Publications by authors named "Julie B Eisengart"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The natural history of neurocognition in MPS disorders: A review.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

MPS disorders are associated with a wide spectrum of neurocognitive effects, from mild problems with attention and executive functions to progressive and degenerative neuronopathic disease. Studies of the natural history of neurocognition are necessary to determine the profile of abnormality and the rates of change, which are crucial to select endpoints for clinical trials of brain treatments and to make clinical recommendations for interventions to improve patients' quality of life. The goal of this paper is to review neurocognitive natural history studies to determine the current state of knowledge and assist in directing future research in all MPS disorders. There are seven different types of MPS diseases, each resulting from a specific enzyme deficiency and each having a separate natural history. MPS IX, will not be discussed as there are only 4 cases reported in the literature without cognitive abnormality. For MPS IH, hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is standard of care and many studies have documented the relationship between age at treatment and neurocognitive outcome, and to a lesser extent, neurocognitive status at baseline. However, the mortality and morbidity associated with the transplant process and residual long-term problems after transplant, have led to renewed efforts to find better treatments. Rather than natural history, new trials will likely need to use the developmental trajectories of the patients with HCT as a comparators. The literature has extensive data regarding developmental trajectories post-HCT. For attenuated MPS I, significant neurocognitive deficits have been documented, but more longitudinal data are needed in order to support a treatment directed at their attention and executive function abnormalities. The neuronopathic form of MPS II has been a challenge due to the variability of the trajectory of the disease with differences in timing of slowing of development and decline. Finding predictors of the course of the disease has only been partially successful, using mutation type and family history. Because of lack of systematic data and clinical trials that precede a thorough understanding of the disease, there is need for a major effort to gather natural history data on the entire spectrum of MPS II. Even in the attenuated disease, attention and executive function abnormalities need documentation. Lengthy detailed longitudinal studies are needed to encompass the wide variability in MPS II. In MPS IIIA, the existence of three good natural history studies allowed a quasi-meta-analysis. In patients with a rapid form of the disease, neurocognitive development slowed up until 42 to 47 months, halted up to about 54 months, then declined rapidly thereafter, with a leveling off at an extremely low age equivalent score below 22 months starting at about chronological age of 6. Those with slower or attenuated forms have been more variable and difficult to characterize. Because of the plethora of studies in IIIA, it has been recommended that data be combined from natural history studies to minimize the burden on parents and patients. Sufficient data exists to understand the natural history of cognition in MPS IIIA. MPS IIIB is quite similar to IIIA, but more attenuated patients in that phenotype have been reported. MPS IIIC and D, because they are so rare, have little documentation of natural history despite the prospects of treatments. MPS IV and VI are the least well documented of the MPS disorders with respect to their neurocognitive natural history. Because, like attenuated MPS I and II, they do not show progression of neurocognitive abnormality and most patients function in the range of normality, their behavioral, attentional, and executive function abnormalities have been ignored to the detriment of their quality of life. A peripheral treatment for MPS VII, extremely rare even among MPS types, has recently been approved with a post-approval monitoring system to provide neurocognitive natural history data in the future. More natural history studies in the MPS forms with milder cognitive deficits (MPS I, II, IV, and VI) are recommended with the goal of improving these patients' quality of life with and without new brain treatments, beyond the benefits of available peripheral enzyme replacement therapy. Recommendations are offered at-a-glance with respect to what areas most urgently need attention to clarify neurocognitive function in all MPS types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2021.03.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Biomarkers for prediction of skeletal disease progression in mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

JIMD Rep 2021 Mar 8;58(1):89-99. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Pediatrics The Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Torrance California USA.

Background: Orthopedic disease progresses in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), even with approved therapies and remains a major factor in persistent suffering and disability. Novel therapies and accurate predictors of response are needed. The primary objective of this study was to identify surrogate biomarkers of future change in orthopedic disease.

Methods: As part of a 9-year observational study of MPS I, range-of-motion (ROM), height, pelvic radiographs were measured annually. Biomarkers in year 1 were compared to healthy controls. Linear regression tested for associations of change in biomarkers over the first year with change in long-term outcomes.

