Publications by authors named "Julie Robitaille"

84 Publications

Feel Good, Eat Better: The Role of Self-Compassion and Body Esteem in Mothers' Healthy Eating Behaviours.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 30;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Nutrition, Health and Society (NUTRISS) Research Center, School of Nutrition, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

Mothers' eating behaviours are important to ensure the health and well-being of themselves and their families. Recent research has pointed to self-compassion, defined as extending kindness to oneself in times of perceived inadequacy or general suffering, as a trait associated with healthy forms of eating, such as intuitive eating, and reduced maladaptive forms of eating, such as emotional eating. However, little is known about the psychological mechanism through which self-compassion relates to healthy eating behaviours. This study examined 100 mothers' levels of self-compassion, body esteem and eating behaviours. Structural equation modelling revealed that self-compassion was positively associated with diet quality and intuitive eating, while being negatively associated with emotional eating. Moreover, these links occurred, in part, due to higher body esteem. This points to a mechanism through which self-compassion may positively contribute to mothers' healthy eating behaviours. The implications for eating outcomes and women's health are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625178PMC
October 2021

Authors' Response.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2021 07;121(7):1216-1217

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2021.04.017DOI Listing
July 2021

Individuals with self-determined motivation for eating have better overall diet quality: Results from the PREDISE study.

Appetite 2021 10 24;165:105426. Epub 2021 May 24.

Centre Nutrition, santé et société (NUTRISS), Institut sur la nutrition et les aliments fonctionnels (INAF), Université Laval, Québec, Canada; School of Nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

The study aimed at documenting motivational orientations for the regulation of eating as defined by self-determination theory and their association with sociodemographic characteristics and overall diet quality. As part of the PREDISE study, French-speaking women (n = 550) and men (n = 547), aged 18-65 years, living in the Province of Québec, Canada, completed online validated questionnaires. The Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale, based on the self-determination theory, assessed self-determined and non-self-determined motivation to regulate one's eating behavior. Three web-based 24-h food recalls were completed and used to compute the Canadian Healthy Eating Index 2007 (C-HEI), an indicator of the overall adherence to Canadian guidelines for healthy eating. Multiple linear regressions were performed to assess how regulation styles are associated with the C-HEI. Model 1 included no covariate, model 2 included sociodemographic covariates, and fully adjusted model 3 included as covariates sociodemographic variables as well as variables that were previously associated with diet quality, namely nutrition knowledge and social support for healthy eating. Women (p < 0.0001), older individuals (p = 0.0002), those with a higher education level (p < 0.0001), and non-smokers (p < 0.0001) reported higher self-determined motivation score than their counterparts. Self-determined motivation was positively (model 1: B = 4.67, p < 0.0001; model 2: B = 3.82, p < 0.0001; model 3: B = 3.61, p < 0.0001) and non-self-determined motivation was negatively (model 1: B = -1.62, p = 0.0009; model 2: B = -1.63, p = 0.0006; model 2: B = -1.49, p = 0.0022) associated with C-HEI. The present study suggests that some subgroups of the general adult population show more self-determined motivation for eating, which is associated with a better diet quality independently of individual characteristics and other individual and social determinants of healthy eating. Strategies to help individuals internalize the regulation of eating should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2021.105426DOI Listing
October 2021

Associations of Intake of Free and Naturally Occurring Sugars from Solid Foods and Drinks with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Quebec Adult Population: The PREDISE (PRÉDicteurs Individuels, Sociaux et Environnementaux) Study.

J Nutr 2021 06;151(6):1561-1571

Centre Nutrition, Santé et Société (NUTRISS), Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Associations between sugar consumption and cardiometabolic health, taking into account the physical form of sugar-containing foods (liquid vs. solid) and the type of sugars consumed [free sugars (FSs) vs. naturally occurring sugars (NOSs)], remain to be thoroughly documented.

Objective: The objective was to examine whether FS and NOS intakes from drinks and solid foods are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of French-speaking adults from the province of Quebec, Canada.

Methods: Data were collected as part of the cross-sectional PREDISE (PRÉDicteurs Individuels, Sociaux et Environnementaux) study (n = 1019, 18-65 y old; 50% women). FS and NOS intakes were assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls using a self-administered, web-based application. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010. Participants underwent on-site clinical assessment of cardiometabolic risk factors, including blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and fasting blood sampling (glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, blood lipids). Multivariable linear regression models were performed to examine the associations between sugar intake and cardiometabolic risk factors with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, and diet quality entered as covariates.

Results: In fully adjusted models, FS intake from drinks was associated with fasting insulin (1.06%; 95% CI: 0.30%, 1.84%; P = 0.006) and with insulin resistance as estimated using the HOMA model (1.01%; 95% CI: 0.19%, 1.84%; P = 0.02). All metabolic variables that were significantly associated with NOS intake from solid foods in minimally adjusted models were no longer significant after entering sociodemographic and lifestyle variables (e.g., educational and income levels, smoking, physical activity, daily energy intake) and diet quality in the models.

Conclusions: Our data from an adult sample showed that unfavorable and favorable associations with cardiometabolic risk factors observed, respectively, for FS intake from drinks and NOS intake from foods are mostly explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, as well as by diet quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243855PMC
June 2021

Breastfeeding and growth trajectory from birth to 5 years among children exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes mellitus in utero.

J Perinatol 2021 05 28;41(5):1033-1042. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Centre de recherche Nutrition, Santé et Société (NUTRISS), Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the association between exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and growth trajectory from birth to 5 years and to test whether breastfeeding influences this association among children exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes.

