kg[Formula: see text]⋅d[Formula: see text] ANIT followed by PEA (75, 150, and 300 mg⋅kg[Formula: see text]⋅d[Formula: see text]) orally for 10 days, respectively. Tissue histology and liver function were detected, including serum enzymes, gallbladder (GB) weight, phenobarbital-induced sleeping time (PEN-induced ST), hepatic uridine di-phosphoglucuronosyltransferase (UDPG-T), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH). The expressions of protein Nrf2, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) were evaluated. Nrf2 plasmid or siRNA-Nrf2 transfection on LO2 cells and mice were used to explore the liver protective mechanism of PEA. Compared to ANIT-treated mice, PEA decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), total bile acid (TBA), and phenobarbital-induced sleeping time. The bile secretion, hepatic UDPG-T, MDA, GSH, and liver histology were improved. The expressions of protein Nrf2 and Ntcp in liver tissues increased, but Nox4 decreased. After Nrf2 plasmid or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-Nrf2 transfection, the protective effects of PEA on LO2 cells were, respectively, strengthened or weakened. Moreover, PEA had no significant effects on ANIT-treated mice. Our results suggest that Nrf2 is essential for PEA protective effects on ANIT-induced liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X22500562DOI Listing
June 2022

Efficacy and safety of befotertinib (D-0316) in patients with EGFR T790M mutated non-small cell lung cancer that had progressed after prior EGFR TKI therapy: A phase 2, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study.

J Thorac Oncol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Medical Oncology/Chemotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, China.

Introduction: Befotertinib (D-0316) is a novel, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). This study evaluated befotertinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who developed an EGFR T790M mutation after progression on first- or second-generation EGFR TKI therapy.

Methods: This was a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study at 49 hospitals across mainland China. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC harboring EGFR T790M mutations with disease progression following prior first- or second- generation EGFR TKI therapy received oral befotertinib of 50 mg (cohort A) or 75-100 mg (cohort B) once daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) assessed by an independent review committee (IRC) in intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03861156.

Results: A total of 176 patients and 290 patients were included in cohorts A (50 mg) and B (75-100 mg), respectively. At data-cutoff (August 15, 2021), IRC-assessed ORR was 67.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.9%-72.9%) in cohort B. The investigator-assessed ORR was 54.0% (95% CI: 46.3%-61.5%) in cohort A and 65.9% (95% CI: 60.1%-71.3%) in cohort B. Investigator-assessed disease control rate was 93.2% (95% CI: 88.4%-96.4%) in cohort A and 94.8% (95% CI: 91.6%-97.1%) in cohort B. Investigator-assessed intracranial ORR was 26.7% (95% CI: 7.8%-55.1%) in cohort A and 57.1% (95% CI: 34.0%-78.2%) in cohort B. The median investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 (95% CI: 9.6-12.5) months in cohort A and 12.5 (95% CI: 11.1-13.8) months in cohort B. The median investigator-assessed intracranial PFS was 16.5 (95% CI: 8.6-not evaluable [NE]) months in cohort A and NE (95% CI: 13.8-NE) in cohort B. The overall survival was immature. Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events and treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 20.5% and 11.4% of patients in cohort A, and in 29.3% and 10.0% of patients in cohort B, respectively.

Conclusion: Befotertinib of 75-100 mg has satisfying efficacy and manageable toxicity in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC harboring T790M mutation with resistance to first- or second- generation EGFR TKIs. A phase 3 randomized trial is underway (NCT04206072).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2022.06.002DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of Subsurface Oxide on Cu/CeO Single-Atom Catalysts for CO Oxidation: A Theoretical Investigation.

