Publications by authors named "Julie Prigent"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ricin Antibodies' Neutralizing Capacity against Different Ricin Isoforms and Cultivars.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 01 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Paris-Saclay University, CEA, INRAE, Medicines and Healthcare Technologies Department (DMTS), SPI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Ricin, a highly toxic protein from , is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Despite the many data available, no specific treatment has yet been approved. Due to their ability to provide immediate protection, antibodies (Abs) are an approach of choice. However, their high specificity might compromise their capacity to protect against the different ricin isoforms (D and E) found in the different cultivars. In previous work, we have shown the neutralizing potential of different Abs (43RCA-G1 (anti ricin A-chain) and RB34 and RB37 (anti ricin B-chain)) against ricin D. In this study, we evaluated their protective capacity against both ricin isoforms. We show that: (i) RB34 and RB37 recognize exclusively ricin D, whereas 43RCA-G1 recognizes both isoforms, (ii) their neutralizing capacity in vitro varies depending on the cultivar, and (iii) there is a synergistic effect when combining RB34 and 43RCA-G1. This effect is also demonstrated in vivo in a mouse model of intranasal intoxication with ricin D/E (1:1), where approximately 60% and 40% of mice treated 0 and 6 h after intoxication, respectively, are protected. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of the Abs against different ricin isoforms to identify the treatment with the broadest spectrum neutralizing effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911099PMC
January 2021

HIV-1 Envelope Recognition by Polyreactive and Cross-Reactive Intestinal B Cells.

Cell Rep 2019 04;27(2):572-585.e7

Laboratory of Humoral Immunology, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France; INSERM U1222, Paris 75015, France. Electronic address:

Mucosal immune responses to HIV-1 involve the recognition of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp)160 by tissue-resident B cells and subsequent secretion of antibodies. To characterize the B cells "sensing" HIV-1 in the gut of infected individuals, we probed monoclonal antibodies produced from single intestinal B cells binding to recombinant gp140 trimers. A large fraction of mucosal B cell antibodies were polyreactive and showed only low affinity to HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, particularly the gp41 moiety. A few high-affinity gp140 antibodies were isolated but lacked neutralizing, potent ADCC, and transcytosis-blocking capacities. Instead, they displayed cross-reactivity with defined self-antigens. Specifically, intestinal HIV-1 gp41 antibodies targeting the heptad repeat 2 region (HR2) cluster II cross-reacted with the p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14). Hence, physiologic polyreactivity of intestinal B cells and molecular mimicry-based self-reactivity of HIV-1 antibodies are two independent phenomena, possibly diverting and/or impairing mucosal humoral immunity to HIV-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458971PMC
April 2019

Conformational Plasticity in Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies Triggers Polyreactivity.

Cell Rep 2018 05;23(9):2568-2581

Laboratory of Humoral Response to Pathogens, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France; INSERM U1222, Paris 75015, France. Electronic address:

Human high-affinity antibodies to pathogens often recognize unrelated ligands. The molecular origin and the role of this polyreactivity are largely unknown. Here, we report that HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are frequently polyreactive, cross-reacting with non-HIV-1 molecules, including self-antigens. Mutating bNAb genes to increase HIV-1 binding and neutralization also results in de novo polyreactivity. Unliganded paratopes of polyreactive bNAbs with improved HIV-1 neutralization exhibit a conformational flexibility, which contributes to enhanced affinity of bNAbs to various HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and non-HIV antigens. Binding adaptation of polyreactive bNAbs to the divergent ligands mainly involves hydrophophic interactions. Plasticity of bNAbs' paratopes may, therefore, facilitate accommodating divergent viral variants, but it simultaneously triggers promiscuous binding to non-HIV-1 antigens. Thus, a certain level of polyreactivity can be a mark of adaptable antibodies displaying optimal pathogens' recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.04.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5990490PMC
May 2018

Long-Term In Vivo Monitoring of Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells by Bioluminescence Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography, and Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography.

Stem Cells Dev 2017 07 5;26(13):986-1002. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

1 Laboratory of Pediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université Catholique de Louvain , Brussels, Belgium .

Adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) have the potential to alleviate liver injury. However, the optimal delivery route and long-term biodistribution of ADHLSCs remain unclear. In this article, we used a triple fusion reporter system to determine the kinetic differences in the biodistribution of ADHLSCs following intrasplenic (IS) and intrahepatic (IH) administration in severe combined immunodeficiency/beige mice. ADHLSCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a triple fusion reporter comprising renilla luciferase, monomeric red fluorescent protein, and truncated HSV-1 thymidine kinase. The stability and duration of the transgenes, and the effects of transduction on the cell properties were evaluated in vitro. The acute retention and long-term engraftment in vivo were revealed by positron emission tomography and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), respectively, followed by histochemical analysis. We showed that ADHLSCs can be safely transduced with the triple fusion reporter. Radiolabeled ADHLSCs showed acute cell retention at the sites of injection. The IH group showed a confined BLI signal at the injection site, while the IS group displayed a dispersed distribution at the upper abdominal liver area, and a more intense signal. In conclusion, ADHLSCs could be monitored by BLI for up to 4 weeks with a spread out biodistribution following IS injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2016.0338DOI Listing
July 2017

Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells Infused 3 Days Postsurgery Improve Liver Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Extended Hepatectomy.

Cell Transplant 2017 02 21;26(2):351-364. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2-/-IL2Rγ-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n = 26) or following a critical 3-day period (n = 26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p < 0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368916X692960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5657763PMC
February 2017

Scarcity of autoreactive human blood IgA memory B cells.

Eur J Immunol 2016 10 25;46(10):2340-2351. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Laboratory of Humoral Response to Pathogens, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Class-switched memory B cells are key components of the "reactive" humoral immunity, which ensures a fast and massive secretion of high-affinity antigen-specific antibodies upon antigenic challenge. In humans, IgA class-switched (IgA ) memory B cells and IgA antibodies are abundant in the blood. Although circulating IgA memory B cells and their corresponding secreted immunoglobulins likely possess major protective and/or regulatory immune roles, little is known about their specificity and function. Here, we show that IgA and IgG memory B-cell antibodies cloned from the same healthy humans share common immunoglobulin gene features. IgA and IgG memory antibodies have comparable lack of reactivity to vaccines, common mucosa-tropic viruses and commensal bacteria. However, the IgA memory B-cell compartment contains fewer polyreactive clones and importantly, only rare self-reactive clones compared to IgG memory B cells. Self-reactivity of IgAs is acquired following B-cell affinity maturation but not antibody class switching. Together, our data suggest the existence of different regulatory mechanisms for removing autoreactive clones from the IgG and IgA memory B-cell repertoires, and/or different maturation pathways potentially reflecting the distinct nature and localization of the cognate antigens recognized by individual B-cell populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201646446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5113776PMC
October 2016

Human Progenitor Cell Quantification After Xenotransplantation in Rat and Mouse Models by a Sensitive qPCR Assay.

Cell Transplant 2015 20;24(8):1639-52. Epub 2014 May 20.

Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Paediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy, Brussels, Belgium.

Xenotransplantation of human cells in animal models is an essential tool for evaluation of safety and efficacy of cell-based products for therapeutic use. Sensitive and reproducible methods are needed to detect and quantify human cells engrafted into the host tissue either in the targeted organ or in undesired locations. We developed a robust quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay based on amplification of human AluYb8 repeats, to assess the number of human cells present in rat or mouse tissues after transplantation. Standard curves of mixed human/rodent DNA and mixed human/rodent cells have been performed to determine the limit of detection and linear range of the assay. Standard curves from DNA mixing differed significantly from standard curves from cell mixing. We show here that the AluYb8 qPCR assay is highly reproducible and is able to quantify human cells in a rodent cell matrix over a large linear range that extends from 50% to 0.01% human cells. Short-term in vivo studies showed that human cells could be quantified in mouse liver up to 7 days after intrasplenic transplantation and in rat liver 4 h after intrahepatic transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368914X681955DOI Listing
June 2016

Human Liver Progenitor Cells for Liver Repair.

Cell Med 2013 Aug 29;5(1):1-16. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Université Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Pediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy , Brussels , Belgium.

Because of their high proliferative capacity, resistance to cryopreservation, and ability to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, stem and progenitor cells have recently emerged as attractive cell sources for liver cell therapy, a technique used as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation in the treatment of various hepatic ailments ranging from metabolic disorders to end-stage liver disease. Although stem and progenitor cells have been isolated from various tissues, obtaining them from the liver could be an advantage for the treatment of hepatic disorders. However, the techniques available to isolate these stem/progenitor cells are numerous and give rise to cell populations with different morphological and functional characteristics. In addition, there is currently no established consensus on the tests that need to be performed to ensure the quality and safety of these cells when used clinically. The purpose of this review is to describe the different types of liver stem/progenitor cells currently reported in the literature, discuss their suitability and limitations in terms of clinical applications, and examine how the culture and transplantation techniques can potentially be improved to achieve a better clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/215517913X666459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4733913PMC
August 2013

Neutralising antibodies against ricin toxin.