Study Design: Weight at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months and 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were retrospectively collected for 103 children exposed and 63 children unexposed to gestational diabetes. Weight-for-age z-score was calculated. Mixed linear model for repeated measurements were computed to test whether breastfeeding was associated differently with weight-for-age z-score of children exposed or unexposed to diabetes.

Results: Children exposed to gestational diabetes had greater z-score values at 6 months and 4 and 5 years (p < 0.10). Breastfeeding duration was not associated with weight-for-age z-score trajectory in any children.

Conclusion: Children exposed to gestational diabetes had a different growth trajectory in early life, but breastfeeding duration did not seem to influence this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-00932-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Trimester-Specific and Total Gestational Weight Gain in Two Consecutive Pregnancies.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 Apr 24;43(4):483-489.e3. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, QC; Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC; Centre de recherche Nutrition, Santé et Société (NUTRISS), INAF, Laval University, Québec City, QC. Electronic address:

Objective: This retrospective study aimed to characterize trimester-specific and total gestational weight gain (GWG) over the course of two consecutive pregnancies, as well as maternal determinants associated with interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) and excessive GWG in the second pregnancy.

Methods: We analyzed the electronic medical records of women who delivered their first two consecutive infants at term between 2001 and 2017.

Results: Weight gain trajectories differed between the first and second pregnancy for the 1497 women included in this study, with lower second- and third-trimester weight gain in the second pregnancy. Respectively, 53% and 41% of women had excessive GWG in the first and second pregnancies, with a higher proportion of excessive GWG found in women with a higher body mass index (BMI). Most women (55%) experienced interpregnancy weight gain. Maternal determinants of IPWC were BMI before first pregnancy, first-trimester and total GWG in the first pregnancy, and interpregnancy interval (P < 0.0001). Maternal risk factors associated with excessive GWG in the second pregnancy were excessive total GWG in the first pregnancy (OR 6.23; 95% CI 4.67-8.32), interpregnancy weight gain (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.19-2.09), and interpregnancy interval (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.07-1.29) as well as BMI before the second pregnancy (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07).

Conclusion: Weight gain trajectories differ between consecutive pregnancies. GWG in the first pregnancy is a key determinant for IPWC and GWG in the second pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2020.12.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Factors influencing engagement and dietary behaviour change of mothers and their children in a blog-delivered healthy eating intervention: a process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial.

Public Health Nutr 2021 06 1;24(9):2689-2703. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Centre NUTRISS - Nutrition, santé et société, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: A randomised controlled trial found no evidence of an impact of a blog written by a registered dietitian (RD) on vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives (e.g. soya-based beverages, yogurt and cheese) consumption - two food groups included in the 2007 version of the Canadian Food Guide - in mothers and their children compared with a control condition. To investigate these null findings, the current study explored participants' perceptions of engagement with the blog and its influence on their dietary behaviours.

Design: Mixed methods process evaluation using a post-intervention satisfaction questionnaire and a content analysis of mothers' comments on the blog (n 213 comments).

Setting: French-speaking adult mothers living in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada (n 26; response rate = 61·9 % of the total sample randomised to exposure to the blog).

Results: Most mothers (n 20/26; 76·9 %) perceived the blog useful to improve their dietary habits - with the most appreciated blog features being nutritional information and healthy recipes and interactions with fellow participants and the RD. Mothers reported several facilitators (e.g. meal planning and involving children in household food activities) and few barriers (e.g. lack of time and children's food preferences) to maternal and child consumption of vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives. Lack of time was the principal reported barrier affecting blog engagement.

Conclusions: The findings from the current study suggest that blogs written by an RD may be an acceptable format of intervention delivery among mothers, but may not alleviate all the barriers to healthy eating and engagement in a dietary intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136898002000484XDOI Listing
June 2021

Positive attitudes toward weight gain in late pregnancy are associated with healthy eating behaviours.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Aug 31;26(6):2051-2058. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, Canada.

Purpose: This cross-sectional study examined the associations between 3rd trimester attitudes toward weight gain and (1) pre-pregnancy BMI, (2) gestational weight gain (GWG) and (3) eating behaviours assessed in the 3rd trimester.

Methods: Seventy-nine (79) pregnant women completed the French version of the Pregnancy Weight Gain Attitude Scale (PWGAS), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in their 3rd trimester. Total GWG was calculated as the difference between the weight recorded before delivery and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight.

Results: Most (55.6%) women gained weight above the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommendations, but there was no association between PWGAS scores and total or 3rd trimester GWG. Women with obesity had lower PWGAS total scores compared to women with overweight (3.48 ± 0.6 vs. 3.99 ± 0.3, p = 0.005), indicating more negative attitudes in women with obesity vs. overweight. Higher total PWGAS scores were positively correlated with intuitive eating scores (r = 0.28, p < 0.05), and inversely associated with unfavourable eating behaviours such as dietary restraint (r =  - 0.42, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Women with positive attitudes toward weight gain reported healthier eating behaviours in late pregnancy, which remains to be confirmed in prospective studies. Interventions addressing body image issues during pregnancy may positively influence pregnant women's health, including eating behaviours.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, case-control analytic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-01057-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Differences in Population-Based Dietary Intake Estimates Obtained From an Interviewer-Administered and a Self-Administered Web-Based 24-h Recall.

