Publications by authors named "Julien Guglielmi"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tumor microenvironment affects exogenous sodium/iodide symporter expression.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jan 17;14(1):100937. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Transporters in Imaging and Radiotherapy in Oncology (TIRO), School of Medicine, Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF), Institut des sciences du vivant Fréderic Joliot, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), Université Côte d'Azur (UCA), 28 Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice, France. Electronic address:

For decades, sodium/iodide symporter NIS-mediated iodide uptake has played a crucial role in the radioactive ablation of thyroid cancer cells. NIS-based gene therapy has also become a promising tool for the treatment of tumors of extrathyroidal origin. But its applicability has been hampered by reduced expression of NIS, resulting in a moderated capacity to accumulate I and in inefficient ablation. Despite numerous preclinical enhancement strategies, the understanding of NIS expression within tumors remains limited. This study aims at a better understanding of the functional behavior of exogenous NIS expression in the context of malignant solid tumors that are characterized by rapid growth with an insufficient vasculature, leading to hypoxia and quiescence. Using subcutaneous HT29NIS and K7M2NIS tumors, we show that NIS-mediated uptake and NIS expression at the plasma membrane of cancer cells are impaired in the intratumoral regions. For a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms induced by hypoxia and quiescence (separately and in combination), we performed experiments on HT29NIS cancer cells. Hypoxia and quiescence were both found to impair NIS-mediated uptake through mechanisms including NIS mis-localization. Modifications in the expression of proteins and metabolites involved in plasma membrane localization and in energy metabolism were found using untargeted proteomics and metabolomics approaches. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that hypoxia and quiescence impair NIS expression at the plasma membrane, and iodide uptake. Our study also shows that the tumor microenvironment is an important parameter for successful NIS-based cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679261PMC
January 2021

Proteomic Analysis of Iodinated Contrast Agent-Induced Perturbation of Thyroid Iodide Uptake.

J Clin Med 2020 Jan 23;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Université Côte d'Azur, UMR E4320, CEA, F-06107 Nice, France.

(1) Background: We recently showed that iodinated contrast media (ICM) reduced thyroid uptake of iodide independently of free iodide through a mechanism different from that of NaI and involving a dramatic and long-lasting decrease in Na/I symporter expression. The present study aimed at comparing the response of the thyroid to ICM and NaI using a quantitative proteomic approach. (2) Methods: Scintiscans were performed on ICM-treated patients. Micro Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (microSPECT/CT) imaging was used to assess thyroid uptakes in ICM- or NaI-treated mice and their response to recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone. Total thyroid iodide content and proteome was determined in control, NaI-, or ICM-treated animals. (3) Results: The inhibitory effect of ICM in patients was selectively observed on thyroids but not on salivary glands for up to two months after a systemic administration. An elevated level of iodide was observed in thyroids from NaI-treated mice but not in those from ICM animals. Exposure of the thyroid to NaI modulates 15 cellular pathways, most of which are also affected by ICM treatment (including the elF4 and P706SK cell signaling pathway and INSR identified as an upstream activator in both treatments). In addition, ICM modulates 16 distinct pathways and failed to affect thyroid iodide content. Finally, administration of ICM reduces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor expression which results in a loss of TSH-induced iodide uptake by the thyroid. (4) Conclusions: Common intracellular mechanisms are involved in the ICM- and NaI-induced reduction of iodide uptake. However, ICM fails to affect thyroid iodide content which suggests that the modulation of these common pathways is triggered by separate effectors. ICM also modulates numerous distinct pathways which may account for its long-lasting effect on thyroid uptake. These observations may have implications in the management of patients affected by differentiated thyroid carcinomas who have been exposed to ICM. They also provide the basis for the utilization of ICM-based compounds in radioprotection of the thyroid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073936PMC
January 2020

Improving I Radioiodine Therapy By Hybrid Polymer-Grafted Gold Nanoparticles.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 30;14:7933-7946. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Laboratory Transporter in Imaging and Radiotherapy in Oncology (TIRO), Institut de Biosciences et Biotechnologies d'Aix-Marseille (BIAM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Nice, France.