PLoS One 2011 25;6(5):e20166. Epub 2011 May 25.

CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have listed the potential bioweapon ricin as a Category B Agent. Ricin is a so-called A/B toxin produced by plants and is one of the deadliest molecules known. It is easy to prepare and no curative treatment is available. An immunotherapeutic approach could be of interest to attenuate or neutralise the effects of the toxin. We sought to characterise neutralising monoclonal antibodies against ricin and to develop an effective therapy. For this purpose, mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against the two chains of ricin toxin (RTA and RTB). Seven mAbs were selected for their capacity to neutralise the cytotoxic effects of ricin in vitro. Three of these, two anti-RTB (RB34 and RB37) and one anti-RTA (RA36), when used in combination improved neutralising capacity in vitro with an IC(50) of 31 ng/ml. Passive administration of association of these three mixed mAbs (4.7 µg) protected mice from intranasal challenges with ricin (5 LD(50)). Among those three antibodies, anti-RTB antibodies protected mice more efficiently than the anti-RTA antibody. The combination of the three antibodies protected mice up to 7.5 hours after ricin challenge. The strong in vivo neutralising capacity of this three mAbs combination makes it potentially useful for immunotherapeutic purposes in the case of ricin poisoning or possibly for prevention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0020166PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102095PMC
September 2011

Production and characterisation of a neutralising chimeric antibody against botulinum neurotoxin A.

PLoS One 2010 Oct 8;5(10):e13245. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France.

Botulinum neurotoxins, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, are the causative agent of botulism. This disease only affects a few hundred people each year, thus ranking it among the orphan diseases. However, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) is the most potent toxin known to man. Due to their potency and ease of production, these toxins were classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as Category A biothreat agents. For several biothreat agents, like BoNT/A, passive immunotherapy remains the only possible effective treatment allowing in vivo neutralization, despite possible major side effects. Recently, several mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against a recombinant fragment of BoNT/A were produced in our laboratory and most efficiently neutralised the neurotoxin. In the present work, the most powerful one, TA12, was selected for chimerisation. The variable regions of this antibody were thus cloned and fused with the constant counterparts of human IgG1 (kappa light and gamma 1 heavy chains). Chimeric antibody production was evaluated in mammalian myeloma cells (SP2/0-Ag14) and insect cells (Sf9). After purifying the recombinant antibody by affinity chromatography, the biochemical properties of chimeric and mouse antibody were compared. Both have the same very low affinity constant (close to 10 pM) and the chimeric antibody exhibited a similar capacity to its parent counterpart in neutralising the toxin in vivo. Its strong affinity and high neutralising potency make this chimeric antibody interesting for immunotherapy treatment in humans in cases of poisoning, particularly as there is a probable limitation of the immunological side effects observed with classical polyclonal antisera from heterologous species.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013245PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2953832PMC
October 2010

The stringent response of Bacillus anthracis contributes to sporulation but not to virulence.

Microbiology (Reading) 2007 Dec;153(Pt 12):4234-4239

CNRS, URA 2172.

The Gram-positive, spore-forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the aetiological agent of anthrax. Its main virulence factors are two toxins and an anti-phagocytic capsule. When B. anthracis is grown in laboratory culture, the highest expression of the anthrax toxin genes occurs during entry into stationary phase, suggesting that nutrient limitation is an environmental cue which induces toxin production. A common bacterial response to starvation is the so-called stringent response, in which the hyperphosphorylated guanosine nucleotide (p)ppGpp is the effector molecule. In Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria, accumulation of this molecule leads to down-regulation of stable RNA synthesis and upregulation of the expression of genes involved in survival under nutrient-poor conditions. This study focuses on the stringent response of B. anthracis. We show that in B. anthracis the relA gene is responsible for the synthesis of (p)ppGpp and the stringent down-regulation of stable RNA synthesis upon starvation for the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine and valine. The deletion of relA did not affect the expression of the virulence gene pagA or virulence in a mouse model of infection. In contrast, spore counts upon growth and sporulation in a defined medium were approximately 10,000-fold lower for the relA deletion mutant than for the parental strain. The contribution of the stringent response to efficient sporulation of B. anthracis is notable, as this suggests that the stringent response may contribute to the persistence of B. anthracis in the natural environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.2007/010355-0DOI Listing
December 2007
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