Results: MPS I participants (N = 19) were age 5 to 16 years and on average 6.9 ± 2.9 years post treatment initiation. Healthy controls (N = 51) were age 9 to 17 years. Plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, pyridinolines, and deoxypyridinolines were higher in MPS than controls. Within MPS, progression of hip dysplasia was present in 46% to 77%. A 1 pg/mL increase in IL-6 was associated with -22°/year change in ROM (-28 to -15; < .001), a 20 nmol/mmol creatinine/year increase in urine PYD was associated with a -0.024 Z-score/year change in height Z-score (-0.043 to -0.005; = .016), and a 20 nmol/mmol creatinine/year increase in urine PYD was associated with a -2.0%/year change in hip dysplasia measured by Reimers migration index (-3.8 to -0.1; = .037).

Conclusions: Inflammatory cytokines are high in MPS I. IL-6 and PYD were associated with progression in joint contracture, short stature, and hip dysplasia over time. Once validated, these biomarkers may prove useful for predicting response to treatment of skeletal disease in MPS I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932872PMC
March 2021

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I: Current Treatments, Limitations, and Prospects for Improvement.

Biomolecules 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Immusoft Corp, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal disease, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). IDUA catalyzes the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan and heparan sulfate (DS and HS, respectively). Lack of the enzyme leads to pathologic accumulation of undegraded HS and DS with subsequent disease manifestations in multiple organs. The disease can be divided into severe (Hurler syndrome) and attenuated (Hurler-Scheie, Scheie) forms. Currently approved treatments consist of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients with attenuated disease are often treated with ERT alone, while the recommended therapy for patients with Hurler syndrome consists of HSCT. While these treatments significantly improve disease manifestations and prolong life, a considerable burden of disease remains. Notably, treatment can partially prevent, but not significantly improve, clinical manifestations, necessitating early diagnosis of disease and commencement of treatment. This review discusses these standard therapies and their impact on common disease manifestations in patients with MPS I. Where relevant, results of animal models of MPS I will be included. Finally, we highlight alternative and emerging treatments for the most common disease manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911293PMC
January 2021

Therapy development for the mucopolysaccharidoses: Updated consensus recommendations for neuropsychological endpoints.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 Sep - Oct;131(1-2):181-196. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Shapiro Neuropsychology Consulting LLC, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:

Neurological dysfunction represents a significant clinical component of many of the mucopolysaccharidoses (also known as MPS disorders). The accurate and consistent assessment of neuropsychological function is essential to gain a greater understanding of the precise natural history of these conditions and to design effective clinical trials to evaluate the impact of therapies on the brain. In 2017, an International MPS Consensus Panel published recommendations for best practice in the design and conduct of clinical studies investigating the effects of therapies on cognitive function and adaptive behavior in patients with neuronopathic mucopolysaccharidoses. Based on an International MPS Consensus Conference held in February 2020, this article provides updated consensus recommendations and expands the objectives to include approaches for assessing behavioral and social-emotional state, caregiver burden and quality of life in patients with all mucopolysaccharidoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.08.007DOI Listing
August 2020

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I: A Review of the Natural History and Molecular Pathology.

Cells 2020 08 5;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Immusoft Corp, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase, resulting in accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan and heparan sulfate in organs and tissues. If untreated, patients with the severe phenotype die within the first decade of life. Early diagnosis is crucial to prevent the development of fatal disease manifestations, prominently cardiac and respiratory disease, as well as cognitive impairment. However, the initial symptoms are nonspecific and impede early diagnosis. This review discusses common phenotypic manifestations in the order in which they develop. Similarities and differences in the three animal models for MPS I are highlighted. Earliest symptoms, which present during the first 6 months of life, include hernias, coarse facial features, recurrent rhinitis and/or upper airway obstructions in the absence of infection, and thoracolumbar kyphosis. During the next 6 months, loss of hearing, corneal clouding, and further musculoskeletal dysplasias develop. Finally, late manifestations including lower airway obstructions and cognitive decline emerge. Cardiac symptoms are common in MPS I and can develop in infancy. The underlying pathogenesis is in the intra- and extracellular accumulation of partially degraded GAGs and infiltration of cells with enlarged lysosomes causing tissue expansion and bone deformities. These interfere with the proper arrangement of collagen fibrils, disrupt nerve fibers, and cause devastating secondary pathophysiological cascades including inflammation, oxidative stress, and other disruptions to intracellular and extracellular homeostasis. A greater understanding of the natural history of MPS I will allow early diagnosis and timely management of the disease facilitating better treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9081838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463646PMC
August 2020