Background: Human trials combining external radiotherapy (RT) and metallic nanoparticles are currently underway in cancer patients. For internal RT, in which a radioisotope such as radioiodine is systemically administered into patients, there is also a need for enhancing treatment efficacy, decreasing radiation-induced side effects and overcoming radio-resistance. However, if strategies vectorising radioiodine through nanocarriers have been documented, sensitizing the neoplasm through the use of nanotherapeutics easily translatable to the clinic in combination with the standard systemic radioiodine treatment has not been assessed yet.

Method And Materials: The present study explored the potential of hybrid poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted gold nanoparticles to improve the performances of systemic I-mediated RT on cancer cells and in tumor-bearing mice. Such nanoparticles were chosen based on their ability previously described by our group to safely withstand irradiation doses while exhibiting good biocompatibility and enhanced cellular uptake.

Results: In vitro clonogenic assays performed on melanoma and colorectal cancer cells showed that poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted gold nanoparticles (PMAA-AuNPs) could efficiently lead to a marked tumor cell mortality when combined to a low activity of radioiodine, which alone appeared to be essentially ineffective on tumor cells. In vivo, tumor enrichment with PMAA-AuNPs significantly enhanced the killing potential of a systemic radioiodine treatment.

Conclusion: This is the first report of a simple and reliable nanomedicine-based approach to reduce the dose of radioiodine required to reach curability. In addition, these results open up novel perspectives for using high-Z metallic NPs in additional molecular radiation therapy demonstrating heterogeneous dose distributions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S211496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777639PMC
January 2020

Urinary ketone body loss leads to degeneration of brain white matter in elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2020 08 10;40(8):1709-1723. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Laboratory Transporter in Imaging and Radiotherapy in Oncology (TIRO), University Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut de biosciences et biotechnologies d'Aix-Marseille (BIAM), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, University Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.

SLC5A8 is a sodium-coupled monocarboxylate and ketone transporter expressed in various epithelial cells. A putative role of SLC5A8 in neuroenergetics has been also hypothesized. To clarify this issue, we studied the cerebral phenotype of SLC5A8-deficient mice during aging. Elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice presented diffuse leukoencephalopathy characterized by intramyelinic oedema without demyelination suggesting chronic energetic crisis. Hypo-metabolism in the white matter of elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice was found using Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT). Since the SLC5A8 protein could not be detected in the mouse brain, it was hypothesized that the leukoencephalopathy of aging SLC5A8-deficient mice was caused by the absence of slc5a8 expression in a peripheral organ, i.e. the kidney, where SLC5A8 is strongly expressed. A hyper-excretion of the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the urine of SLC5A8-deficient mice was observed and showed that SLC5A8-deficient mice suffered a cerebral BHB insufficiency. Elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice also presented altered glucose metabolism. We propose that the continuous renal loss of BHB leads to a chronic energetic deficiency in the brain of elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice who are unable to counterbalance their glucose deficit. This study highlights the importance of alternative energetic substrates in neuroenergetics especially under conditions of restricted glucose availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19873662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370371PMC
August 2020

DO MULTIPLE ADMINISTRATIONS OF STABLE IODINE PROTECT POPULATION CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO RADIOACTIVE IODINE: WHAT IS PRIODAC RESEARCH PROGRAM (2014-22) TEACHING US?