Inorg Chem 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Institute of Solid State Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Supported atomic dispersion metals are of great interest, and the interfacial effect between isolated metal atoms and supports is crucial in heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, the behavior of single-atom Cu catalysts dispersed on CeO (100), (110), and (111) surfaces has been studied by DFT + U calculations. The interactions between ceria crystal planes and isolated Cu atoms together with their corresponding catalytic activities for CO oxidation are investigated. The CeO (100) and (111) surfaces can stabilize active Cu species, while Cu exists as Cu on the (110) surface. Cu is certified as the most active site for CO adsorption, which can promote the formation of the reaction intermediates and reduce reaction energy barriers. For the CeO (100) surface, the interaction between CO and Cu is weak and the CO adsorbate is more likely to activate the subsurface oxygen. The catalytic performance is closely related to the binding strength of CO to the active Cu single atoms on the different subsurfaces. These results bring a significant insight into the rational design of single metal atoms on ceria and other reducible oxides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c00879DOI Listing
June 2022

Retrospective analysis of 9 cases of appendiceal mucocele in 3,071 cases of appendicitis.

Biomed Rep 2022 Jul 10;17(1):55. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230000, P.R. China.

Appendiceal mucocele is a rare disease. Due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms, and the high misdiagnosis rate before operation, in the present study, the clinical data were assessed to determine a potential basis for the diagnosis and treatment of appendiceal mucocele. The clinical data of 3,071 patients with appendicitis admitted between January 2014 and July 2021, including 9 patients with appendiceal mucoceles were retrospectively analyzed. The data were retrieved from the hospital records and included the patients' age, sex, leukocyte counts (measured in the peripheral venous blood sample), the surgical methods, the pathological results and the postoperative follow-up information. Among the 3,071 patients with appendicitis, 9 cases were appendiceal mucocele. These 9 were treated by laparoscopic surgery in 6 cases (2 laparoscopic appendectomy, 2 laparoscopic partial cecectomy plus appendectomy, and 2 laparoscopic right hemicolectomy) and laparotomy in 3 cases (partial cecectomy plus appendectomy). Pathological examination was performed on the surgically resected specimens of all patients. The results showed that 7 cases were appendiceal mucoceles, and 2 cases were low-grade appendiceal mucoceles. During the follow-up after surgery, one patient with exploratory laparotomy plus partial cecectomy and appendectomy was pathologically diagnosed with low-grade appendiceal myxoma. The patient developed peritoneal implants appeared 2 years later, and the remaining patients are still alive, without any postoperative complications or obvious signs of recurrence. Appendiceal mucocele is a disease that usually causes clinical manifestations of acute appendicitis. Ultrasound and CT scans can be used for preoperative diagnosis. The surgical treatment options for mucoceles are open or laparoscopic appendectomy, cecectomy, and right hemicolectomy. Although the incidence of appendiceal mucocele is low, special attention should be paid to surgery due to its predisposition to peritoneal implantation and metastasis. Laparoscopic appendectomy with partial cecectomy is not a difficult procedure and is not likely to cause abdominal implantation metastasis, thus it should be the preferred surgical method. When conditions permit, intraoperative rapid cryotherapy can quickly identify the occurrence of malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2022.1538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198969PMC
July 2022

Mitogen-activated protein kinase TaMPK3 suppresses ABA response by destabilizing TaPYL4 receptor in wheat.

New Phytol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Triticeae Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100081, China.

Abscisic acid (ABA) receptors are considered as the targeted manipulation of ABA sensitivity and water productivity in plants. Regulation of their stability or activity will directly affect ABA signaling. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades link multiple environmental and plant developmental cues. However, the molecular mechanism of ABA signaling and MAPK cascade interaction remains largely elusive. TaMPK3 overexpression decreases drought tolerance and wheat sensitivity to ABA, significantly weakening ABA's inhibitory effects on growth. Under drought stress, overexpression lines show lower survival rates, shoot fresh weight, and proline content, but higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at seedling stage, as well as decreased grain width and thousand grain weight in both greenhouse and field conditions at the adult stage. TaMPK3-RNAi increases drought tolerance. TaMPK3 interaction with TaPYL4 leads to decreased TaPYL4 levels by promoting its ubiquitin-mediated degradation, while ABA treatment diminishes TaMPK3-TaPYL interactions. In addition, the expression of ABA signaling proteins is impaired in TaMPK3-overexpressing wheat plants under ABA treatment. The MPK3-PYL interaction module was found to be conserved across monocots and dicots. Our results suggest that the MPK3-PYL module could serve as a negative regulatory mechanism for balancing appropriate drought stress response with normal plant growth signaling in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.18326DOI Listing
June 2022

CRIF1 promotes the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer by SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of PYCR1.