Neurocognitive benchmarks following transplant for emerging cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

Neurology 2020 08 2;95(5):e591-e600. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

From the Departments of Pediatrics (E.I.P., R.S.Z., W.P.M., A.O.G., T.C.L., P.J.O., J.B.E.), Radiology (D.R.N.), Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core (R.S.), and Neurology (D.L.K.-J.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; and Sangamo Therapeutics (W.P.M.), Richmond, CA.

Objective: To quantify benchmark treatment outcomes that may be enabled by newborn screening surveillance for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), we report neurocognitive, neuropsychiatric, and MRI change for boys who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) at initial stages of demyelination, prior to neurocognitive signs of disease.

Methods: Retrospective chart review identified 36 patients whose cerebral ALD was detected and treated early, with lesion severity less than 5 on the ALD-specific MRI scoring system. Median age at transplant was 7.3 years (range, 4.0-16.1). Progression of radiologic disease on MRI in the 2 years following HSCT was examined relative to the severity of the initial lesion for 33 patients, and longitudinal neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes were studied for 30 patients.

Results: Patients whose pretransplant lesion extended beyond the splenium of the corpus callosum and adjacent periventricular white matter (MRI severity score >2) demonstrated lower posttransplant neurocognitive scores, more neuropsychiatric symptoms, and more disease progression on MRI than patients with a less severe lesion. Changes from baseline neurocognitive functioning were greater at 2 years posttransplant as compared to 1 year. There was greater variance and risk of lesion progression as pretransplant MRI severity increased.

Conclusion: To realize the full benefits of newborn screening, clinicians must detect very small demyelinating lesions during surveillance and intervene quickly. Novel interventions that reduce risks inherent in allogeneic transplantation are needed. Trial endpoints should include direct neurocognitive assessment and extend at least 2 years posttreatment to provide the greatest sensitivity to detect neurocognitive morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455349PMC
August 2020

Intrathecal enzyme replacement for cognitive decline in mucopolysaccharidosis type I, a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 02 30;129(2):80-90. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Central nervous system manifestations of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) such as cognitive impairment, hydrocephalus, and spinal cord compression are inadequately treated by intravenously-administered enzyme replacement therapy with laronidase (recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase). While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation treats neurological symptoms, this therapy is not generally offered to attenuated MPS I patients. This study is a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study of intrathecal laronidase in eight attenuated MPS I patients with cognitive impairment. Subjects ranged between 12 years and 50 years old with a median age of 18 years. All subjects had received intravenous laronidase prior to the study over a range of 4 to 10 years, with a mean of 7.75 years. Weekly intravenous laronidase was continued throughout the duration of the study. The randomization period was one year, during which control subjects attended all study visits and assessments, but did not receive any intrathecal laronidase. After the first year, all eight subjects received treatment for one additional year. There was no significant difference in neuropsychological assessment scores between control or treatment groups, either over the one-year randomized period or at 18 or 24 months. However, there was no significant decline in scores in the control group either. Adverse events included pain (injection site, back, groin), headache, neck spasm, and transient blurry vision. There were seven serious adverse events, one judged as possibly related (headache requiring hospitalization). There was no significant effect of intrathecal laronidase on cognitive impairment in older, attenuated MPS I patients over a two-year treatment period. A five-year open-label extension study is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813548PMC
February 2020

Clinical trial of laronidase in Hurler syndrome after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Pediatr Res 2020 01 21;87(1):104-111. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS IH) is a lysosomal storage disease treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) because it stabilizes cognitive deterioration, but is insufficient to alleviate all somatic manifestations. Intravenous laronidase improves somatic burden in attenuated MPS I. It is unknown whether laronidase can improve somatic disease following HCT in MPS IH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laronidase on somatic outcomes of patients with MPS IH previously treated with HCT.