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec;182(1):67-79

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSE-Santé, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to prevent the risk of thyroid cancer during nuclear accidents. However in the case of repeated/protracted radioiodine release, a unique dose of KI may not protect efficiently the thyroid against the risk of further developing a radiation-induced cancer. The new WHO guidelines for the use in planning for and responding to radiological and nuclear emergencies identify the need of more data on this subject as one of the four research priorities. The aims of the PRIODAC project are (1) to assess the associated side effects of repeated intakes of KI, (2) to better understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the metabolism of iodine, (3) to revise the regulatory French marketing authorization of 65-mg KI tablets and (4) to develop new recommendations related to the administration of KI toward a better international harmonization. A review of the literature and the preliminary data are presented here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncy129DOI Listing
December 2018

Iodinated Contrast Agents Perturb Iodide Uptake by the Thyroid Independently of Free Iodide.

J Nucl Med 2018 01 19;59(1):121-126. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Laboratoire TIRO, UMRE 4320, CEA, Nice, France.

Perturbation of thyroid iodide uptake is a well-documented side effect of the use of iodinated contrast media (ICM) administered intravenously. This side effect is thought to be mediated by free iodide in ICM formulations, but this hypothesis has never been formally proven. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of this hypothesis. We used mass spectrometry analysis to quantify free-iodide contamination in ICM. Established cell lines expressing the Na/I symporter (NIS) were used to quantify the effect of ICM on iodide uptake. SPECT/CT was used to measure the in vivo uptake of Tc-pertechnetate and I in 2 NIS-expressing mouse tissues, thyroid and salivary glands. Scintiscans of ICM-naïve and ICM-administered patients were compared. Immunohistologic and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate NIS protein expression in these organs. Although free iodide was present in ICM formulations, in vitro uptake of iodide by NIS-expressing cells was not significantly affected by ICM. In mice, intravenous or sublingual administration of ICM led to a reduction in radiotracer uptake by the thyroid, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in NIS protein expression in this tissue. In the salivary glands, neither radiotracer uptake nor NIS protein expression was affected by ICM. The thyroid-selective effect of ICM was also observed in humans. Administration of potassium iodide as a source of free iodide led to a diminution of Tc-pertechnetate uptake in both mouse thyroid and mouse salivary glands. Altogether, these data rule out a direct intervention of free iodide in the perturbation of thyroid uptake and suggest a direct and selective effect of ICM on the thyroid. We demonstrated that ICM reduce thyroid uptake of iodide independently of free iodide. This effect is due to a specific and dramatic decrease in NIS expression in thyrocytes. These data cast serious doubt on the relevance of measuring urinary iodide concentration to evaluate the delay between ICM administration and radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Finally, the ability of ICM to perturb iodide uptake in the thyroid may be used in radioprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.117.195685DOI Listing
January 2018

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography for Preclinical Assessment of Thyroid Radioiodide Uptake Following Various Combinations of Preparative Measures.

Thyroid 2016 11 11;26(11):1614-1622. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

1 Laboratory of Transporters, Imaging, Radiotherapy in Oncology, Unité Mixte de Recherche E4320, Institut de Biosciences et Biotechnologies , CEA, Nice, France .

Background: MicroSPECT/CT imaging was used to quantitatively evaluate how iodide uptake in the mouse thyroid is influenced by (i) route of iodine administration; (ii) injection of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH); and (iii) low iodide diet (LID) in euthyroid and triiodothyronine (T3)-treated mice.

Methods: Pertechnetate (TcO) and I thyroid uptake in euthyroid and T3-treated animals fed either a normal-iodine diet (NID) or an LID, treated or not with rhTSH, and radiotracer administered intravenously, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally or by gavage, were assessed using microSPECT/CT imaging. Western blotting was performed to measure sodium/iodide symporter expression levels in the thyroid.

Results: Systemic administration of radioiodide resulted in a higher (2.35-fold in NID mice) accumulation of iodide in the thyroid than oral administration. Mice fed LID with systemic radioiodide administration showed a further two-fold increase in thyroid iodide uptake to yield a ∼5-fold increase in uptake compared to the standard NID/oral route. Although rhTSH injections stimulated thyroid activity in both euthyroid and T3-treated mice fed the NID, uptake levels for T3-treated mice remained low compared with those for the euthyroid mice. Combining LID and rhTSH in T3-treated mice resulted in a 2.8-fold higher uptake compared with NID/T3/rhTSH mice and helped restore thyroid activity to levels equivalent to those of euthyroid animals.

