Publications by authors named "Julie A Sommer"

5 Publications

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Biogeography, habitat transitions and hybridization in a radiation of South American silverside fishes revealed by mitochondrial and genomic RAD data.

Mol Ecol 2020 02 29;29(4):738-751. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Rivers and lake systems in the southern cone of South America have been widely influenced by historical glaciations, carrying important implications for the evolution of aquatic organisms, including prompting transitions between marine and freshwater habitats and by triggering hybridization among incipient species via waterway connectivity and stream capture events. Silverside fishes (Odontesthes) in the region comprise a radiation of 19 marine and freshwater species that have been hypothesized on the basis of morphological or mitochondrial DNA data to have either transitioned repeatedly into continental waters from the sea or colonized marine habitats following freshwater diversification. New double digest restriction-site associated DNA data presented here provide a robust framework to investigate the biogeographical history of and habitat transitions in Odontesthes. We show that Odontesthes silversides originally diversified in the Pacific but independently colonized the Atlantic three times, producing three independent marine-to-freshwater transitions. Our results also indicate recent introgression of marine mitochondrial haplotypes into two freshwater clades, with more recurring instances of hybridization among Atlantic- versus Pacific-slope species. In Pacific freshwater drainages, hybridization with a marine species appears to be geographically isolated and may be related to glaciation events. Substantial structural differences of estuarine gradients between these two geographical areas may have influenced the frequency, intensity and evolutionary effects of hybridization events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15350DOI Listing
February 2020

Evidence for nucleotide receptor modulation of cross talk between MAP kinase and NF-kappa B signaling pathways in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2004 Apr 18;286(4):C923-30. Epub 2003 Dec 18.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP are present in abundance at sites of inflammation and tissue damage, and these agents exert a potent modulatory effect on macrophage/monocyte function via the nucleotide receptor P2X(7). In this regard, after exposure to bacterial LPS, P2X(7) activation augments expression of the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and production of NO in macrophages. Because P2X(7) has been reported to stimulate certain members of the MAP kinase family (ERK1/2) and can enhance the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappa B, we tested the hypothesis that LPS and nucleotides regulate NF-kappa B-dependent inflammatory events via cross talk with MAPK-associated pathways. In this regard, the present studies revealed that cotreatment of macrophages with LPS and the P2X(7)-selective ligand 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) results in the cooperative activation of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity and a sustained attenuation of levels of the NF-kappa B inhibitory protein I kappa B alpha. Interestingly, a persistent reduction in I kappa B alpha levels is also observed when the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 is coadministered with LPS, suggesting that components of the MEK/ERK pathway are involved in regulating I kappa B alpha protein expression and/or turnover. The observation that U0126 and BzATP exhibit overlapping actions with respect to LPS-induced changes in I kappa B alpha levels is supported by the finding that Ras activation, which is upstream of MEK/ERK activation, is reduced upon macrophage cotreatment with BzATP and LPS compared with the effects of BzATP treatment alone. These data are consistent with the concept that the Ras/MEK/ERK pathways are involved in regulating NF-kappa B/I kappa B-dependent inflammatory mediator production and suggest a previously unidentified mechanism by which nucleotides can modulate LPS-induced action via cross talk between NF-kappa B and Ras/MEK/MAPK-associated pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00417.2003DOI Listing
April 2004

Purinergic receptor regulation of LPS-induced signaling and pathophysiology.

J Endotoxin Res 2003 ;9(4):256-63

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706-1532, USA.

