Publications by authors named "Julien Delezie"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PGC-1β-expressing POMC neurons mediate the effect of leptin on thermoregulation in the mouse.

Sci Rep 2020 10 15;10(1):16888. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50/70, 4056, Basel, Switzerland.

The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of food intake, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and locomotor activity. Whole-body deficiency of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) disrupts mouse circadian locomotor activity and BAT-regulated thermogenesis, in association with altered gene expression at the central level. We examined whether PGC-1β expression in the ARC is required for proper energy balance and locomotor behavior by generating mice lacking the PGC-1β gene specifically in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. POMC neuron-specific deletion of PGC-1β did not impact locomotor behavior, food intake, body composition, energy fuel utilization and metabolic rate in fed, 24-h fasted and 24-h refed conditions. In contrast, in the fed state, deletion of PGC-1β in POMC cells elevated core body temperature during the nighttime period. Importantly, this higher body temperature is not associated with changes in BAT function and gene expression. Conversely, we provide evidence that mice lacking PGC-1β in POMC neurons are more sensitive to the effect of leptin on heat dissipation. Our data indicate that PGC-1β-expressing POMC neurons are part of a circuit controlling body temperature homeostasis and that PGC-1β function in these neurons is involved in the thermoregulatory effect of leptin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73794-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567876PMC
October 2020

The neuromuscular junction is a focal point of mTORC1 signaling in sarcopenia.

Nat Commun 2020 09 9;11(1):4510. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

With human median lifespan extending into the 80s in many developed countries, the societal burden of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) is increasing. mTORC1 promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but also drives organismal aging. Here, we address the question of whether mTORC1 activation or suppression is beneficial for skeletal muscle aging. We demonstrate that chronic mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin is overwhelmingly, but not entirely, positive for aging mouse skeletal muscle, while genetic, muscle fiber-specific activation of mTORC1 is sufficient to induce molecular signatures of sarcopenia. Through integration of comprehensive physiological and extensive gene expression profiling in young and old mice, and following genetic activation or pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, we establish the phenotypically-backed, mTORC1-focused, multi-muscle gene expression atlas, SarcoAtlas (https://sarcoatlas.scicore.unibas.ch/), as a user-friendly gene discovery tool. We uncover inter-muscle divergence in the primary drivers of sarcopenia and identify the neuromuscular junction as a focal point of mTORC1-driven muscle aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18140-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481251PMC
September 2020

JAK2-mutant hematopoietic cells display metabolic alterations that can be targeted to treat myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Blood 2019 11;134(21):1832-1846

Experimental Hematology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Increased energy requirement and metabolic reprogramming are hallmarks of cancer cells. We show that metabolic alterations in hematopoietic cells are fundamental to the pathogenesis of mutant JAK2-driven myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We found that expression of mutant JAK2 augmented and subverted metabolic activity of MPN cells, resulting in systemic metabolic changes in vivo, including hypoglycemia, adipose tissue atrophy, and early mortality. Hypoglycemia in MPN mouse models correlated with hyperactive erythropoiesis and was due to a combination of elevated glycolysis and increased oxidative phosphorylation. Modulating nutrient supply through high-fat diet improved survival, whereas high-glucose diet augmented the MPN phenotype. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses identified numerous metabolic nodes in JAK2-mutant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that were altered in comparison with wild-type controls. We studied the consequences of elevated levels of Pfkfb3, a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, and found that pharmacological inhibition of Pfkfb3 with the small molecule 3PO reversed hypoglycemia and reduced hematopoietic manifestations of MPNs. These effects were additive with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of glycolysis by 3PO altered the redox homeostasis, leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species and augmented apoptosis rate. Our findings reveal the contribution of metabolic alterations to the pathogenesis of MPNs and suggest that metabolic dependencies of mutant cells represent vulnerabilities that can be targeted for treating MPNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872961PMC
November 2019

BDNF is a mediator of glycolytic fiber-type specification in mouse skeletal muscle.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 08 18;116(32):16111-16120. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland;

