Publications by authors named "Juliette Rando"

4 Publications

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New SHIVs and Improved Design Strategy for Modeling HIV-1 Transmission, Immunopathogenesis, Prevention and Cure.

J Virol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Previously, we showed that substitution of HIV-1 Env residue 375-Ser by bulky aromatic residues enhances binding to rhesus CD4 and enables primary HIV-1 Envs to support efficient replication as simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimeras in rhesus macaques (RMs). Here, we test this design strategy more broadly by constructing SHIVs containing ten primary Envs corresponding to HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, AE and AG. All ten SHIVs bearing wildtype Env375 residues replicated efficiently in human CD4 T cells, but only one replicated efficiently in primary rhesus cells. This was a subtype AE SHIV that naturally contained His at Env375. Replacement of wildtype Env375 residues by Trp, Tyr, Phe or His in the other nine SHIVs led to efficient replication in rhesus CD4+ T cells and Nine SHIVs containing optimized Env375 alleles were grown large-scale in primary rhesus CD4 T cells to serve as challenge stocks in preclinical prevention trials. These virus stocks were genetically homogeneous, native-like in Env antigenicity and tier-2 neutralization sensitivity, and transmissible by rectal, vaginal, penile, oral or intravenous routes. To facilitate future SHIV constructions, we engineered a simplified second-generation design scheme and validated it in RMs. Overall, our findings demonstrate that SHIVs bearing primary Envs with bulky aromatic substitutions at Env375 consistently replicate in RMs, recapitulating many features of HIV-1 infection in humans. Such SHIVs are efficiently transmitted by mucosal routes common to HIV-1 infection and can be used to test vaccine efficacy in preclinical monkey trials.SHIV infection of Indian rhesus macaques is an important animal model for studying HIV-1 transmission, prevention, immunopathogenesis and cure. Such research is timely, given recent progress with active and passive immunization and novel approaches to HIV-1 cure. Given the multifaceted roles of HIV-1 Env in cell tropism and virus entry, and as a target for neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, Envs selected for SHIV construction are of paramount importance. Until recently, it has been impossible to strategically design SHIVs bearing clinically relevant Envs that replicate consistently in monkeys. This changed with the discovery that bulky aromatic substitutions at residue Env375 confer enhanced affinity to rhesus CD4. Here, we show that 10 new SHIVs bearing primary HIV-1 Envs with residue 375 substitutions replicated efficiently in RMs and could be transmitted efficiently across rectal, vaginal, penile and oral mucosa. These findings suggest an expanded role for SHIVs as a model of HIV-1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00071-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139694PMC
March 2021

Recapitulation of HIV-1 Env-antibody coevolution in macaques leading to neutralization breadth.

Science 2021 01 19;371(6525). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 coevolve with viral envelope proteins (Env) in distinctive patterns, in some cases acquiring substantial breadth. We report that primary HIV-1 envelope proteins-when expressed by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques-elicited patterns of Env-antibody coevolution very similar to those in humans, including conserved immunogenetic, structural, and chemical solutions to epitope recognition and precise Env-amino acid substitutions, insertions, and deletions leading to virus persistence. The structure of one rhesus antibody, capable of neutralizing 49% of a 208-strain panel, revealed a V2 apex mode of recognition like that of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) PGT145 and PCT64-35S. Another rhesus antibody bound the CD4 binding site by CD4 mimicry, mirroring human bNAbs 8ANC131, CH235, and VRC01. Virus-antibody coevolution in macaques can thus recapitulate developmental features of human bNAbs, thereby guiding HIV-1 immunogen design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd2638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040783PMC
January 2021

Neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences of perinatal exposure to the HIV drug efavirenz in a rodent model.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 02 11;9(1):84. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Efavirenz is recommended as a preferred first-line drug for women of childbearing potential living with human immunodeficiency virus. Efavirenz is known for its central nervous system side effects, which are partly mediated by serotonergic actions. The neurotransmitter serotonin exerts neurotrophic effects during neurodevelopment and antenatal exposure to serotonergic agents has been linked to developmental delay. Although the teratogenic risks of efavirenz appear to be minimal, data on long-term developmental effects remain scarce. Here, we aimed to investigate the short- and long-term behavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of perinatal efavirenz exposure. We treated pregnant rats from gestation day 1 until postnatal day 7 with efavirenz (100 mg/kg) or vehicle. We measured behavioral outcomes in male offspring during the first 3 postnatal weeks, adolescence and adulthood, and conducted brain immunohistochemistry analyses after sacrifice. Perinatal efavirenz exposure resulted in reduced body weight and delayed reflex and motor development. During adulthood, we observed a decrease in the total number of cells and mature neurons in the motor cortex, as well as an increase in the number of Caspase-3-positive cells and serotonergic fibers. Together, our data show a developmental delay and persistent changes in the brain motor cortex of rats exposed to efavirenz perinatally. Because over 1 million children born annually are exposed to antiretroviral therapy, our findings underline the need for clinical studies on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of perinatal exposure to efavirenz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0420-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370772PMC
February 2019

Convergent Balancing Selection on the Mu-Opioid Receptor in Primates.

Mol Biol Evol 2017 07;34(7):1629-1643

Division of Neuroscience, New England Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Southborough, MA.

The mu opioid receptor is involved in many natural processes including stress response, pleasure, and pain. Mutations in the gene also have been associated with opiate and alcohol addictions as well as with responsivity to medication targeting these disorders. Two common and mutually exclusive polymorphisms have been identified in humans, A118G (N40D), found commonly in non-African populations, and C17T (V6A), found almost exclusively in African populations. Although A118G has been studied extensively for associations and in functional assays, C17T is much less well understood. In addition to a parallel polymorphism previously identified in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), C77G (P26R), resequencing in additional non-human primate species identifies further common variation: C140T (P47L) in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), G55C (D19H) in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabeus), A111T (L37F) in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and C55T (P19S) in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis). Functional effects on downstream signaling are observed for each of these variants following treatment with the endogenous agonist β-endorphin and the exogenous agonists morphine, DAMGO ([d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin), and fentanyl. In addition to demonstrating the importance of functional equivalency in reference to population variation for minority health, this also shows how common evolutionary pressures have produced similar phenotypes across species, suggesting a shared response to environmental needs and perhaps elucidating the mechanism by which these organism-environment interactions are mediated physiologically and molecularly. These studies set the stage for future investigations of shared functional polymorphisms across species as a new genetic tool for translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279279PMC
July 2017
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