Methods: This 2-year open-label pilot study of laronidase included ten patients (age 5-13 years) who were at least 2 years post-HCT and donor engrafted. Outcomes were assessed semi-annually and compared to historic controls.

Results: The two youngest participants had a statistically significant improvement in growth compared to controls. Development of persistent high-titer anti-drug antibodies (ADA) was associated with poorer 6-min walk test (6MWT) performance; when patients with high ADA titers were excluded, there was a significant improvement in the 6MWT in the remaining seven patients.

Conclusions: Laronidase seemed to improve growth in participants <8 years old, and 6MWT performance in participants without ADA. Given the small number of patients treated in this pilot study, additional study is needed before definitive conclusions can be made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0541-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960090PMC
January 2020

A longitudinal study of neurocognition and behavior in patients with Hurler-Scheie syndrome heterozygous for the L238Q mutation.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2019 Sep 27;20:100484. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Previous research has demonstrated the mutation, c.712T>A (p.L238Q) of the gene for α-L- iduronidase (IDUA) in patients with Hurler-Scheie syndrome is relatively severe when paired with a nonsense or deletion or splice-site mutation. This mutation was also found to be associated with psychiatric symptoms. This research presents longitudinal data and protein analysis to further investigate the severity and natural history of these unique patients.

Methods: Six patients heterozygous for L238Q were compared to six patients with Hurler-Scheie without the L238Q mutations. Somatic burden of disease, IQ, memory, attention, adaptive functioning and behavioral measures were given yearly over 2 to 4 years from 2009 to 2014. The impact of L238Q on the IDUA enzyme was examined using 7 bioinformatics tools and a 3D structural analysis.

Results: Similar to the cross sectional study, the L238Q patients had more severe abnormalities in IQ, attention, adaptive functioning, and behavioral functioning than the comparison group. There were no major differences between the two groups in change over time; IQ for both groups was stable with some behavioral areas showing improvement. Over time, both groups declined in visual spatial memory and, attention/visual processing. They also showed increased anxiety. Structural and bioinformatics analysis of the L238Q suggest that this mutation causes a significant reduction in the IDUA enzyme's potential catalytic activity, and this mutation may be more severe than other mutations contributing to the Hurler-Scheie syndrome phenotype, presumably causing the psychiatric disease.

Conclusion: L238Q patients demonstrate severe neurocognitive and neurobehavioral deficits but are relatively stable. Like the comparison group, decreasing visual spatial memory and attention and increasing anxiety suggest more intervention in life skills and emotional social supports are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2019.100484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603334PMC
September 2019

Biochemical and clinical response after umbilical cord blood transplant in a boy with early childhood-onset beta-mannosidosis.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 07 21;7(7):e00712. Epub 2019 May 21.

Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Deficiency in the enzyme β-mannosidase was described over three decades ago. Although rare in occurrence, the presentation of childhood-onset β-mannosidase deficiency consists of hypotonia in the newborn period followed by global development delay, behavior problems, and intellectual disability. No effective pharmacologic treatments have been available.

Methods: We report 2-year outcomes following the first umbilical cord blood transplant in a 4-year-old boy with early childhood-onset disease.

Results: We show restoration of leukocyte β-mannosidase activity which remained normal at 2 years posttransplant, and a simultaneous increase in plasma β-mannosidase activity and dramatic decrease in urine-free oligosaccharides were also observed. MRI of the brain remained stable. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed test point gains, although the magnitude of improvement was less than expected for age, causing lower IQ scores that represent a wider developmental gap between the patient and unaffected peers.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hematopoietic cell transplant can correct the biochemical defect in β-mannosidosis, although preservation of the neurocognitive trajectory may be a challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625138PMC
July 2019

Intrathecal enzyme replacement for Hurler syndrome: biomarker association with neurocognitive outcomes.

Genet Med 2019 11 25;21(11):2552-2560. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in Hurler syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal disorder. While no biomarker has predicted neurocognitive response to treatment, one of these abnormalities, glycosaminoglycan nonreducing ends (NREs), holds promise to monitor therapeutic efficacy. A trial of intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) added to standard treatment enabled tracking of CSF abnormalities, including NREs. We evaluated safety, biomarker response, and neurocognitive correlates of change.