Front Nutr 2020 27;7:137. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Centre de Recherche FRQ-S Nutrition, Santé et Société (NUTRISS), Institut sur la Nutrition et les Aliments Fonctionnels (INAF), Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Web-based instruments are being increasingly used in nutrition epidemiology and surveillance. However, the extent to which dietary intake estimates derived from web-based 24-h recalls such as the R24W are consistent with data derived from more traditional interviewer-administered 24-h recalls (TRAD) remains uncertain. Our objective was to compare dietary intake estimates obtained using the R24W and a TRAD instrument in population-based samples from the province of Québec in Canada. This comparison of dietary assessment methods was based on data from two sample survey studies in adults (18-65 years). The R24W was used in a sample of 1,147 French-speaking adults from five regions of Québec as part of the PREDISE () study. The TRAD was used in a sample of 875 French-speaking adults from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2015 located in the same five regions. Characteristics of both samples were matched through selection and weighting (language, sex, age, region, education, body mass index, weekend day, and season of survey). Mean and usual intake data of each sample were compared. The plausibility of reported energy intakes was compared using predictive equations of the Institute of Medicine. Mean servings/day from the R24W were higher than with TRAD for vegetables and fruit (+11%, = 0.003), grain products (+7%, = 0.06), milk and alternatives (+21%, < 0.001), and meat and alternatives (+18%, = 0.001). Intake of low nutritive value foods was also 28% higher with the R24W than with TRAD (mean difference +164 kcal; 95% CI, 107-222). As a result, total energy intakes from the R24W compared with TRAD were 18% higher in women (mean difference +325 kcal; 95% CI, 243-407) and 15% higher in men (mean difference +361 kcal; 95% CI 232-490). The prevalence of underreporting of energy intakes was 10% lower with the R24W than with TRAD (prevalence ratio 0.90; 95% CI, 0.86-0.94). In conclusion, differences between dietary assessment methods in the context of population-based surveys on nutrition have potentially important consequences on the quality of the data and should be carefully considered in future surveys and surveillance strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481356PMC
August 2020

Recruitment and retention of mothers of preschoolers and school-aged children in a social media-delivered healthy eating intervention: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Aug 10;21(1):706. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, School of Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Université Laval, Pavillon des services, office 2729-P, 2440 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 0A6, Canada.

Background: Social media represent cost-effective platforms to advance the dissemination and uptake of health research to improve population health. However, there is limited evidence available to support researchers overcome methodological challenges related to recruitment and retention of participants in studies using social media for delivering behavior change interventions. This study aims to describe the recruitment and the retention strategies used in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that evaluated a blog-delivered healthy eating intervention among mothers of preschoolers and school-aged children.

Methods: Eighty-four adult mothers of children aged between two and 12 years old living in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were recruited between October 2015 and February 2017 using traditional methods (e.g. institutional email lists, flyers, newspapers, and word of mouth) and Facebook advertisements. Retention rates were calculated at the end of the 6-month intervention and at a 12-month follow-up assessment. Sociodemographic characteristics, Internet use behaviors and retention rates of mothers recruited through traditional methods and Facebook were compared using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and Fisher exact tests.

Results: Of the 196 mothers who responded to the recruitment call, 87 (44.4%) were eligible and 84 (42.9%) were randomized to the trial, representing a recruitment success of 76.4% (84/110) from the planned sample size target. Among those, a minority (3.6%) were recruited using Facebook. Those mothers presented similar sociodemographic characteristics to those recruited using traditional methods. Retention rates were 73.8% and 66.7% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, with similar rates between mothers recruited using Facebook and traditional methods. Various challenges associated with population retention were highlighted with lack of time being mothers' main reason for withdrawing from the study.

Conclusions: The methodological challenges experienced during the conduct of the blog-delivered healthy eating intervention allowed to draw upon several lessons regarding the recruitment process and the retention of mothers of preschoolers and school-aged children to inform future social media-delivered research. Recommendations for future research include exploring mothers' perceptions and preferences to tailor social media recruitment, ensure that interventions are delivered to them using social media platforms that are already integrated into their routine, and are providing remote outcome assessments to increase participant retention.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Protocol NCT03156803 . Registered on 17 May 2017, retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04628-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418391PMC
August 2020

Associations Between Nutrition Knowledge and Overall Diet Quality: The Moderating Role of Sociodemographic Characteristics-Results From the PREDISE Study.

Am J Health Promot 2021 01 9;35(1):38-47. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Centre Nutrition, santé et société (NUTRISS), Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, 4440Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Purpose: To assess how nutrition knowledge is associated with global diet quality and to investigate whether sociodemographic characteristics (ie, sex, age, education, income, marital status, and living with children or not) moderate this association.

Design: Cross-sectional web-based study.

Participants: The PREDISE study aims at identifying correlates of adherence to healthy eating guidelines in French-speaking adults from the Province of Quebec, Canada.

Subjects: A probability sample of 1092 participants (50% female).

Measures: The Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and 24-hour food recalls from which the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI) was calculated.

Analysis: Multiple linear regressions performed to assess how nutrition knowledge is associated with the C-HEI. Interaction terms tested to evaluate whether sociodemographic characteristics moderate the association between nutrition knowledge and the C-HEI.

Results: Nutrition knowledge (B = 0.141 [95% CI: 0.075-0.208], < .0001) was identified as a significant correlate of the C-HEI. Education significantly moderated the association between nutrition knowledge and the C-HEI ( interaction = .0038), with a significative association among participants with a lower education level (B = 0.295 [95% CI: 0.170-0.421], < .0001) but not among participants with a higher education level (B = 0.077 [95% CI: -0.004 to 0.157], = .06). Whether participants lived with or without children also significantly moderated the association ( interaction = 0.0043); nutrition knowledge was associated with the C-HEI only in participants who were not living with children (B = 0.261 [95% CI: 0.167 to 0.355], < .0001).

