Publications by authors named "Julianna Deardorff"

89 Publications

Childhood Overweight and Obesity and Pubertal Onset Among Mexican American Boys and Girls in the CHAMACOS Longitudinal Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States.

Secular trends in earlier initiation of puberty have been observed in recent decades. One risk factor appears to be increases in adiposity, as measured by body mass index. This trend is particularly notable among Latino populations, who have higher rates of overweight/obesity compared to non-Latino White youth. Previous research has focused primarily on White girls, resulting in data gaps regarding male puberty and among potentially high-risk populations. Using data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, we examined BMI at age 5 (2005-2006) and multiple markers of pubertal onset, assessed repeatedly and longitudinally at 7 in-person visits, starting at age 9 through age 14 (2009-2015), among 336 Mexican-Americans in Salinas, CA. We observed no associations among boys, but found significantly earlier thelarche in overweight (HR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and obese girls (HR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.4), menarche in overweight girls (HR = 1.6; CI: 1.0, 2.4) and pubarche in obese girls (HR = 1.9; CI: 1.2, 3.0), as compared to normal weight girls. This study examined an understudied population and included key covariates, such as birthweight and early adverse events, which are typically omitted in studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab100DOI Listing
April 2021

Organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy and childhood and onset of juvenile delinquency by age 16 years: The CHAMACOS cohort.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 22;197:111055. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94704, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Though prenatal organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure has been associated with lower intellectual quotient and behavioral disorders in childhood, factors related to later delinquency, no research has directly evaluated the impact of OPs on delinquency.

Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal and childhood OP exposure and juvenile delinquency in Mexican-American youth in the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS).

Methods: We measured dialkyl phosphate (DAPs) urinary metabolites of OPs in two prenatal maternal samples and in five child samples collected between six months and five years of age. Youth completed delinquency questionnaires at 16 years. We examined associations of prenatal and childhood DAPs with several delinquency outcomes (n = 313) using survival and generalized linear models.

Results: Almost 60% of youth reported delinquent acts (mostly minor), and 8% reported a police arrest. We observed largely null results of prenatal or childhood DAP concentrations and delinquency outcomes, with some isolated associations. A ten-fold increase in maternal dimethylphosphate (DM) concentrations measured after 20 weeks gestation was associated with an earlier age of first delinquent act (Hazard Ratio = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.88) and an increased Odds Ratio (OR) of having committed 1-3 or ≥4 delinquent acts, compared to the no delinquency reference group (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.01-3.08 and 2.17, 95% CI: 1.13-4.17, respectively). Higher childhood diethylphosphate (DE) concentrations were associated with a later age of first delinquent act (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.97).

Discussion: We did not find strong evidence of association between prenatal or childhood OP exposure and juvenile delinquency in the present cohort. There is an increasing literature that relates OP exposure to neurobehavioral impairments in childhood, and there is a need to understand long-term potential neurodevelopmental effects of early-life OP exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111055DOI Listing
March 2021

Girls' Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Examination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Purpose: Earlier timing and faster tempo of puberty have been linked to adolescents' poor mental health. Previous research rarely adjusted for childhood mental health, did not use physical examination to assess puberty, and excluded Latinas and Asian Americans. This study addressed these limitations.

Methods: We followed 822 girls, recruited at ages 6-8, for 8 years. Breast and pubic hair development and anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed prospectively and repeatedly. Structural equation models tested whether pubertal timing and tempo were associated with adolescent mental health symptoms and whether associations varied by ethnicity. Models were adjusted for childhood mental health symptoms, body mass index, and family income.

Results: Earlier breast development was associated with higher depressive symptoms among whites (β = -.19; p < .01) and higher anxiety symptoms among Latinas (β = -.26; p < .05), but lower depressive symptoms among Asians (β = .24, p < .05). Later pubic hair development (b = .24; p < .05) and faster pubic hair tempo (β = .26; p < .01) were associated with higher anxiety symptoms among Latinas. Faster pubic hair tempo was associated with lower depressive symptoms among Asians (β = -.34; p < .05). Tempo of breast development showed no associations.

Conclusions: Findings confirmed that earlier breast development was associated with higher mental health symptoms for Latina and white girls but was protective among Asians. Results for pubic hair and pubertal tempo were inconsistent, requiring future examination. While targeted interventions to prevent mental health problems among early-maturing girls are critical, there is variability among who might benefit most.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.01.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Relationship Factors Associated With Early Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Latinx Youth in an Agricultural Community.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Dec 17:886260520980396. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Latinx early adolescents within the United States are particularly vulnerable to dating violence; yet, little research has examined early dating experiences and violence outside large urban settings. Latinxs, in particular, may experience a unique window of opportunity for dating violence (DV) prevention during early adolescence, based on their trends in risk behavior over the adolescent period. This study extends the current research on dating violence by examining a highly understudied population, Latinx early adolescent girls and boys residing in an agricultural community, by assessing victimization and perpetration, and examining interpersonal-level factors as potential risk and protective factors for violence. Using data from a prospective cohort study of Latinx adolescents with relationship experience (past six months) ( = 296; girls: = 147; boys: = 149; mean age: 13.8), we assessed the association between dating relationship characteristics and dating violence victimization and perpetration using modified-Poisson regression models with robust standard errors stratified by gender. In multivariable analyses, we found that girls with gang-affiliated partners, partner-related withdrawal from friends, and girls who had used drugs or alcohol with a partner experienced greater risk for dating violence. Additionally, holding beliefs supportive of female sexual naivete and engaging in and communicating about sexual activity were associated with victimization among girls. No significant associations were found among boys. Findings affirm the need for multilevel DV prevention programming that starts in middle school and addresses social isolation, gang exposure, and traditional Latinx gender-norm beliefs regarding . These findings underscore the imperative to coordinate dating and gang violence prevention efforts by addressing common co-occurring interpersonal and environmental risk factors, including social isolation and culturally-specific traditional beliefs. Such factors could also assist providers, families, and peers in early identification of Latinx early adolescents at risk for DV, especially in rural contexts where resources are often limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520980396DOI Listing
December 2020