Methods: In addition to intravenous ERT and hematopoietic cell transplantation, patients (N = 24) received intrathecal ERT at four peritransplant time points; CSF was evaluated at each point. Neurocognitive functioning was quantified at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years posttransplant. Changes in CSF biomarkers and neurocognitive function were evaluated for an association.

Results: Over treatment, there were significant decreases in CSF opening pressure, biomarkers of disease activity, and markers of inflammation. Percent decrease in NRE from pretreatment to final intrathecal dose posttransplant was positively associated with percent change in neurocognitive score from pretreatment to 2 years posttransplant.

Conclusion: Intrathecal ERT was safe and, in combination with standard treatment, was associated with reductions in CSF abnormalities. Critically, we report evidence of a link between a biomarker treatment response and neurocognitive outcome in Hurler syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0522-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831510PMC
November 2019

Attention and corpus callosum volumes in individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

Neurology 2019 05 12;92(20):e2321-e2328. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

From the Departments of Pediatrics (K.K., I.N., V.K., K.A.D., J.B.E., E.G.S.), Psychiatry (J.R.W., B.A.M., K.O.L.), and Genetics and Metabolism (C.B.W.), University of Minnesota Medical Center; Division of Biostatistics (K.D.R.), University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis; Department of Psychology (E.G.M., J.R.), Hospital for Sick Children-Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Human Genetics (N.A., S.C.), Emory University, Atlanta, GA; and Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition (P.H.), UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland, San Francisco, CA. Dr. Kovac is now at the School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Dr. Raiman is now at the Department of Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Birmingham Children's Hospital, UK. K.A. Delaney is now at Biomarin Pharmaceuticals, San Rafael, CA.

Objective: Previous research suggests attention and white matter (WM) abnormalities in individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I); this cross-sectional comparison is one of the first to examine the relationship of WM structural abnormalities as measured by corpus callosum (CC) volumes with attention scores to evaluate this relationship in a larger sample of patients with MPS I.

Methods: Volumetric MRI data and performance on a computerized measure of sustained attention were compared for 18 participants with the severe form of MPS I (MPS IH), 18 participants with the attenuated form of MPS I (MPS I), and 60 typically developing age-matched controls.

Results: The MPS I groups showed below-average mean attention scores ( < 0.001) and smaller CC volumes ( < 0.001) than controls. No significant associations were found between attention performance and CC volume for controls. Attention was associated with posterior CC volumes in the participants with MPS IH ( = 0.053) and total ( = 0.007) and anterior ( < 0.001) CC volumes in participants with MPS I.

Conclusions: We found that attention and CC volumes were reduced in participants with MPS I compared to typically developing controls. Smaller CC volumes in participants with MPS I were associated with decreased attention; such an association was not seen in controls. While hematopoietic cell transplantation used to treat MPS IH may compound these effects, attention difficulties were also seen in the MPS I group, suggesting that disease effects contribute substantially to the clinical attentional difficulties seen in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6598818PMC
May 2019

Beneath the floor: re-analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes in untreated Hurler syndrome.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 05 11;13(1):76. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), the severe, neurodegenerative form of type one mucopolysaccharidosis, is associated with rapid neurocognitive decline during toddlerhood and multi-system dysfunction. It is now standardly treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which halts accumulating disease pathology and prevents early death. While norm-based data on developmental functioning in untreated children have previously demonstrated neurocognitive decline, advances in methodology for understanding the cognitive functioning of children with neurodegenerative diseases have highlighted that the previous choice of scores to report results was not ideal. Specifically, the lowest possible norm-based score is 50, which obscures the complete range of cognitive functioning at more advanced stages of neurodeterioration. To a set of cognitive data collected on a sample of untreated children, we applied a modern method of score analysis, calculating a developmental quotient based on age equivalent scores, to reveal the full range of cognitive functioning beneath this cutoff of 50, uncovering new information about the rapidity of decline and the profound impairment in these children.