Conclusion: This study suggests that the association between nutrition knowledge and adherence to healthy eating guidelines is not the same in different subgroups of the population. Interventions aiming at increasing nutrition knowledge may be a promising approach to improve diet quality, especially among individuals with a lower education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890117120928877DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term effects of a healthy eating blog in mothers and children.

Matern Child Nutr 2020 07 5;16(3):e12981. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Centre de recherche Nutrition, Santé et Société (NUTRISS), Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, School of Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

In the context of low consumption of vegetables and fruits and milk and alternatives among Canadian mothers and children, novel strategies are needed to improve maternal and child nutrition. This study evaluated the long-term effects of an evidence-informed healthy eating blog on dietary intakes and food-related behaviours of mothers and their child. The study presents a secondary outcome analysis of a randomised controlled trial in which 84 mothers (mean age of 37.6 ± 6.7 years) of 2- to 12-year-old children living in Quebec City, Canada, were randomly assigned to a dietary intervention delivered through a healthy eating blog written by a registered dietitian (RD; n = 42) or a control group (n = 42) during a period of 6 months. Dietary intakes, maternal eating behaviours, food parenting practices, and body weight were measured at baseline, 3 months, at the end of the intervention (6 months), and 6-month post-intervention (12 months). Differences between groups were assessed with mixed linear models. Globally, this study found no evidence of long-term differences in mean dietary intakes in mothers exposed to the blog and their children as well as other food-related outcomes and body weight compared with the control condition. Potential predictors of adherence to dietary recommendations in mothers and children (e.g., involvement of children in household food activities) were identified. In conclusion, a healthy eating blog written by an RD did not result in evidence of any long-term differences in dietary intakes and food-related behaviours in mothers and their children compared with the control condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296799PMC
July 2020

Do pregnant women eat healthier than non-pregnant women of childbearing age?

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2020 Sep 5;71(6):757-768. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.

We aimed to compare the dietary quality and intake of pregnant women, women planning to conceive and women of childbearing age. Fifty-five pregnant women were matched for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index with 55 women planning to conceive and 55 women of childbearing age. Three Web-based 24-h recalls were completed, from which the Canadian Healthy Eating Index was calculated. Pregnant women had greater overall diet quality scores (66.8 ± 10.7, 60.3 ± 14.1 and 61.4 ± 12.8, in pregnant vs. planning to conceive and childbearing age women,  = .009), explained by a higher intake in fruits, vegetables and grain products and lower intake of foods that are high in fat, sugar or salt. Energy intake was significantly higher in pregnant versus planning to conceive women only (2283 ± 518 vs. 2062 ± 430 kcal,  = .03). Diet quality was greater among pregnant women, but diet quality scores were low in all groups, indicating that healthier dietary behaviours should be encouraged for all childbearing age women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2020.1723499DOI Listing
September 2020

Consequences of steroid-5α-reductase deficiency and inhibition in vertebrates.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2020 05 22;290:113400. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Centre Eau Terre Environnement, Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Quebec City, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

In 1974, a lack of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), the most potent androgen across species except for fish, was shown to be the origin of a type of pseudohermaphrodism in which boys have female-like external genitalia. This human intersex condition is linked to a mutation in the steroid-5α-reductase type 2 (SRD5α2) gene, which usually produces an important enzyme capable of reducing the Δ-ene of steroid C-19 and C-21 into a 5α-stereoisomer. Seeing the potential of SRD5α2 as a target for androgen synthesis, pharmaceutical companies developed 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), such as finasteride (FIN) and dutasteride (DUT) to target SRD5α2 in benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia. In addition to human treatment, the development of 5ARIs also enabled further research of SRD5α functions. Therefore, this review details the morphological, physiological, and molecular effects of the lack of SRD5α activity induced by both SRD5α mutations and inhibitor exposures across species. More specifically, data highlights 1) the role of 5α-DHT in the development of male secondary sexual organs in vertebrates and sex determination in non-mammalian vertebrates, 2) the role of SRD5α1 in the synthesis of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol), which are involved in anxiety and sexual behavior, respectively, and 3) the role of SRD5α3 in N-glycosylation. This review also features the lesser known functions of SRD5αs in steroid degradation in the uterus during pregnancy and glucocorticoid clearance in the liver. Additionally, the review describes the regulation of SRD5αs by the receptors of androgens, progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones, as well as their differential DNA methylation. Factors known to be involved in their differential methylation are age, inflammation, and mental stimulation. Overall, this review helps shed light on the various essential functions of SRD5αs across species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113400DOI Listing
May 2020

Social Support, but Not Perceived Food Environment, Is Associated with Diet Quality in French-Speaking Canadians from the PREDISE Study.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 12;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Centre Nutrition, santé et société (NUTRISS), Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, 2440 Hochelage Boulevard, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The objectives were to assess whether social support for healthy eating and perceived food environment are associated with diet quality, and to investigate if sociodemographic characteristics moderate these associations. A probability sample of French-speaking adults from the Province of Québec, Canada, was recruited in the context of the PREDISE study. Participants reported their perceptions of supportive and non-supportive actions related to healthy eating from close others at home and outside of home ( = 952), and of the accessibility to healthy foods ( = 1035). The Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI) was calculated based on three Web-based 24 h food recalls. Multiple linear regression models showed that supportive (B = 1.50 (95% CI 0.46, 2.54)) and non-supportive (B = -3.06 (95% CI -4.94, -1.18)) actions related to healthy eating from close others at home were positively and negatively associated with C-HEI, respectively, whereas actions from close others outside of home were not. The negative association between non-supportive actions occurring at home and C-HEI was stronger among participants with lower (vs. higher) levels of education ( interaction = 0.03). Perceived accessibility to healthy foods was not associated with C-HEI ( > 0.05). These results suggest that the social environment may have a stronger influence on healthy eating than the perceived physical environment. This adds support for healthy eating promotion programs involving entire families, especially for more socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, whose efforts to eat healthily may be more easily thwarted by non-supportive households.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11123030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950594PMC
December 2019

