Publications by authors named "Julie Soblet"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

New variant in deficiency of interleukin-36 receptor antagonist syndrome (DITRA).

Int J Dermatol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Genetics, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, ULB Center of Human Genetics, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15522DOI Listing
March 2021

Digestive involvement in a severe form of Snyder-Robinson syndrome: Possible expansion of the phenotype.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Jan 10;64(1):104097. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Genetics, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, ULB Center of Human Genetics, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Genetics, Hôpital Erasme, ULB Center of Human Genetics, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; Interuniversity Institute of Bioinformatics in Brussels, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Snyder-Robinson syndrome (OMIM #309583) is a rare X-linked condition, caused by mutation in the SMS gene (MIM *300105), characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical signs including developmental delay, epilepsy, asthenic habitus, dysmorphism, osteopenia, and renal or genital anomalies. Here we describe two maternal half-brothers who both presented with severe neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, hearing loss, facial dysmorphism, renal and ophthalmologic anomalies, failure to thrive and premature death. A novel p.(Gly203Asp) variant was found at the hemizygous state in the two boys, and an elevated Spermidine/Spermine ratio confirmed the diagnosis of Snyder-Robinson syndrome. One of the brothers presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, with jejunal stenosis, enteral feeding intolerance, failure to thrive due to a dysfunctional gastrointestinal system, cholestasis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Although more studies will be needed to understand its mechanisms, this observation lends further support to the possibility of severe digestive involvement in Snyder Robinson syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104097DOI Listing
January 2021

Homozygous p.R31H GNRH1 mutation and normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a patient and self-limited delayed puberty in his relatives.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Sep;33(9):1237-1240

Paediatric Endocrinology Unit, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.

Objectives Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare condition resulting from GnRH deficiency. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 1 (GNRH1) homozygous mutations are an extremely rare cause of normosmic CHH (nCHH). Most heterozygous individuals are asymptomatic, with the notable exception of individuals heterozygous for a p.R31C GNRH1 mutation. Case presentation The patient is an index case from a consanguineous family, presenting with severe CHH and his parents presenting with late puberty and normal fertility. The index case is homozygous for a p.R31H GNRH1 variant, both parents being heterozygous. The analysis of a panel of genes implicated in CHH does not show any other clinically relevant variant in any other gene tested. Conclusions GNRH1 mutations are a rare cause of nCHH. Five different mutations have been reported so far in homozygous individuals. Most are frameshift in nature but the one reported here causes an amino acid change in the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide. Both independently reported patients with the p.R31H mutation are from Turkish origin. The question of the possible role of this mutation in the late puberty of the heterozygous parents needs further documentation. An analogy is made with the heterozygous individuals carrying the p.R31C and displaying partial CHH. No nonreproductive disorder is noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2020-0207DOI Listing
September 2020

Novel homozygous variant of carbonic anhydrase 8 gene expanding the phenotype of cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and disequilibrium syndrome subtype 3.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 11 18;182(11):2685-2693. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

We report the case of an 11-year-old Syrian girl born to consanguineous parents, who presents an ataxic gait from early childhood. On clinical examination, she presented a severe static - kinetic cerebellar syndrome, walking without support is possible for short distances only. Strikingly, three consecutive MRIs did not show any sign of cerebellar abnormalities, but a brain positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) demonstrated a clear decrease in glucose metabolism in the cerebellum as well as the anterior and medial temporal lobe bilaterally. A clinical exome analysis identified a novel homozygous c.251A > G (p.Asn84Ser) likely pathogenic variant in the carbonic anhydrase 8 (CA8) gene. CA8 mutations cause cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and disequilibrium syndrome subtype 3 (CAMRQ3), a rare genetically autosomal recessive disorder, only described in four families, so far with the frequent observation of quadrupedal gait. The proband differed with other reported CA8 mutations by the absence of clear cerebellar signs on brain MRI and the presence of focal seizures. This report expands the clinical spectrum associated with mutations in CA8 and illustrates the possible discrepancy between (mild) neuro-radiological images (MRI) and (severe) clinical phenotype in young individuals. In contrast, the observation of clear cerebellar abnormal metabolic findings suggests that the FDG-PET scan may be used as an early marker for hereditary ataxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61805DOI Listing
November 2020

Three cases of molecularly confirmed Knobloch syndrome.

Ophthalmic Genet 2020 02 17;41(1):83-87. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.