Results: Among 39 observations for 32 patients with untreated Hurler syndrome, the full array of cognitive functioning below 50 includes many children in the severely to profoundly impaired range. The loss of skills per time unit was 14 points between age 1 and 2. There was a very large range of developmental quotients corresponding to the norm-based cutoff of 50.

Conclusions: This report enables clarification of functioning at levels that extend beneath the floor of 50 in previous work. At the dawn of newborn screening and amidst a proliferation of new therapies for MPS I, these data can provide crucial benchmark information for developing treatments, particularly for areas of the world where transplant may not be available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-018-0817-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5948735PMC
May 2018

Long-term outcomes of systemic therapies for Hurler syndrome: an international multicenter comparison.

Genet Med 2018 11 8;20(11):1423-1429. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Pediatrics and Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose: Early treatment is critical for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), justifying its incorporation into newborn screening. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) treats MPS I, yet presumptions that ERT cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) support recommendations that hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) treat the severe, neurodegenerative form (Hurler syndrome). Ethics precludes randomized comparison of ERT with HCT, but insight into this comparison is presented with an international cohort of patients with Hurler syndrome who received long-term ERT from a young age.

Methods: Long-term survival and neurologic outcomes were compared among three groups of patients with Hurler syndrome: 18 treated with ERT monotherapy (ERT group), 54 who underwent HCT (HCT group), and 23 who received no therapy (Untreated). All were followed starting before age 5 years. A sensitivity analysis restricted age of treatment below 3 years.

Results: Survival was worse when comparing ERT versus HCT, and Untreated versus ERT. The cumulative incidences of hydrocephalus and cervical spinal cord compression were greater in ERT versus HCT. Findings persisted in the sensitivity analysis.

Conclusion: As newborn screening widens treatment opportunity for Hurler syndrome, this examination of early treatment quantifies some ERT benefit, supports presumptions about BBB impenetrability, and aligns with current guidelines to treat with HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2018.29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129229PMC
November 2018

Long-term cognitive and somatic outcomes of enzyme replacement therapy in untransplanted Hurler syndrome.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2017 Dec 27;13:64-68. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborn screening in 2016, highlighting recognition that early treatment of MPS I is critical to stem progressive, irreversible disease manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is an approved treatment for all MPS I phenotypes, but because the severe form (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome) involves rapid neurocognitive decline, the impermeable blood-brain-barrier is considered an obstacle for ERT. Instead, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has long been recommended, as it is believed to be the only therapy that arrests neurocognitive decline. Yet ERT monotherapy has never been compared to HCT, because it is unethically unacceptable to evaluate a therapeutic alternative to one shown to treat Central Nervous System (CNS) disease. An unusual opportunity to address this question is presented with this clinical report of a 16-year-old female with MPS IH treated only with ERT since her diagnosis at age 2. Neurological functioning was stable until cervical spinal cord compression at age 8, hydrocephalus at age 11, and neurocognitive declines beginning at age 10. Somatic disease burden is significant for first degree AV block, restrictive lung disease, bilateral hearing loss, severe corneal clouding, joint pain/limitations requiring mobility assistance, and short stature. This patient's extended survival and prolonged intact neurocognitive functioning depart from the untreated natural history of MPS IH. Disease burden typically controlled by HCT emerged. Although not anticipated to provide benefit for CNS disease, ERT may have provided some amelioration or slowing of neurocognitive deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2017.07.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622996PMC
December 2017

Neurocognitive Trajectory of Boys Who Received a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant at an Early Stage of Childhood Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy.

JAMA Neurol 2017 06;74(6):710-717

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Importance: Untreated childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a fatal disease associated with progressive cerebral demyelination and rapid, devastating neurologic decline. The standard of care to enhance long-term survival and stabilize cerebral disease is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Neurologic outcomes are better when HSCT occurs at an earlier stage of cALD, yet there is limited understanding of the neurocognitive trajectory of patients who undergo HSCT.