J Mol Histol 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, No. 899, Ping Hai Road, Suzhou, 215006, Jiangsu, China.

Lung cancer is the cancer with the highest mortality in the world. So further exploration of the pathogenesis of lung cancer is of great significance. In this study, the specific role and related mechanism of CRIF1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were explored in this research. TheRT-PCR, western blot and IHC assays were used to examine the expression level of CRIF1 in NSCLC tissue, tissue adjacent to carcinoma, NSCLC cell lines and human normal lung epithelial cells. Next, colony formation assay, Alamar blue Kit and EdU assays were employed to examine the proliferation of transfected A549 and NCI-H2009 cells. Measurement of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, ATP production and cellular oxygen consumption were used to evaluate the mitochondrial apoptosis of transfected NSCLC cells. Enzymatic activity assays for PYCR1, western blot and flow cytometry assays were used to explore the relationship between PYCR1 and CRIF1. The subcutaneous xenograft tumor mice model was established to explore the role of CRIF1 in vivo. Collectively, results revealed that CRIF1 was upregulated in NSCLC cells and tissues (p < 0.001). CRIF1 promoted proliferation of NSCLC cells (p < 0.001). CRIF1 inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis in NSCLC cells (p < 0.05). Moreover, CRIF1 promoted PYCR1 deacetylation and increased its activity through SIRT3 (p < 0.05). Deacetylation of PYCR1 reversed the antitumor effect of CRIF1 knockdown (p < 0.05). Finally, knockdown of CRIF1 inhibited the tumor growth of NSCLC in vivo (p < 0.05).This research found that CRIF1 promoted the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer by SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of PYCR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-022-10075-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Development and Validation of a Combined Hypoxia and Immune Prognostic Classifier for Lung Adenocarcinoma.

J Cancer 2022 16;13(8):2631-2643. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Lung Cancer Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, People's Republic of China.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Hypoxia is a crucial microenvironmental factor in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). However, the prognostic value based on hypoxia and immune in LUAD remains to be further clarified. The hypoxia-related genes (HRGs) and immune-related genes (IRGs) were downloaded from the public database. The RNA-seq expression and matched complete clinical data for LUAD were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis was applied to model construction. Hypoxia expression profiles, immune cell infiltration, functional enrichment analysis, Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion (TIDE) score and the somatic mutation status were analyzed and compared based on the model. Moreover, immunofluorescence (IF) staining in human LUAD cases to explore the expression of hypoxia marker and immune checkpoint. A prognostic model of 9 genes was established, which can divide patients into two subgroups. There were obvious differences in hypoxia and immune characteristics in the two groups, the group with high-risk score value showed significantly high expression of hypoxia genes and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), and maybe more sensitive to immunotherapy. Patients in the high-risk group had shorter overall survival (OS). This model has a good predictive value for the prognosis of LUAD. We constructed a new HRGs and IRGs model for prognostic prediction of LUAD. This model may benefit future immunotherapy for LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.70725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9174870PMC
May 2022

Immune Cell Infiltration Characteristics of Pigmented Villous Nodular Synovitis and Prediction of Potential Diagnostic Markers Based on Bioinformatics.

Biomed Res Int 2022 7;2022:8708692. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Division of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430000 Hubei, China.

Background: Pigmented villous nodular synovitis (PVNS) is a tumor-like proliferative disease characterized by impairment of daily activities, decreased quality of life, and a high recurrence rate. However, the specific pathological mechanisms are still ill-defined and controversial. The purpose of this study was to define potential diagnostic markers and evaluate immune cell infiltration in the pathogenesis of PVNS.

Method: The expression profile of GSE3698 was reanalyzed in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the R package "limma" and analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Next, the DEGs were imported into the STRING database and Cytoscape to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Then, cytoHubba and ROC curve analyses were used to determine potential diagnostic biomarkers of PVNS. Finally, we used CIBERSORT to estimate the proportions of 22 immune cell subtypes in PVNS and analyzed the correlation between diagnostic markers and infiltrating immune cells.