Intakes of Total, Free, and Naturally Occurring Sugars in the French-Speaking Adult Population of the Province of Québec, Canada: The PREDISE Study.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 30;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The objective of this study was to characterize the intakes of different types of sugars in an age- and sex-representative sample of French-speaking adults from five regions of the Province of Québec, Canada, enrolled in the cross-sectional PREDISE (PRÉDicteurs Individuels, Sociaux et Environnementaux) study ( = 1147, 18-65 years old; 50.2% women). Because only total sugar content of foods and beverages is available in the Canadian Nutrient File (CNF) 2015, the initial step of this study was thus to build a database of free and naturally occurring sugars content of each food item and recipe included in the R24W, which is an automated, self-administered, web-based, 24-h dietary recall validated to estimate nutrient intakes in French-speaking adults of the Province of Québec. Total sugars were manually differentiated into free and naturally occurring sugars using a systematic algorithm based on previously published systematic algorithms. The World Health Organization (WHO)'s free sugar definition was used to differentiate total sugars into free and naturally occurring sugars. Dietary intake estimates were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls completed with the R24W. Mean total, free, and naturally occurring sugar intakes were 116.4 g (19.3% of daily energy intake (%E)), 72.5 g (11.7%E), and 44.0 g (7.5%E), respectively. Over half (57.3%) of the overall sample did not meet the WHO's recommendation to consume less than 10%E from free sugars. Women had a higher %E from naturally occurring sugars than men and being younger was associated with a greater %E from free sugars. Sugar intakes among French-speaking adults from the Province of Québec were mainly in the form of free sugars, with the majority of the population exceeding the WHO recommendation regarding free sugar intake. This suggests that public health efforts towards reducing free sugar intake in this population are relevant and necessary, considering that overconsumption of free sugars negatively influences health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11102317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835783PMC
September 2019

Effects of an Evidence-Informed Healthy Eating Blog on Dietary Intakes and Food-Related Behaviors of Mothers of Preschool- and School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2020 01 10;120(1):53-68. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Background: Although social media such as blogs are still considered innovative communication technologies, some registered dietitians (RDs) are using them to promote healthy eating; however, evidence regarding the effects of healthy eating blogs on users' diet is lacking.

Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-informed healthy eating blog written by an RD on dietary intakes, with a focus on vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives consumption, and food-related behaviors of Canadian mothers.

Design: This study was a parallel, randomized, controlled trial.

Participants/setting: Data were collected from 84 French-speaking adult mothers of children aged between 2 and 12 years living in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, who were recruited between October 2015 and February 2017 using institutional e-mail lists, flyers, newspapers, social media advertisements, and word of mouth.

Intervention: The intervention was exclusively delivered through an evidence-informed healthy eating blog-integrating theory-based intervention methods to improve diet quality by increasing vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives consumption in mothers-for 6 months at a dose of one new post written by an RD each week. Mothers could engage with the RD and fellow participants by posting comments on the blog.

Main Outcome Measures: Main outcomes were daily intakes of vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives. Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, 3 months, and at the end of the 6-month intervention.

Statistical Analysis: Differences between the groups were examined using mixed linear models.

Results: At 6 months, no significant difference was observed between groups for intakes of vegetables and fruit (P=0.923), milk and alternatives (P=0.271), or food-related behaviors and body weight (P=0.180).

Conclusions: A healthy eating blog, at a dose of 1 post per week, had no effects on dietary intakes, food-related behaviors, and body weight of mothers after 6 months. Methodologic issues are discussed to inform future health behavior research using blogs to promote healthy eating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.05.016DOI Listing
January 2020

Tracking of Dietary Intake and Diet Quality from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 3;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 3.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The present study aimed to characterize dietary intake and diet quality from late pregnancy to six months postpartum. Participants ( = 28) completed 2-3 Web-based 24 h recalls at three distinct periods: (1) during the third trimester of pregnancy; (2) three months and (3) six months after delivery. Energy, macro-and micronutrient intakes (from foods and supplements), as well as the Canadian healthy eating index (C-HEI) were derived from the dietary recalls. No significant variation in energy and macronutrient intakes was observed between time points. The proportion of women taking at least one supplement decreased over time ( = 0.003). The total intake of several micronutrients (vitamins A, C, D, group B vitamins, iron, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, and copper) decreased significantly over time ( < 0.05 for all micronutrients). The total C-HEI score and its components did not change, except for the total vegetables and fruit subscore, which decreased over time (8.2 ± 2.0 in the 3rd trimester, 7.1 ± 2.2 at three months postpartum, 6.9 ± 2.4 at 6 months postpartum, = 0.04). In conclusion, we observed a general stability in diet quality, energy, and macronutrient intakes from the third trimester of pregnancy to six months postpartum. However, several micronutrient intakes decreased over time, mostly due to changes in supplement use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11092080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769665PMC
September 2019

Consumption of low nutritive value foods and cardiometabolic risk factors among French-speaking adults from Quebec, Canada: the PREDISE study.