Conclusions: Systemic radioiodide administration results in higher thyroidal iodide levels than oral administration, particularly in LID-fed mice. These data highlight the importance of LID, both in euthyroid and T3-treated, rhTSH-injected mice. Extrapolated to human patients, and in the context of clinical guidelines for the preparation of differentiated thyroid cancer patients, our data indicate that LID can potentiate the efficacy of rhTSH treatment in T3-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2015.0652DOI Listing
November 2016

High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Excised Canine Livers and Mouse Tumors Using the Structure Factor Model.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2016 09 4;63(9):1335-1350. Epub 2016 May 4.

Three scattering models were examined for characterizing ex vivo canine livers and HT29 mouse tumors in the 10-38- and the 15-42-MHz frequency bandwidth, respectively. The spherical Gaussian model (SGM) and the fluid sphere model (FSM) that were examined are suitable for dealing with sparse media, whereas the structure factor model (SFM) is adapted for characterizing concentrated media. For the canine livers, the scatterer radius and the acoustic concentration estimated with the three models were similar and matched well the nuclear structures obtained from histological analysis (with relative errors less than 7%). These results show that the livers could be considered as a diluted medium and that the nuclei in liver could be a dominant source of scattering. For the homogeneous mouse tumors, containing mostly viable HT29 cells, scatterer radius and volume fraction estimated with the SFM showed good agreement with the whole cell structures obtained from histological analysis (with relative errors less than 15%), whereas the sparse models (the SGM and the FSM) gave no consistent quantitative ultrasound parameters. This suggests that the viable HT29 cell areas have densely packed cellular content and that the whole HT29 cell could be responsible for scattering. For the heterogeneous tumors, the hyperechogenic zones observed in the B-mode images were linked to the presence of small necrotic areas surrounded by viable HT29 cells. Comparison between sparse and concentrated models shows that these hyperechogenic zones could be considered as a concentrated medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2016.2563169DOI Listing
September 2016

Evaluation of tetrafunctional block copolymers as synthetic vectors for lung gene transfer.

Biomaterials 2015 Mar 13;45:10-7. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Laboratoire TIRO, UMRE 4320, iBEB, DSV, CEA, Nice, France; Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France. Electronic address:

In the present study, we evaluated, in mice, the efficacy of the tetrafunctional block copolymer 704 as a nonviral gene delivery vector to the lungs. SPECT/CT molecular imaging of gene expression, biochemical assays, and immunohistochemistry were used. Our dataset shows that the formulation 704 resulted in higher levels of reporter gene expression than the GL67A formulation currently being used in a clinical trial in cystic fibrosis patients. The inflammatory response associated with this gene transfer was lower than that induced by the GL67A formulation, and the 704 formulation was amenable to repeated administrations. The cell types transfected by the 704 formulation were type I and type II pneumocytes, and transgene expression could not be detected in macrophages. These results emphasize the relevance of the 704 formulation as a nonviral gene delivery vector for lung gene therapy. Further studies will be required to validate this vector in larger animals, in which the lungs are more similar to human lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.12.051DOI Listing
March 2015

⁹⁹mTcO₄--, auger-mediated thyroid stunning: dosimetric requirements and associated molecular events.

PLoS One 2014 24;9(3):e92729. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Laboratoire TIRO, UMRE 4320, iBEB, DSV, CEA, Nice, France; Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France; Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Department of nuclear medicine, Nice, France.