Result: We found 139 DEGs (including 93 upregulated genes and 46 downregulated genes). TYROBP, FCER1G, LAPTM5, and HLA-DPB1 were identified as potential diagnostic biomarkers of PVNS. Immune cell infiltration analysis indicated that neutrophils and M2 macrophages might be associated with the genesis and progression of PVNS. Furthermore, our correlation analysis of diagnostic markers and infiltrating immune cells found that TYROBP, FCER1G, LAPTM5, and HLA-DPB1 were positively correlated with M2 macrophage infiltration and that neutrophils, TYROBP, FCER1G, and LAPTM5 were negatively correlated with plasma cell infiltration.

Conclusions: We identified TYROBP, FCER1G, LAPTM5, and HLA-DPB1 as potential diagnostic markers for PVNS and concluded that immune cell infiltration plays an important role in the genesis and progression of PVNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8708692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197622PMC
June 2022

α-synucleinopathy exerts sex-dimorphic effects on the multipurpose DNA repair/redox protein APE1 in mice and humans.

Prog Neurobiol 2022 Jun 13;216:102307. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA. Electronic address:

Lewy body disorders are characterized by oxidative damage to DNA and inclusions rich in aggregated forms of α-synuclein. Among other roles, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) repairs oxidative DNA damage, and APE1 polymorphisms have been linked to cases of Lewy body disorders. However, the link between APE1 and α-synuclein is unexplored. We report that knockdown or inhibition of APE1 amplified inclusion formation in primary hippocampal cultures challenged with preformed α-synuclein fibrils. Fibril infusions into the mouse olfactory bulb/anterior olfactory nucleus (OB/AON) elicited a modest decrease in APE1 expression in the brains of male mice but an increase in females. Similarly, men with Lewy body disorders displayed lower APE1 expression in the OB and amygdala compared to women. Preformed fibril infusions of the mouse OB/AON induced more robust base excision repair of DNA lesions in females than males. No fibril-mediated loss of APE1 expression was observed in male mice when the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was added to their diet. These findings reveal a potential sex-biased link between α-synucleinopathy and APE1 in mice and humans. Further studies are warranted to determine how this multifunctional protein modifies α-synuclein inclusions and, conversely, how α-synucleinopathy and biological sex interact to modify APE1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2022.102307DOI Listing
June 2022

Author Correction: Hyperglycemia-induced accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products in fibroblast-like synoviocytes promotes knee osteoarthritis.

Exp Mol Med 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Division of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-022-00788-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Quantifying the potential of morphological parameters for human dental identification: part 2-selecting the strongest identifiers in mandibular permanent teeth.

Int J Legal Med 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Imaging and Pathology - Forensic Odontology, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7 blok A bus 7001, 3000, Louvain, Belgium.

The current study aimed to select the best dental morphological identifiers for human identification. Sixty-two panoramic radiographs were collected retrospectively, in which six measurements were performed on all seven mandibular left permanent teeth: tooth length (TL), crown length (CL), root length (RL), crown width (CW), cervical width (CEJW), and root width (RW). Nine length-width ratios were then calculated using these measurements. Three groups of statistics were considered: (1) inter-observer reliability quantified by intra-class correlation (ICC); (2) mean "potential set"; and (3) Spearman correlation. A step-by-step cascade was then established based on selected parameters. In a univariate approach, the following parameters were the best identifiers: TL/CW for tooth 36 (ICC 0.82; mean potential set 13.7%), TL/CEJW for tooth 35 (ICC 0.87; mean potential set 15.2%), and TL/RW for tooth 32 (ICC 0.89; mean potential set 16.0%). The correlations between these three parameters ranged from 0.24 to 0.47. In a multivariate approach, the following parameters had the best identifying capacity: all parameters combined for tooth 31 (mean potential set 8.1%), for tooth 35 (mean potential set 11.9%), and for tooth 32 (mean potential set 16.3%). In conclusion, a single ratio in a specific tooth narrows down the potential set of matches, but the mean potential set remains relatively large. Combining all ratios of a single specific tooth increases the certainty of the match. In particular, tooth 31 was the strongest identifier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-022-02851-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Ripening induced degradation of pectin and cellulose affects the far infrared drying kinetics of mangoes.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Sep 7;291:119582. Epub 2022 May 7.