Nutr J 2019 08 29;18(1):49. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Centre Nutrition, santé et société (NUTRISS), Institute of Nutrition and Functional Food (INAF), Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.

Background: There is very limited knowledge on the magnitude to which foods with low nutritive value constitute the diet of adults from the province of Quebec. The extent to which these foods impact cardiometabolic risk is also poorly documented. The objective was to assess the contribution of low nutritive value foods to total energy intake (E) and to examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors among French-speaking adults from 5 administrative regions of the Province of Quebec.

Methods: As part of the cross-sectional PREDISE Study, 1147 adults (50.2% women; mean [SD] age, 43.2 [4.6] years) participated in a web-based investigation. Dietary intake data were obtained using a validated web-based self-administered 24-h recall, the R24W, completed on three occasions. Foods with low nutritive value were defined as foods exceeding predetermined thresholds for the following nutrients: saturated fat, sugar or sodium as well as beverages and ingredients not recommended in Canada's Food Guide 2019. A total of 1019 participants underwent on-site clinical assessment of cardiometabolic risk factors.

Results: Participants consumed on average 29.0%E (95%CI, 28.2-29.7) as low nutritive value foods, to which pastries (18%), alcohol (15%), sweets (13%), chips/popcorn (6%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (6%) contributed the most. Low nutritive value foods contributed more to total E in men than in women (30.7%E vs. 27.5%E, respectively; P < 0.0001). In fully-adjusted linear regression models, increments of 250 kcal/d from low nutritive value foods were associated with higher body mass index (+ 1.7 kg/m; 95%CI 1.2 to 2.2), higher waist circumference (+ 0.6 cm; 95%CI, 0.1 to 1.1), cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio (+ 0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI, 0.01 to 0.24 and triglycerides (+ 7.8%; 95%CI, 3.0 to 12.8).

Conclusions: Low nutritive value foods contribute near 30% of total daily energy intake of French-speaking adults of the Province of Quebec and are associated with increased waist circumference and an unfavourable lipid profile. Addressing consumption of low nutritive value foods at the population level is a potential strategy to attenuate the burden of chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-019-0474-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716857PMC
August 2019

Association between lifestyle habits and adiposity values among children exposed and unexposed to gestational diabetes mellitus in utero.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Sep - Oct;13(5):2947-2952. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec, Québec, Canada; Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Québec, Québec, Canada; Endocrinology and Nephrology Axis, CHU de Quebec Research Center, Québec, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: The objectives of this study were to assess the profile of lifestyle habits among children exposed (GDM+) or unexposed (GDM-) to GDM and to assess whether a healthy lifestyle profile is associated with lower adiposity values among these children.

Methods: A total of 105 GDM+ and 38 GDM- children aged 2-14 years were included. Vegetables and fruit intakes were collected using two 24-h dietary recalls. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured with accelerometers. Screen and sleep time were assessed using questionnaires. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry.

Results: GDM+ children had lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity practice (p = 0.043) and fruit intake (p = 0.020) than GDM- children. Among children with an unhealthy lifestyle (meeting 0-2 lifestyle recommendations), GDM+ children had greater percentage of fat mass (p = 0.021) and android fat mass (p = 0.020) than GDM- children. Moreover, among GDM+ children, children with a healthy lifestyle (meeting 3-4 lifestyle recommendations) tended to have lower percentage of fat mass (p = 0.053) and android fat mass (p = 0.071) than those with an unhealthy lifestyle.

Conclusion: Improving lifestyle habits among GDM+ children could represent a promising approach to prevent deteriorated adiposity values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.053DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of 6-month vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and secretion: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Eur J Endocrinol 2019 Sep;181(3):287-299

Department of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

Objective: To determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.

Design: This single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomised 96 participants at high risk of diabetes or with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to vitamin D3 5000 IU daily or placebo for 6 months.

Methods: We assessed at baseline and 6 months: (1) primary aim: peripheral insulin sensitivity (M-value using a 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp); (2) secondary aims: other insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, C-peptide area under the curve, HOMA2-B) indices using a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); β-cell function (disposition index: M-value × insulinogenic index); fasting and 2-h glucose post OGTT; HbA1c; anthropometry.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (% or mean ± s.d.): women 38.5%; age 58.7 ± 9.4 years; BMI 32.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2; prediabetes 35.8%; diabetes 20.0%; 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) 51.1 ± 14.2 nmol/L. At 6 months, mean 25(OH)D reached 127.6 ± 26.3 nmol/L and 51.8 ± 16.5 nmol/L in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). A beneficial effect of vitamin D3 compared with placebo was observed on M-value (mean change (95% CI): 0.92 (0.24-1.59) vs -0.03 (-0.73 to 0.67); P = 0.009) and disposition index (mean change (95% CI): 267.0 (-343.4 to 877.4) vs -55.5 (-696.3 to 585.3); P = 0.039) after 6 months. No effect was seen on other outcomes.

Conclusions: In individuals at high risk of diabetes or with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, vitamin D supplementation for 6 months significantly increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, suggesting that it may slow metabolic deterioration in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-19-0156DOI Listing
September 2019

Is the Canadian Healthy Eating Index 2007 an Appropriate Diet Indicator of Metabolic Health? Insights from Dietary Pattern Analysis in the PREDISE Study.