Low-energy Auger and conversion electrons deposit their energy in a very small volume (a few nm3) around the site of emission. From a radiotoxicological point of view the effects of low-energy electrons on normal tissues are largely unknown, understudied, and generally assumed to be negligible. In this context, the discovery that the low-energy electron emitter, 99mTc, can induce stunning on primary thyrocytes in vitro, at low absorbed doses, is intriguing. Extrapolated in vivo, this observation suggests that a radioisotope as commonly used in nuclear medicine as 99mTc may significantly influence thyroid physiology. The aims of this study were to determine whether 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) is capable of inducing thyroid stunning in vivo, to evaluate the absorbed dose of 99mTcO4- required to induce this stunning, and to analyze the biological events associated/concomitant with this effect. Our results show that 99mTcO4--mediated thyroid stunning can be observed in vivo in mouse thyroid. The threshold of the absorbed dose in the thyroid required to obtain a significant stunning effect is in the range of 20 Gy. This effect is associated with a reduced level of functional Na/I symporter (NIS) protein, with no significant cell death. It is reversible within a few days. At the cellular and molecular levels, a decrease in NIS mRNA, the generation of double-strand DNA breaks, and the activation of the p53 pathway are observed. Low-energy electrons emitted by 99mTc can, therefore, induce thyroid stunning in vivo in mice, if it is exposed to an absorbed dose of at least 20 Gy, a level unlikely to be encountered in clinical practice. Nevertheless this report presents an unexpected effect of low-energy electrons on a normal tissue in vivo, and provides a unique experimental setup to understand the fine molecular mechanisms involved in their biological effects.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092729PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963936PMC
January 2015

Normalisation to blood activity is required for the accurate quantification of Na/I symporter ectopic expression by SPECT/CT in individual subjects.

PLoS One 2012 21;7(3):e34086. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

INSERM U948, Biothérapies Hépatiques, CHU Hôtel Dieu, Nantes, France.

The utilisation of the Na/I symporter (NIS) and associated radiotracers as a reporter system for imaging gene expression is now reaching the clinical setting in cancer gene therapy applications. However, a formal assessment of the methodology in terms of normalisation of the data still remains to be performed, particularly in the context of the assessment of activities in individual subjects in longitudinal studies. In this context, we administered to mice a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding rat NIS, or a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29) encoding mouse NIS. We used (99m)Tc pertechnetate as a radiotracer for SPECT/CT imaging to determine the pattern of ectopic NIS expression in longitudinal kinetic studies. Some animals of the cohort were culled and NIS expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The radioactive content of some liver biopsies was also measured ex vivo. Our results show that in longitudinal studies involving datasets taken from individual mice, the presentation of non-normalised data (activity expressed as %ID/g or %ID/cc) leads to 'noisy', and sometimes incoherent, results. This variability is due to the fact that the blood pertechnetate concentration can vary up to three-fold from day to day. Normalisation of these data with blood activities corrects for these inconsistencies. We advocate that, blood pertechnetate activity should be determined and used to normalise the activity measured in the organ/region of interest that expresses NIS ectopically. Considering that NIS imaging has already reached the clinical setting in the context of cancer gene therapy, this normalisation may be essential in order to obtain accurate and predictive information in future longitudinal clinical studies in biotherapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034086PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309932PMC
August 2012

Distribution and dynamics of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid and other organs assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography in living mice.

Thyroid 2010 May;20(5):519-26

Transporters, Imaging and Radiotheraphy in Oncology (TIRO), Commissariat Energie Atomique Direction des Sciences du Vivant (DSV), Institut de Biologie Environementale et Biotechnologie (iBEB), Service de Biochimie et Toxicologie Nucléaire (SBTN), Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis , Nice, France .

Background: (99m)Tc pertechnetate is a well-known anion, used for clinical imaging of thyroid function. This gamma emitter is transported by the sodium iodide symporter but is not incorporated into thyroglobulin. Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc pertechnetate or (123)iodide represents a powerful tool for the study of sodium iodide symporter activity in different organs of living animal models. However, in many studies that have been performed in mice, the thyroid could not be distinguished from the salivary glands. In this work, we have evaluated the use of a clinically dedicated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera for thyroid imaging and assessed what improvements are necessary for the development of this technique.