Guangxi Key laboratory of Fruits and Vegetables Storage-Processing Technology, Nanning 530007, China. Electronic address:

The quality parameters of mangoes change during ripening, which has a vital impact on processing characteristics. Effects of ripening stage (four stages from the lowest to highest degree-RS-1, RS-2, RS-3, RS-4) on cell wall polysaccharides and far infrared drying kinetics of mangoes were investigated. As ripening progressed, the water-soluble pectin contents increased by 213.5%; while the chelate-, sodium carbonate-soluble pectin and hemicellulose contents decreased by 44.0%, 59.5% and 65.8%, respectively. Moreover, the molecular weight reduction confirmed the degradation of pectin. These further caused the alteration of cell wall structure and changes in water distribution. Meanwhile, the drying time of mangos with different ripeness were in the order: RS-3 > RS-4 > RS-2 > RS-1. It correlated with the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides, the destruction of cell wall and the increases in free water during ripening. The ripeness classification could effectively improve the uniformity and efficiency of fruits drying processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119582DOI Listing
September 2022

Neutrophil-Biomimetic "Nanobuffer" for Remodeling the Microenvironment in the Infarct Core and Protecting Neurons in the Penumbra via Neutralization of Detrimental Factors to Treat Ischemic Stroke.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 12;14(24):27743-27761. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Pudong Hospital & Department of Pharmaceutics, Fudan University, Lane 826, Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

High level of detrimental factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines accumulated in the infarct core and their erosion to salvageable penumbra are key pathological cascades of ischemia-reperfusion injury in stroke. Few neuroprotectants can remodel the hostile microenvironment of the infarct core for the failure to interfere with dead or biofunctionally inactive dying cells. Even ischemia-reperfusion injury is temporarily attenuated in the penumbra by medications; insults of detrimental factors from the core still erode the penumbra continuously along with drug metabolism and clearance. Herein, a strategy named "nanobuffer" is proposed to neutralize detrimental factors and buffer destructive erosion to the penumbra. Inspired by neutrophils' tropism to the infarct core and affinity to inflammatory cytokines, poly(lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles are coated with neutrophil membrane to target the infarct core and absorb inflammatory cytokines; α-lipoic acid is decorated on the surface and cannabidiol is loaded for ROS scavenging and neuroprotection, respectively, to construct the basic unit of the nanobuffer. Such a nanobuffer exerts a comprehensive effect on the infarct area via detrimental factor neutralization and cannabidiol-induced neuroprotection. Besides, the nanobuffer can possibly be enhanced by dynamic ROP (ring-opening-polymerization)-induced membrane cross-fusion among closely adjacent units in vivo. Systematic evaluations show significant decrease of detrimental factors in the core and the penumbra, reduced infarct volume, and improved neurological recovery compared to the untreated group of stroke rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c09020DOI Listing
June 2022

Profiling Carbohydrate Metabolism in Liver and Hepatocellular Carcinoma with [C]-Glycerate Probes.

Anal Sens 2021 Nov 14;1(4):196-202. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-8568 (USA).

The interplay between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is central to carbohydrate metabolism. Here, we describe novel methods to assess carbohydrate metabolism using [C]-probes derived from glycerate, a molecule whose metabolic fate in mammals remains underexplored. Isotope-based studies were conducted via NMR and mass spectrometry analyses of freeze-clamped liver tissue extracts after [2,3-C]glycerate infusion. The investigations were correlated with measurements using hyperpolarized [1-C]glycerate. Application of [C]glycerate to N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-treated rats provided further assessments of intermediary carbohydrate metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma. This method afforded direct analyses of control versus DEN tissues, and altered ratios of C metabolic products as well as unique glycolysis intermediates were observed in the DEN liver/tumor. Isotopomer studies showed increased glycerate uptake and altered carbohydrate metabolism in the DEN rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anse.202100034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9187054PMC
November 2021

Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with higher recurrence risk after catheter ablation in atrial fibrillation patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2022 Jun 11;22(1):264. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310000, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence risk after catheter ablation.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to November 30, 2021 without language restrictions. Outcome was the relative risk (RR) of EAT contributes to AF recurrence after catheter ablation. The RR and 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled by the random-effect model.