Nutrients 2019 Jul 14;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 14.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The objective of this study was to identify key elements from the 2007 Canada's Food Guide that should be included in a diet quality score aiming to reflect the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intakes of 998 adults (mean age: 43.2 years, 50% women) were used to obtain the Canadian Healthy Eating Index 2007 (C-HEI 2007) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI) scores, as well as a dietary pattern (DP) generated by the reduced rank regression (RRR) method. Based on these three scores, a modified version of the C-HEI 2007 (Modified C-HEI) was then proposed. The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was examined across diet quality scores using multivariate binomial regression analysis. A higher AHEI, Modified C-HEI, and a lower score for DP were all associated with a significantly lower prevalence of MetS (PR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 0.64; PR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23, 0.63; and PR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.31, 0.74, respectively), whereas C-HEI 2007 was not (PR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.47, 1.00). Results suggest that a Modified C-HEI that considers key elements from the C-HEI 2007 and the AHEI, as well the DP, shows that participants with a higher score are less likely to have MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11071597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683076PMC
July 2019

Changes in Eating Behaviours Throughout Pregnancy: Associations with Gestational Weight Gain and Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2020 Jan 6;42(1):54-60. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Québec City, QC; Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Québec - Université Laval Research Centre, Québec City, QC; Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec City, QC. Electronic address:

Objective: Most pregnant women gain weight above recommended levels, and this weight gain affects mothers' and children's health. Factors influencing gestational weight gain (GWG) are numerous and include eating behaviours. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between eating behaviours and GWG while considering pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).

Methods: Fifty-three (n = 53) women were recruited at 9.4 ± 0.6 gestational weeks. At each trimester, they completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, which evaluates disinhibition, dietary restraint, and susceptibility to hunger. Using a weight gain curve, trimester-specific GWG was calculated with interpolated weights. Total GWG was calculated as the difference between maternal weight before delivery and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2).

Results: Women were aged 31.5 ± 3.5, and 81.1% had a university degree. The proportion of women who gained weight within recommendations was 21%, 28%, and 26%, at each trimester, respectively, and 38% for total pregnancy. Overall, dietary restraint score was lower in the third trimester in comparison with the first (6.1 ± 4.1 vs. 7.2 ± 4.6; P = 0.049), whereas no difference was observed for disinhibition or susceptibility to hunger. Our data suggest that variations in eating behaviours throughout pregnancy were similar among women who exhibited total GWG below, within, or above recommendations (P × GWG = NS) (NS: not significant; trim: trimester). Similar observations were reported when women were compared according to their pre-pregnancy BMI (P × BMI = NS).

Conclusion: Maintaining high levels of restraint may be challenging considering the increase in hunger, which could explain the decrease observed in dietary restraint scores. Changes in eating behaviours were not associated with total GWG or pre-pregnancy BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2019.04.024DOI Listing
January 2020

Nutrigenetic Testing for Personalized Nutrition: An Evaluation of Public Perceptions, Attitudes, and Concerns in a Population of French Canadians.

Lifestyle Genom 2018 24;11(3-6):155-162. Epub 2019 May 24.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec, Québec, Canada,

Background/aims: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions, and concerns about nutrigenetic testing for personalized nutrition in the general population of the province of Quebec in Canada.

Methods: A total of 1,425 individuals from the province of Quebec completed a 37-question online survey on nutrigenetics and were included in analyses. The χ2 test was used to test for associations between categorical variables.

Results: The majority of the participants (93.3%) considered dietitians the best professionals to give personalized dietary advice based on nutrigenetic testing. The main reported advantage for nutrigenetic testing was "health" (23.5%), followed by "disease prevention" (22.2%). Among the disadvantages, "no disadvantage" (24.4%), followed by "diet restriction" (12.9%) were mostly reported. The 2 major concerns raised were accessibility to genetic testing by telemarketing companies and spammers (51.8%), and solicitation by companies using personal genetic data to sell products (48.6%).

Conclusions: French Canadians generally have a positive attitude towards nutrigenetics and consider its use to have many benefits. They expressed concern about possible confidentiality issues associated with the management or property of genetic test results. Education about such issues is needed. Overall, our findings suggest that the population is interested in more extensive use of nutrigenetics in health management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499626DOI Listing
May 2019

Examining the Advantages of Using Multiple Web-Based Dietary Assessment Instruments to Measure Population Dietary Intake: The PREDISE Study.

Curr Dev Nutr 2019 May 11;3(5):nzz014. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Combining traditional dietary assessment instruments has been suggested to improve precision of dietary intake estimates. However, this has not been investigated using web-based 24-h recall (R24W) or a web-based food-frequency questionnaire (wFFQ).

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare different combinations of web-based instruments to assess population-level dietary intake estimates (means and percentiles) and their precision, either with or without statistical modeling of within-person day-to-day variations.

Methods: As part of the cross-sectional PREDISE study, 1025 French-speaking adults completed 3 randomly allocated R24W and 1 wFFQ within 21 d. Crude estimates of intake were generated from either 1 or 3 repeated R24W. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) method was used to account for within-person variation. Usual intakes were modeled from 1 R24W repeated in a subsample (40%) and from 3 R24W, with or without consideration of data from the wFFQ.

Results: Using crude data from 3 R24W increased precision of estimates and modified distribution of intakes compared with using data from only 1 R24W. Using NCI-modeled data from 3 repeated R24W had no impact on the precision around mean intakes but increased precision of low and high percentiles intake estimates compared with NCI-modeled data from a partially repeated R24W. Considering data from a wFFQ in combination with data derived from 3 R24W did not influence the precision of intake estimates of most foods and nutrients.