Methods: SPECT of the mouse neck region, with pinhole collimation and geometric calibration, was used for the individual measurement of (99m)Tc pertechnetate uptake in the thyroid and the salivary glands. Uptake in the stomach was studied by planar whole-body imaging. Uptake kinetics and biodistribution studies were performed by sequential imaging.

Results: This work has shown that thyroid imaging in living mice can be performed with a SPECT camera originally built for clinical use. Our experiments indicate that (99m)Tc pertechnetate uptake is faster in the thyroid than in the salivary glands and the stomach. The decrease in (99m)Tc pertechnetate uptake after injection of iodide or perchlorate as competitive inhibitors was also studied. The resulting rate decreases were faster in the thyroid than in the salivary glands or the stomach.

Conclusions: We have shown that a clinically dedicated SPECT camera can be used for thyroid imaging. In our experiments, SPECT imaging allowed the analysis of (99m)Tc pertechnetate accumulation in individual organs and revealed differences in uptake kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2009.0213DOI Listing
May 2010

The type 1 lysophosphatidic acid receptor is a target for therapy in bone metastases.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 Jun 12;103(25):9643-8. Epub 2006 Jun 12.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U664, 69372 Lyon, France.

Platelet-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) supports the progression of breast and ovarian cancer metastasis to bone. The mechanisms through which LPA promotes bone metastasis formation are, however, unknown. Here we report that silencing of the type 1 LPA receptor (LPA(1)) in cancer cells blocks the production of tumor-derived cytokines that are potent activators of osteoclast-mediated bone destruction and significantly reduces the progression of osteolytic bone metastases. Moreover, functional blockade of LPA action on its cognate receptor LPA(1) using a pharmacological antagonist mimics the effects of silencing LPA(1) in tumor cells in vitro and substantially reduces bone metastasis progression in animals. Overall, these results suggest that inhibition of platelet-derived LPA action on LPA(1) expressed by tumor cells may be a promising therapeutic target for patients with bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0600979103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1480460PMC
June 2006

Human breast tumors override the antiangiogenic effect of stromal thrombospondin-1 in vivo.

Int J Cancer 2005 Sep;116(5):686-91

INSERM Research Unit 664, Laënnec School of Medicine, Lyon, France.

The antiangiogenic extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in animals. However, the clinical relevance of such findings are equivocal as increased stromal TSP-1 expression has been associated with either good or poor prognosis. In an effort to obtain a more integrated understanding of the role of TSP-1 in breast cancer, we first used a breast tumorigenesis model in which tumor-associated stromal fibroblasts were engineered to produce high levels of TSP-1. We demonstrate here that stromal TSP-1 delayed human MDA-MB-231/B02 breast tumor growth. However, this delay in MDA-MB-231/B02 tumor growth upon exposure to TSP-1 was associated with an increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tumor cells themselves, leading to a tumor growth rate comparable to that of tumors whose fibroblasts did not overproduce TSP-1. Clinical evidence also suggested that primary breast carcinomas have adapted to escape the effects of stromal TSP-1. TSP-1 was found to be expressed in the stroma of human breast carcinomas where, although its level correlated with decreased vascularization, it was unexpectedly associated with a reduction of relapse-free survival. In metastatic axillary lymph nodes, tumor cells expressed high levels of VEGF and TSP-1 expression were no longer associated with a decreased vascularization. Overall, these results suggest that a resistance may develop early in human breast cancers as a result of high in situ exposure to stromal TSP-1, leading to disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20584DOI Listing
September 2005

Androgens repress the expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 in normal and neoplastic prostate.

Cancer Res 2005 Jan;65(1):300-8

Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Research Unit 403, Laënnec School of Medicine, Lyon, France.