Results: 10 studies that contained 1840 AF patients were included in our study. The result of this study showed that EAT amount was associated with higher risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11, P = 0.005) and EAT related thickness was a risk factor for AF recurrence after catheter ablation (RR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.04-2.87, P = 0.040). Sub-analysis showed that EAT was strongly associated with higher risk of AF recurrence common in Asian population (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.43, P < 0.001), patients aged ≤ 60 years old (RR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.18-3.44, P = 0.010), and follow-up more than 1 year (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11, P = 0.020).

Conclusion: The meta-analysis demonstrated that EAT related thickness seems to be the marker most strongly associated with a greater risk of AF recurrences after catheter ablation. It should be included into risk stratification for predicting AF recurrent before catheter ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-022-02703-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Modification of flavonoids: methods and influences on biological activities.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 Jun 10:1-22. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Flavonoids are important active ingredients in plant-based food, which have many beneficial effects on health. But the low solubility, poor oral bioavailability, and inferior stability of many flavonoids may limit their applications in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Structural modification can overcome these shortcomings to improve and extend the application of flavonoids. The study of how to modify flavonoids and the influence of various modifications on biological activity have drawn great interest in the current literature. In this review, the working principles and operating conditions of modification methods were summarized along with their potential and limitations in terms of operational safety, cost, and productivity. The influence of various modifications on biological activities and the structure-activity relationships of flavonoids derivatives were discussed and highlighted, which may give guidance for the synthesis of highly effective active agents. In addition, the safety of flavonoids derivatives is reviewed, and future research directions of flavonoid modification research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2083572DOI Listing
June 2022

Phenotype, function and clinical significance of CD26+ and CD161+ Tregs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Purpose: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to T-cell homeostasis and modulate the anti-tumor immune response in lymphoma patients. However, the biology and prognostic impact of Tregs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) have not been studied.

Experimental Design: Biopsy specimens from 24 SMZL patients and 12 reactive spleens (rSP) from individuals without lymphoma were analyzed by using CITE-Seq (Cellular Indexing of Transcriptomes and Epitopes by Sequencing), CyTOF (Mass Cytometry) analysis, and flow cytometry to explore the phenotype, transcriptomic profile, and clinical significance of intratumoral Tregs and their subsets. The biological characteristics and cell signaling pathways of intratumoral Treg subsets were confirmed by in-vitro functional assays.

Results: We found that Tregs are more abundant in SMZL patients' spleens than reactive spleens (rSP) and Tregs from SMZL patients and rSP can be separated into CD161+Treg and CD26+Treg subsets. CD161+
Conclusions: IL-2/STAT5-mediated expansion of CD26+Tregs contributes to a poor clinical outcome in SMZL and may represent a therapeutic opportunity in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-22-0977DOI Listing
June 2022

Achieving High Current Stability of Gated Carbon Nanotube Cold Cathode Electron Source Using IGBT Modulation for X-ray Source Application.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 May 31;12(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Display Material and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

The cold cathode X-ray source has potential application in the field of radiotherapy, which requires a stable dose. In this study, a gated carbon nanotube cold cathode electron gun with high current stability was developed by using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modulation, and its application in X-ray source was explored. Carbon nanotube (CNTs) films were prepared directly on stainless steel substrate by chemical vapor deposition and assembled with control gate and focus electrodes to form an electron gun. A maximum cathode current of 200 μA and approximately 53% transmission rate was achieved. An IGBT was used to modulate and stabilize the cathode current. High stable cathode current with fluctuation less than 0.5% has been obtained for 50 min continuous operation. The electron gun was used in a transmission target X-ray source and a stable X-ray dose rate was obtained. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high current stability from a gated carbon nanotube cold cathode electron source using IGBT modulation for X-ray source application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12111882DOI Listing
May 2022
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