Objectives: To characterize neurocognitive outcomes of boys with cALD and early-stage cerebral disease who were treated with an allogeneic HSCT and to identify disease- and treatment-related factors associated with long-term functioning.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Baseline and follow-up neurocognitive test performance was analyzed for all boys with cALD who received an HSCT at the University of Minnesota between January 1, 1991, and October 20, 2014, and who had a pretransplant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) severity score of less than 10 (scale range, 0-34; higher scores indicate greater severity).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Longitudinal neurocognitive test performance in 4 domains (verbal comprehension, perceptual [visual] reasoning, working memory, and processing speed) were the primary outcome measures. Secondary analysis at the most recent evaluation also included measures of sustained attention, verbal memory, visual-motor integration, and fine motor function.

Results: Among the 62 boys in this study (mean [SD] age at transplant, 8.37 [2.80] years; range, 4-16 years), there was a significant association of pretransplant MRI severity and baseline verbal comprehension (r = -0.340; P = .008), perceptual reasoning (r = -0.419; P = .001), and processing speed (r = -0.285; P = .03) scores. Higher pretransplant MRI severity scores were also associated with a steeper decline in neurocognitive functioning during the 5-year follow-up period. Twenty-two of 33 patients (67%) with available long-term follow-up neurocognitive testing had severe impairment in at least 1 neurocognitive domain at the most recent evaluation.

Conclusions And Relevance: Boys with cALD who have greater than minimal cerebral disease detected on MRI scans at the time of an HSCT are at risk for severe, persistent neurocognitive deficits. These findings motivate further exploration of methods of detecting cerebral disease prior to development of lesions observable on MRI scans, an endeavor that may be facilitated by newborn screening for adrenoleukodystrophy. These findings may serve a benchmark role in evaluating the efficacy of novel interventions for cALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540007PMC
June 2017

Enzyme replacement is associated with better cognitive outcomes after transplant in Hurler syndrome.

J Pediatr 2013 Feb 10;162(2):375-80.e1. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Objective: To investigate whether intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) benefits cognitive function in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (Hurler syndrome) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Study Design: Data were obtained for 9 children treated with HCT + ERT (ERT group) and 10 children treated with HCT only (no-ERT group) from neuropsychologic evaluations before HCT and at 1-year and 2-year post-HCT follow-up.

Results: At 2 years after HCT, children in the ERT group lost 9.19 fewer IQ points per year compared with children in the no-ERT group (P = .031). Furthermore, the ERT group improved in nonverbal problem solving and processing, whereas the no-ERT group declined, resulting in a difference of 9.44 points per year between the 2 groups (P < .001).

Conclusion: ERT in association with HCT enhances cognitive outcomes, providing new evidence that ERT is a valuable addition to the standard transplantation protocol. Although the mechanism responsible for this improved outcome is unknown, both direct benefits and indirect effects must be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.07.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524404PMC
February 2013

Systematic evaluation of Axis-I DSM diagnoses in delayed sleep phase disorder and evening-type circadian preference.

Sleep Med 2012 Oct 19;13(9):1171-7. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

Department of Neurology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Background: Alterations in circadian rhythms can have profound effects on mental health. High co-morbidity for psychiatric disorders has been observed in patients with circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), and in those with an evening-type circadian preference. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the prevalence and type of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM IV) Axis-I disorders in those with DSPD compared to evening-type controls.

Methods: Forty-eight DSPD and 25 evening-type participants took part in this study. Sleep and wake parameters were assessed with actigraphy, diary and questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ). Evening-type preference was defined by the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire. DSPD was determined by an interview according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria. Current and past diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were assessed with a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders.

Results: DSPD was associated with a later wake time, longer sleep time, higher PSQI score and lower Horne-Ostberg and FOSQ scores compared to evening-types. There were no significant differences in the prevalence or type of Axis-I disorders between those with DSPD or evening-type preference. Over 70% of participants met criteria for at least one past Axis-I disorder. Approximately 40% of both the DSPD and evening-types met criteria for a past diagnosis of mood, anxiety (most frequently phobia) or substance-use disorders. Evening types were more likely to have a past diagnosis of more than one Axis-I disorder.

Conclusions: These results highlight the important link between circadian rhythms and mental disorders. Specifically, an evening circadian chronotype regardless of DSPD status is associated with a risk for anxiety, depressive or substance-use disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2012.06.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3474860PMC
October 2012