In order to understand why the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is often, although not always, associated with prostatic tumors, we have investigated its relationship with the testosterone and the vasculature on which both normal and tumorigenic prostatic epithelia depend. In vivo, androgen withdrawal led to increased TSP1 production and decreased vascularization in the normal rat prostate which was reversed by androgen replacement. Androgen repression of TSP1 production occurred at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the presence of the first intron of the TSP1 gene. In an experimental model of prostate tumorigenesis, TSP1, when delivered by admixed stromal fibroblasts, markedly delayed LNCaP tumor growth and limited tumor vascularization. However, prolonged exposure to TSP1 resulted in the growth of tumors secreting high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in the bloodstream of tumor-bearing animals and tumor growth was no longer sensitive to TSP1 inhibitory effects. Clinical evidence also suggested that prostate carcinomas are able to adapt to escape the antiangiogenic effects of TSP1. In human androgen-dependent localized prostate carcinomas, TSP1 expression was inversely correlated with blood vessel density. Androgen deprivation in patients with hormone-responsive tumors led to increased TSP1 expression and vascular regression. In contrast, despite a sustained expression in the tumor bed, TSP1 was no longer associated with decreased vascularization in hormone-refractory prostate tumors. Overall, these results suggest that the high in situ TSP1 exposure triggered by androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer could lead to early tumor resistance. Such patients could benefit from a combination of androgen deprivation and antiangiogenic therapy in order to minimize the induction of such tumor escape.
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January 2005

Platelet-derived lysophosphatidic acid supports the progression of osteolytic bone metastases in breast cancer.

J Clin Invest 2004 Dec;114(12):1714-25

INSERM, U403, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France.

The role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in cancer is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for a role of LPA in the progression of breast cancer bone metastases. LPA receptors LPA(1), LPA(2), and LPA(3) were expressed in human primary breast tumors and a series of human breast cancer cell lines. The inducible overexpression of LPA(1) in MDA-BO2 breast cancer cells specifically sensitized these cells to the mitogenic action of LPA in vitro. In vivo, LPA(1) overexpression in MDA-BO2 cells enhanced the growth of subcutaneous tumor xenografts and promoted bone metastasis formation in mice by increasing both skeletal tumor growth and bone destruction. This suggested that endogenous LPA was produced in the tumor microenvironment. However, MDA-BO2 cells or transfectants did not produce LPA. Instead, they induced the release of LPA from activated platelets which, in turn, promoted tumor cell proliferation and the LPA(1)-dependent secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, 2 potent bone resorption stimulators. Moreover, platelet-derived LPA deprivation in mice, achieved by treatment with the platelet antagonist Integrilin, inhibited the progression of bone metastases caused by parental and LPA(1)-overexpressing MDA-BO2 cells and reduced the progression of osteolytic lesions in mice bearing CHO-beta3wt ovarian cancer cells. Overall, our data suggest that, at the bone metastatic site, tumor cells stimulate the production of LPA from activated platelets, which enhances both tumor growth and cytokine-mediated bone destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI22123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC535068PMC
December 2004

SiRNA-mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor severely limits tumor resistance to antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1 and slows tumor vascularization and growth.

Cancer Res 2003 Jul;63(14):3919-22

CNRS UPR 9079, 94801 Villejuif, France.

In the past few years, several laboratories have developed antiangiogenic molecules that starve tumors by targeting their vasculature and we have shown that, when produced in tumors, the antiangiogenic molecule thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) reduces the vascularization and delays tumor onset. Yet over time, tumor cells producing active TSP1 do eventually form exponentially growing tumors. These tumors are composed of cells secreting unusually high amounts of the angiogenic stimulator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that are sufficient to overcome the inhibitory TSP1. Here, we use short double-stranded RNA (siRNA) to trigger RNA interference and thereby impair the synthesis of VEGF and ask if this inability to produce VEGF prevents the development of TSP1 resistance. Systemic in vivo administration of crude anti-VEGF siRNA reduced the growth of unaltered fibrosarcoma tumor cells, and when the anti-VEGF siRNA was expressed from tumor cells themselves, such inhibition was synergistic with the inhibitory effects derived from TSP1 secretion by the tumor cells. Anti-VEGF siRNA delayed the emergence of TSP1-resistant tumors and strikingly reduced their subsequent growth rate.
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July 2003

Bisphosphonates inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and testosterone-stimulated vascular regrowth in the ventral prostate in castrated rats.