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences the differentiation, plasticity, and survival of central neurons and likewise, affects the development of the neuromuscular system. Besides its neuronal origin, BDNF is also a member of the myokine family. However, the role of skeletal muscle-derived BDNF in regulating neuromuscular physiology in vivo remains unclear. Using gain- and loss-of-function animal models, we show that muscle-specific ablation of BDNF shifts the proportion of muscle fibers from type IIB to IIX, concomitant with elevated slow muscle-type gene expression. Furthermore, BDNF deletion reduces motor end plate volume without affecting neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity. These morphological changes are associated with slow muscle function and a greater resistance to contraction-induced fatigue. Conversely, BDNF overexpression promotes a fast muscle-type gene program and elevates glycolytic fiber number. These findings indicate that BDNF is required for fiber-type specification and provide insights into its potential modulation as a therapeutic target in muscle diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900544116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6690026PMC
August 2019

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α regulates mitochondrial calcium homeostasis, sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, and cell death to mitigate skeletal muscle aging.

Aging Cell 2019 10 10;18(5):e12993. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Biozentrum, Division of Pharmacology/Neurobiology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Age-related impairment of muscle function severely affects the health of an increasing elderly population. While causality and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, exercise is an efficient intervention to blunt these aging effects. We thus investigated the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a potent regulator of mitochondrial function and exercise adaptation, in skeletal muscle during aging. We demonstrate that PGC-1α overexpression improves mitochondrial dynamics and calcium buffering in an estrogen-related receptor α-dependent manner. Moreover, we show that sarcoplasmic reticulum stress is attenuated by PGC-1α. As a result, PGC-1α prevents tubular aggregate formation and cell death pathway activation in old muscle. Similarly, the pro-apoptotic effects of ceramide and thapsigargin were blunted by PGC-1α in muscle cells. Accordingly, mice with muscle-specific gain-of-function and loss-of-function of PGC-1α exhibit a delayed and premature aging phenotype, respectively. Together, our data reveal a key protective effect of PGC-1α on muscle function and overall health span in aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718523PMC
October 2019

Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain.

Front Neurol 2018 24;9:698. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Skeletal muscle is an essential regulator of energy homeostasis and a potent coordinator of exercise-induced adaptations in other organs including the liver, fat or the brain. Skeletal muscle-initiated crosstalk with other tissues is accomplished though the secretion of myokines, protein hormones which can exert autocrine, paracrine and long-distance endocrine effects. In addition, the enhanced release or uptake of metabolites from and into contracting muscle cells, respectively, likewise can act as a powerful mediator of tissue interactions, in particular in regard to the central nervous system. The present review will discuss the current stage of knowledge regarding how exercise and the muscle secretome improve a broad range of brain functions related to vascularization, neuroplasticity, memory, sleep and mood. Even though the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the communication between muscle and brain is still poorly understood, physical activity represents one of the most effective strategies to reduce the prevalence and incidence of depression, cognitive, metabolic or degenerative neuronal disorders, and thus warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117390PMC
August 2018

PGC-1α expression in murine AgRP neurons regulates food intake and energy balance.

Mol Metab 2016 Jul 18;5(7):580-588. Epub 2016 May 18.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50/70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objective: Food intake and whole-body energy homeostasis are controlled by agouti-related protein (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Key energy sensors, such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), are essential in AgRP and POMC cells to ensure proper energy balance. In peripheral tissues, the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α closely associates with these sensors to regulate cellular metabolism. The role of PGC-1α in the ARC nucleus, however, remains unknown.

Methods: Using AgRP and POMC neurons specific knockout (KO) mouse models we studied the consequences of PGC-1α deletion on metabolic parameters during fed and fasted states and on ghrelin and leptin responses. We also took advantage of an immortalized AgRP cell line to assess the impact of PGC-1α modulation on fasting induced AgRP expression.

Results: PGC-1α is dispensable for POMC functions in both fed and fasted states. In stark contrast, mice carrying a specific deletion of PGC-1α in AgRP neurons display increased adiposity concomitant with significantly lower body temperature and RER values during nighttime. In addition, the absence of PGC-1α in AgRP neurons reduces food intake in the fed and fasted states and alters the response to leptin. Finally, both in vivo and in an immortalized AgRP cell line, PGC-1α modulates AgRP expression induction upon fasting.

Conclusions: Collectively, our results highlight a role for PGC-1α in the regulation of AgRP neuronal functions in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2016.05.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4921790PMC
July 2016

Rev-erbα in the brain is essential for circadian food entrainment.