Knobloch syndrome (OMIM 267750) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to genetic defects in the gene. The triad of high myopia, occipital defect, vitreoretinal degeneration has been described as pathognomonic for this condition. Patients with Knobloch syndrome have also extraocular problems as brain and kidney malformations. High genetic and phenotypic variation has been reported in the affected patients. Here we provide detailed clinical description of 3 individuals with Knobloch syndrome. Ocular examination and fundus imaging have been performed. Detailed information about systemic conditions has been provided. Mutations in were identified in all three patients. Patient 1 had congenital hip dislocation and patient 2 had renal atrophy, cardiac insufficiency and difficult skin healing. With this report we add to the clinical and genetic knowledge of this rare condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13816810.2020.1737948DOI Listing
February 2020

Digenic inheritance of human primary microcephaly delineates centrosomal and non-centrosomal pathways.

Hum Mutat 2020 02 27;41(2):512-524. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Primary microcephaly (PM) is characterized by a small head since birth and is vastly heterogeneous both genetically and phenotypically. While most cases are monogenic, genetic interactions between Aspm and Wdr62 have recently been described in a mouse model of PM. Here, we used two complementary, holistic in vivo approaches: high throughput DNA sequencing of multiple PM genes in human patients with PM, and genome-edited zebrafish modeling for the digenic inheritance of PM. Exomes of patients with PM showed a significant burden of variants in 75 PM genes, that persisted after removing monogenic causes of PM (e.g., biallelic pathogenic variants in CEP152). This observation was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with PM, where a PM gene panel showed in addition that the burden was carried by six centrosomal genes. Allelic frequencies were consistent with digenic inheritance. In zebrafish, non-centrosomal gene casc5 -/- produced a severe PM phenotype, that was not modified by centrosomal genes aspm or wdr62 invalidation. A digenic, quadriallelic PM phenotype was produced by aspm and wdr62. Our observations provide strong evidence for digenic inheritance of human PM, involving centrosomal genes. Absence of genetic interaction between casc5 and aspm or wdr62 further delineates centrosomal and non-centrosomal pathways in PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496698PMC
February 2020

Truncating RAX Mutations: Anophthalmia, Hypopituitarism, Diabetes Insipidus, and Cleft Palate in Mice and Men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 07;104(7):2925-2930

Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Context: The transcription factor RAX is a paired-type homeoprotein that plays a critical role in eye and forebrain development of vertebrate species. RAX knockout mice have anophthalmia, cleft palate, and an abnormal hypothalamus and display perinatal lethality. In humans, homozygous or compound heterozygous RAX mutations have been reported to cause bilateral microphthalmia or anophthalmia without consistent associated features. Congenital hypopituitarism can be associated with various eye or craniofacial anomalies; however, the co-occurrence of congenital hypopituitarism, anophthalmia, cleft palate, and diabetes insipidus has been very rare.

Results: We report the case of a child with anophthalmia, congenital hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and bilateral cleft lip and palate who had a homozygous frameshift truncating mutation c.266delC (p.Pro89Argfs*114) in exon 1 of the RAX gene. Rax knockout mice show loss of ventral forebrain structures, pituitary, and basosphenoid bone and palate and a misplaced anterior pituitary gland along the roof of the oral cavity.

Conclusions: Our patient's phenotype was more severe than that reported in other patients. Although most of the previously reported patients with RAX mutations showed either a missense or some less severe mutation in at least one of their RAX alleles, our patient was homozygous for truncating mutations that would yield a severe, null protein phenotype. The severity of the genetic defect, the precise match between the knockout mouse and the patient's endocrine phenotypes, and the prominent roles of RAX in eye and pituitary development and diencephalic patterning suggest that the RAX null mutations could fully account for the observed phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543774PMC
July 2019

HCN1 mutation spectrum: from neonatal epileptic encephalopathy to benign generalized epilepsy and beyond.

Brain 2018 11;141(11):3160-3178

Neuropediatric Department, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy263DOI Listing
November 2018

Correction: IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females: a comparative study including 37 novel patients.

Genet Med 2019 Aug;21(8):1897-1898

APHP, Service de genetique medicale, Necker- Enfants Malades Hospital, Imagine Institute, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

This Article was originally published under Nature Research's License to Publish, but has now been made available under a CC BY 4.0 license. The PDF and HTML versions of the Article have been modified accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0327-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608434PMC
August 2019

IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females: a comparative study including 37 novel patients.

Genet Med 2019 04 12;21(4):837-849. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

APHP, Service de genetique medicale, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Imagine Institute, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Purpose: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences.

Methods: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms.

Results: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments.

Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0268-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752297PMC
April 2019

BCL11A frameshift mutation associated with dyspraxia and hypotonia affecting the fine, gross, oral, and speech motor systems.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 01 27;176(1):201-208. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

We report the case of a 7-year-old male of Western European origin presenting with moderate intellectual disability, severe childhood apraxia of speech in the presence of oral and manual dyspraxia, and hypotonia across motor systems including the oral and speech motor systems. Exome sequencing revealed a de novo frameshift protein truncating mutation in the fourth exon of BCL11A, a gene recently demonstrated as being involved in cognition and language development. Making parallels with a previously described patient with a 200 kb 2p15p16.1 deletion encompassing the entire BCL11A gene and displaying a similar phenotype, we characterize in depth how BCL11A is involved in clinical aspects of language development and oral praxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5765401PMC
January 2018

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus (BRBN) Syndrome Is Caused by Somatic TEK (TIE2) Mutations.

J Invest Dermatol 2017 01 9;137(1):207-216. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Human Molecular Genetics, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (Bean syndrome) is a rare, severe disorder of unknown cause, characterized by numerous cutaneous and internal venous malformations; gastrointestinal lesions are pathognomonic. We discovered somatic mutations in TEK, the gene encoding TIE2, in 15 of 17 individuals with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Somatic mutations were also identified in five of six individuals with sporadically occurring multifocal venous malformations. In contrast to common unifocal venous malformation, which is most often caused by the somatic L914F TIE2 mutation, multifocal forms are predominantly caused by double (cis) mutations, that is, two somatic mutations on the same allele of the gene. Mutations are identical in all lesions from a given individual. T1105N-T1106P is recurrent in blue rubber bleb nevus, whereas Y897C-R915C is recurrent in sporadically occurring multifocal venous malformation: both cause ligand-independent activation of TIE2, and increase survival, invasion, and colony formation when expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2016.07.034DOI Listing
January 2017

Common and specific effects of TIE2 mutations causing venous malformations.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 Nov 28;24(22):6374-89. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, Biocenter Oulu and Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland,

Venous malformations (VMs) are localized defects in vascular morphogenesis frequently caused by mutations in the gene for the endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2. Here, we report the analysis of a comprehensive collection of 22 TIE2 mutations identified in patients with VM, either as single amino acid substitutions or as double-mutations on the same allele. Using endothelial cell (EC) cultures, mouse models and ultrastructural analysis of tissue biopsies from patients, we demonstrate common as well as mutation-specific cellular and molecular features, on the basis of which mutations cluster into categories that correlate with data from genetic studies. Comparisons of double-mutants with their constituent single-mutant forms identified the pathogenic contributions of individual changes, and their compound effects. We find that defective receptor trafficking and subcellular localization of different TIE2 mutant forms occur via a variety of mechanisms, resulting in attenuated response to ligand. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that TIE2 mutations cause chronic activation of the MAPK pathway resulting in loss of normal EC monolayer due to extracellular matrix (ECM) fibronectin deficiency and leading to upregulation of plasminogen/plasmin proteolytic pathway. Corresponding EC and ECM irregularities are observed in affected tissues from mouse models and patients. Importantly, an imbalance between plasminogen activators versus inhibitors would also account for high d-dimer levels, a major feature of unknown cause that distinguishes VMs from other vascular anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614705PMC
November 2015

Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects.

J Clin Invest 2015 Sep 10;125(9):3491-504. Epub 2015 Aug 10.

Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult-to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI76004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4588237PMC
September 2015

Venous malformation-causative TIE2 mutations mediate an AKT-dependent decrease in PDGFB.

Hum Mol Genet 2013 Sep 30;22(17):3438-48. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.

Mutations in the endothelial cell (EC) tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 cause inherited and sporadic forms of venous malformation. The recurrent somatic mutation L914F and common germline mutation R849W differ in terms of phosphorylation level, as well as sub-cellular localization and trafficking of the receptor. Previous studies have shed light on certain pathogenic properties of R849W, but the mechanisms of action of L914F are unknown. We used global gene expression profiling to study the effects of L914F on ECs. We found that L914F strongly dysregulates genes involved in vascular development, cell migration and extracellular matrix processing, while R849W has weak effects. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that TIE2-mutant ECs are deficient in the production of PDGFB, both in vitro and ex vivo in patient tissues. This defect is mediated by the chronic, ligand-independent activation of AKT by the mutant receptors. Inadequate secretion of the major mural cell attractant likely plays an important role in the development of abnormal vascular channels, contributing to the characteristic paucity of surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736867PMC
September 2013