Conclusions: The data suggest that relying on repeated measures of food and nutrient intake through R24W is preferable to single assessment when within-person variation is not considered. Data also suggest that when NCI modeling is applied, using 3 R24W only improves the precision of low and high percentiles intake estimates compared with using a partially repeated web-based recall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482020PMC
May 2019

Is A Healthy Diet Associated with Lower Anthropometric and Glycemic Alterations in Predisposed Children Born from Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

Nutrients 2019 Mar 7;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 7.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, 2425 rue de l'Agriculture, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

Children born from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high-risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. To date, there is a lack of effective strategies to prevent these complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between diet quality and anthropometric and glycemic profiles of children exposed (GDM+) and unexposed (GDM⁻) to GDM. A total of 104 GDM+ and 38 GDM⁻ children were included. Two 24-h dietary recall questionnaires were used to assess dietary intakes. The Healthy Eating Index adapted for the Canadian population (HEI-C) was used to assess diet quality. Spearman correlations adjusted for children's age and sex were computed. Mean age was 6.0 ± 2.5 and 6.8 ± 2.3 years for GDM+ and GDM⁻, respectively ( = 0.03). Total HEI-C score was negatively associated with the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio ( = -0.29, = 0.03) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index ( = -0.22, = 0.04) in GDM+ children only. The prevalence of being overweight or obese during childhood was 4-fold higher among GDM+ children with a HEI-C score ≤70 compared to GDM+ children with a HEI-C score >70. Results of this study show that a healthy diet is associated with a better cardiometabolic health profile in GDM+ children, including a lower risk of being overweight or obese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470518PMC
March 2019

Current knowledge and interest of French Canadians regarding nutrigenetics.

Genes Nutr 2019 19;14. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, 2440 Hochelaga Blvd, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 Canada.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to draw a global portrait of the current knowledge and interest regarding nutrigenetics in a population of French Canadians from the province of Quebec (Canada).

Methods: A total of 2238 residents from the province of Quebec, Canada, were recruited via social networks and from the Laval University employee/student lists to participate in a 37-question online survey on nutrigenetics.

Results: Most participants were not familiar with the term "nutrigenetics" (82.7%). Participants with good genetic literacy (26.8%) were less interested in nutrigenetic testing ( < 0.0001). The vast majority of participants (90.7%) reported to be willing to follow a personalised diet based on nutrigenetic testing, especially if they came to know themselves as carriers of a polymorphism increasing the risk of certain diseases. Participants had a higher interest in testing related to metabolic response to macronutrients (types of sugars, fats and proteins) than to micronutrients or other nutrients related to food intolerance.

Conclusions: The attitude of French Canadians about nutrigenetics is very consistent with the results from other surveys published in the literature. Although few individuals are familiar with nutrigenetics, the public's attitude towards nutrigenetics is globally favourable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-019-0629-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380034PMC
February 2019

Trimester-Specific Intuitive Eating in Association With Gestational Weight Gain and Diet Quality.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2019 06 12;51(6):677-683. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; Endocrinology and Nephrology Unit, CHU of Quebec-Laval University Research Center, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada; Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the associations between intuitive eating and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG), and between intuitive eating and diet quality at each trimester.

Design: At each trimester, participants completed the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 and 3 24-hour recalls from which the Healthy Eating Index was calculated. Trimester-specific GWG was calculated with interpolated weights.

Participants: A total of 79 pregnant women.

Main Outcome Measures: Intuitive eating, GWG, and diet quality.

Analysis: One-way ANOVA was used to compare intuitive eating scores between GWG groups. Pearson correlation analyses were used to assess the association between the intuitive eating score and the Healthy Eating Index score.

Results: In the first trimester, women within GWG recommendations had a higher total intuitive eating score compared with women above recommendations (3.9 ± 0.5 vs 3.6 ± 0.6; P = .04). The unconditional permission to eat subscale was associated with lower diet quality in the first trimester (r = -.26; P = .02) whereas the body-food choice congruence subscale was associated with better diet quality in the second and third trimesters (r = .26, P = .02 and r = .27, P = .01, respectively).

Conclusions And Implications: The researchers found an association between higher levels of intuitive eating and adequate first-trimester GWG. Further research might investigate whether promoting intuitive eating among pregnant women favors healthy GWG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2019.01.011DOI Listing
June 2019

Trimester-Specific Assessment of Diet Quality in a Sample of Canadian Pregnant Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 01 24;16(3). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

The present study aimed to (1) examine changes in diet quality throughout pregnancy and (2) identify maternal characteristics associated with trimester-specific diet quality. Pregnant women ( = 79) were recruited in their 1st trimester of pregnancy and completed, at each trimester, three web-based 24-hour dietary recalls, from which the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was calculated. Physical activity, nutrition knowledge, and socio-demographic web-questionnaires were also completed. Although no variation in total HEI scores was observed across trimesters, we found an overall decrease in the following subscores: adequacy, total fruits and vegetables, unsaturated fats and saturated fats ( < 0.05). In the 1st trimester, overweight and obese pregnant women had a lower diet quality in comparison with normal-weight and underweight women (HEI scores: 63.1 ± 11.9 vs. 68.0 ± 9.3; = 0.04). In the 3rd trimester, women younger than 28 years old, with no university degree, poorer nutrition knowledge and who reside in an urban setting, had a lower diet quality ( < 0.05). In conclusion, less educated, younger women who reside in an urban setting may be at a higher risk of poor diet quality in late pregnancy and could benefit from public health programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388152PMC
January 2019
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