Sci Rep 2016 07 6;6:29386. Epub 2016 Jul 6.

Regulation of circadian clocks team, Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, UPR3212, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Strasbourg, France.

Foraging is costly in terms of time and energy. An endogenous food-entrainable system allows anticipation of predictable changes of food resources in nature. Yet the molecular mechanism that controls food anticipation in mammals remains elusive. Here we report that deletion of the clock component Rev-erbα impairs food entrainment in mice. Rev-erbα global knockout (GKO) mice subjected to restricted feeding showed reduced elevations of locomotor activity and body temperature prior to mealtime, regardless of the lighting conditions. The failure to properly anticipate food arrival was accompanied by a lack of phase-adjustment to mealtime of the clock protein PERIOD2 in the cerebellum, and by diminished expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK) during mealtime in the mediobasal hypothalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, brain-specific knockout (BKO) mice for Rev-erbα display a defective suprachiasmatic clock, as evidenced by blunted daily activity under a light-dark cycle, altered free-running rhythm in constant darkness and impaired clock gene expression. Notably, brain deletion of Rev-erbα totally prevented food-anticipatory behaviour and thermogenesis. In response to restricted feeding, brain deletion of Rev-erbα impaired changes in clock gene expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, but not in the liver. Our findings indicate that Rev-erbα is required for neural network-based prediction of food availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep29386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933951PMC
July 2016

[When our metabolic health depends on our internal clocks].

Med Sci (Paris) 2012 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):687-9. Epub 2012 Aug 22.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/2012288004DOI Listing
October 2012

The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is required for the daily balance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

FASEB J 2012 Aug 4;26(8):3321-35. Epub 2012 May 4.

Department of Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Mutations of clock genes can lead to diabetes and obesity. REV-ERBα, a nuclear receptor involved in the circadian clockwork, has been shown to control lipid metabolism. To gain insight into the role of REV-ERBα in energy homeostasis in vivo, we explored daily metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in chow-fed, unfed, or high-fat-fed Rev-erbα(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates. Chow-fed Rev-erbα(-/-) mice displayed increased adiposity (2.5-fold) and mild hyperglycemia (∼10%) without insulin resistance. Indirect calorimetry indicates that chow-fed Rev-erbα(-/-) mice utilize more fatty acids during daytime. A 24-h nonfeeding period in Rev-erbα(-/-) animals favors further fatty acid mobilization at the expense of glycogen utilization and gluconeogenesis, without triggering hypoglycemia and hypothermia. High-fat feeding in Rev-erbα(-/-) mice amplified metabolic disturbances, including expression of lipogenic factors. Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) gene, critical in lipid utilization/storage, is triggered in liver at night and constitutively up-regulated (∼2-fold) in muscle and adipose tissue of Rev-erbα(-/-) mice. We show that CLOCK, up-regulated (2-fold) at night in Rev-erbα(-/-) mice, can transactivate Lpl. Thus, overexpression of Lpl facilitates muscle fatty acid utilization and contributes to fat overload. This study demonstrates the importance of clock-driven Lpl expression in energy balance and highlights circadian disruption as a potential cause for the metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.12-208751DOI Listing
August 2012

Interactions between metabolism and circadian clocks: reciprocal disturbances.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011 Dec;1243:30-46

Department of Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UPR3212, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Obesity is a medical condition of excess body fat, recognized as a global epidemic. Besides genetic factors, overconsumption of high-energy food and a sedentary lifestyle are major obesogenic causes. A newly identified determinant is altered circadian rhythmicity. To anticipate and adapt to daily changes in the environment, organisms have developed an endogenous circadian timing system, comprising a main circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, principally synchronized to the light-dark cycle. Secondary peripheral clocks are found in various tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue. These clocks control the rhythmic patterns of myriad metabolic processes. We will review the evidence that metabolic dysfunction is associated with circadian disturbances at both central and peripheral levels and, conversely, that disruption of circadian clock functioning can lead to obesity. The roots of these reciprocal interactions will be illustrated by transcriptional crosstalk between metabolic and circadian systems. Chronotherapeutic approaches of dieting to maintain or restore a proper circadian alignment could be useful to limit the magnitude of metabolic risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06246.xDOI Listing
December 2011