Macrophages express several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins and are potently activated by LPS to produce inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have shown that receptors for exogenous nucleotides (P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors) can modulate macrophage production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and nitric oxide (NO) following LPS exposure. Macrophages and LPS-stimulated monocytes express elevated levels of P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2X7 mRNA, suggesting that both P2Y and P2X receptors can contribute to LPS-induced pathophysiology. In addition, oxidized-ATP treatment (which inhibits P2X7) of macrophages blocks LPS-induced NO production, NF-kappaB and ERK-1/2 activation. Also, an LPS-binding domain located in the P2X7 C-terminus appears important for receptor trafficking/function. Moreover, the purinergic receptor ligand 2-MeS-ATP attenuates LPS-induced cytokine and NO production in vivo and ex vivo. These data suggest that P2X7 and certain P2Ys are linked to LPS effects, although their relative contribution in vivo is unclear. Accordingly, we tested the capacity of several adenine nucleotides to modulate LPS-induced mortality in mice. We found that the P2X7-directed ligand BzATP was unable to prevent LPS-induced death, whereas 2-MeS-ATP and 2-Cl-ATP, which bind to multiple P2X and P2Y receptors were able to protect mice from LPS-induced death. These data suggest that the co-ordinate action of P2Y and P2X7 receptors are critical for controlling LPS responses in vivo and that agents directed against both receptor classes may provide the greatest therapeutic advantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/096805103225001468DOI Listing
February 2004

Mutation of a dibasic amino acid motif within the C terminus of the P2X7 nucleotide receptor results in trafficking defects and impaired function.

J Immunol 2003 Aug;171(3):1304-11

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Activation of the P2X(7) receptor by extracellular nucleotides modulates multiple immune functions, including inflammatory mediator production, membrane fusion events, and apoptosis. Previous studies have revealed that the C terminus of this multimeric cation channel possesses a lipid-interaction motif that has been proposed to regulate receptor function. This domain is homologous to the LPS binding region of the LPS binding protein, and we demonstrated that two basic residues (Arg(578), Lys(579)) within this motif are essential for LPS binding to P2X(7) in vitro. Because P2X(7) can influence LPS action, and because lipid interaction motifs modulate the trafficking of other ion channel-linked receptors, we hypothesized that this motif of P2X(7) is critical for receptor function and trafficking. In these studies we mutated Arg(578) and Lys(579) of P2X(7), and the expression profile, channel activity, and pore formation of the mutant were characterized in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In contrast with the wild-type receptor, the P2X(7)-R578E/K579E mutant fails to demonstrate surface immunoreactivity despite normal levels of total protein expression. This effect on the mutant receptor is unlikely to result from widespread defects in protein folding, because surface localization, determined using conformation-specific Abs, can be restored by growing the cells at 25 degrees C, conditions that slow receptor recycling. Despite surface expression at reduced temperatures, at 25 degrees C the P2X(7)-R578E/K579E mutant still exhibits greatly reduced sodium, potassium, and calcium channel activity when compared with the wild-type receptor, and cannot induce pore formation. These data suggest that the lipid interaction motif of the P2X(7) C terminus controls receptor trafficking and modulates channel activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.3.1304DOI Listing
August 2003

A differential role for the mitogen-activated protein kinases in lipopolysaccharide signaling: the MEK/ERK pathway is not essential for nitric oxide and interleukin 1beta production.

J Biol Chem 2002 Mar 10;277(11):9077-87. Epub 2002 Jan 10.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry and Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and promotes the activation of macrophages and microglia. Although these cells are highly LPS-responsive, they serve unique tissue-specific functions and exhibit different LPS sensitivities. Accordingly, it was of interest to evaluate whether these biological differences reside in variations within LPS signaling pathways between these two cell types. Because the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and ERK-2 have been implicated in the control of many immune responses, we tested the concept that they are a key indicator for differences in cellular LPS sensitivity. We observed that murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and murine BV-2 microglial cells both respond to LPS by exhibiting increased IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, and elevated nitric oxide and interleukin-1beta production. Although LPS potently stimulates ERK activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages, it does not activate ERK-1/-2 in BV-2 microglia. Moreover, antagonism of the MEK/ERK pathway potentiates LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production, suggesting that LPS-stimulated ERK activation can exert inhibitory effects in macrophage-like cells. These data support the idea that ERK activation is not a required function of LPS-mediated signaling events and illustrate that alternative/additional pathways for LPS action exist in these cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M104385200DOI Listing
March 2002