Cancer Res 2002 Nov;62(22):6538-44

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Research Unit 403, Faculty of Medicine Laënnec, Lyon 69372, France.

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are used currently in the treatment of patients with bone metastases because these compounds inhibit bone resorption. We examined here the effects of BPs on inhibition of endothelial cell functions in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of endothelial cells with BPs (clodronate, risedronate, ibandronate, and zoledronic acid) reduced proliferation, induced apoptosis, and decreased capillary-like tube formation in vitro. Quantification of blood vessels in bone biopsy specimens from patients with Paget's disease before and after clodronate treatment showed a 40% reduction of the vascularization after BP treatment. However, such a decreased vascularity could be secondary to a reduction of bone resorption. Therefore, the tissue distribution of [14C]BPs in male rats was examined to develop an angiogenesis model in a noncalcified tissue where BPs could accumulate. [14C]BPs (zoledronic acid, ibandronate, and clodronate) not only accumulated in bone but also transiently accumulated in the prostate. The effects of BPs on testosterone-induced revascularization of the prostate gland in castrated rats were then studied. Testosterone in combination with ibandronate or zoledronic acid induced a 17-35% reduction of the prostate weight compared with castrated rats treated with testosterone alone. Blood vessel immunostaining on prostate tissue sections revealed that both ibandronate and zoledronic acid induced a 50% reduction of the revascularization of the prostate gland. Moreover, zoledronic acid did not alter testosterone-induced activity of a luciferase gene reporter construct transfected in androgen-dependent prostatic cells, indicating that this BP did not directly interfere with testosterone. In conclusion, BPs have in vivo antiangiogenic properties, which could be of relevance to improve therapy and prevention of bone metastasis. In addition, our results extend the potential clinical use of BPs to patients with early prostate cancer.
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November 2002

Integrin alpha(v)beta3 expression confers on tumor cells a greater propensity to metastasize to bone.

FASEB J 2002 Aug 21;16(10):1266-8. Epub 2002 Jun 21.

INSERM Research Unit 403, Faculty of Medicine Laënnec, Lyon, France.

The reasons why tumor cells metastasize to bone remain obscure. There is some evidence to support the theory that integrins (acting as cell surface adhesion receptors) play a role in mediating metastasis in certain organs. Here, we report that overexpression of a functionally active integrin alpha(v)b3 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) tumor cells drastically increased the incidence, number, and area of bone metastases in nude mice compared with those observed in mock-transfected CHO cells (CHO dhfr+) or in CHO cells expressing a functionally inactive integrin alpha(v)b3 (CHO beta3Delta744). Moreover, a breast cancer cell line (B02) established from bone metastases caused by MDA-MB-231 cells constitutively overexpressed integrin alpha(v)b3, whereas the cell surface expression level of other integrins remained unchanged. In vivo, the extent of bone metastases in B02-bearing mice was significantly increased compared with that of MDA-MB-231-bearing mice. In vitro, B02 cells and CHO cells expressing a functionally active integrin alpha(v)b3 exhibited substantially increased invasion of and adhesion to mineralized bone, bone sialoprotein, and collagen compared with those found with MDA-MB-231, CHO dhfr+, and CHO beta3Delta744 cells, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest that integrin alpha(v)b3 expression in tumor cells accelerates the development of osteolytic lesions, presumably through increased invasion of and adhesion to bone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.01-0911fjeDOI Listing
August 2002