Early life household intactness and timing of pubertal onset in girls: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 10 28;20(1):464. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, 2000 Broadway, CA, 94612, Oakland, USA.

Background: Girls who experience early-life familial stress may have heightened risk of early puberty, which has adverse implications for adolescent and adult health. We assessed the association between household intactness and pubertal onset using a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of girls from Northern California.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of 26,044 girls born in 2003-10. Girls living with both parents from birth up to 6 years were considered to come from "intact" households while others constituted "non-intact" households. Pubertal development was measured using pediatrician-assessed Tanner staging for breast and pubic hair. Pubertal onset was defined as the transition from Tanner Stage 1 to 2+ for breast (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche). Menarche data was collected from routine well-child questionnaires. Weibull regression models accommodating left, right, and interval censoring were used to determine risk of earlier thelarche and pubarche, and logistic regressions were used to assess the risk of early menarche (age < 12).

Results: Girls exposed to non-intact households before age 2 years were at increased risk for earlier thelarche and pubarche with significant effect modification by race/ethnicity, compared with girls from intact households. The associations were strongest among Black girls (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29,1.98; HR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15,1.77 for thelarche and pubarche, respectively). There were no significant associations among Asian/Pacific Islanders. Girls who lived in non-intact households before age 2 years were also at increased risk for earlier menarche, but without race/ethnic interaction. Adjustment for prepubertal obesity did not change these associations. Associations between living in non-intact households after age 2 years and early puberty were weaker but still significant.

Conclusions: Exposure to a non-intact household early in life may increase the risk of early puberty in girls. Future psychosocial interventions focused on improving family cohesiveness and efforts to reduce childhood stress among families that are non-intact may mitigate these negative associations, thereby preventing future adverse health effects of early puberty and health disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02345-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592583PMC
October 2020

Earlier age of sex and substance use initiation is associated with unique hormone profiles during social evaluative threat in Mexican American adolescents.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 11 31;121:104828. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), 1995 University Avenue, Suite 265, Berkeley, CA 94704, United States. Electronic address:

Latinx adolescents are at a disproportional risk for poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes (STIs, adolescent pregnancy) compared to other ethnic groups. They also report high rates of alcohol and drug use that are similar to non-Hispanic White youth. The hormonal underpinnings of the emergence of sex and substance use behaviors among Latinx adolescents remain understudied however. Pubertal shifts in motivation and reward-seeking in social situations are closely tied to the emergence of risky sexual and substance use behaviors. The experience of developing earlier or later than same age peers may increase stress (cortisol) reactivity during social evaluative situations leading to more risky behavior. Further, testosterone can be responsive to social evaluative threat (SET) and is linked to status-seeking behavior, including risk-taking. The current study sought to unravel the complex relationship between cortisol and testosterone responsivity to social evaluative threat, pubertal status, and the emergence of sex and drug use among US-born Mexican-origin youth growing up in an agricultural community. Mexican American 14-year olds (N = 234, 54% female) from the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children (CHAMACOS) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol and testosterone were assayed from saliva. At 16, youth reported on age at vaginal and oral sex initiation, and alcohol and marijuana use initiation. Hierarchical regressions examined cortisol and testosterone reactivity, and pubertal status within each sex to predict the onset of these risky behaviors. Results indicated that boys who were less developed than their same-aged peers or with lower testosterone reactivity and elevated cortisol reactivity to the TSST reported the earliest sex and substance use initiation. For girls, higher cortisol reactivity predicted earlier alcohol use initiation, and higher testosterone reactivity predicted earlier oral sex. Our results suggests it is important for health care providers to not overlook Latinx boys who may look younger in discussions about mitigating risk. Latinx girls under increased stress may be more likely to try to self-medicate with alcohol, and potentially other drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104828DOI Listing
November 2020

Family Environment, Neurodevelopmental Risk, and the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Initiative: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

Front Psychiatry 2020 19;11:547. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

The family environment, with all its complexity and diverse components, plays a critical role in shaping neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Herein we review several domains of the family environment (family socioeconomic status, family composition and home environment, parenting behaviors and interaction styles, parental mental health and functioning, and parental substance use) and discuss how these domains influence neurodevelopment, with particular emphasis on mental health outcomes. We also highlight a new initiative launched by the National Institutes of Health, the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program. We discuss the role that ECHO will play in advancing our understanding of the impact of the family environment on children's risk for psychiatric outcomes. Lastly, we conclude with important unanswered questions and controversies in this area of research, highlighting how ECHO will contribute to resolving these gaps in our understanding, clarifying relationships between the family environment and children's mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318113PMC
June 2020

Trans adolescents' perceptions and experiences of their parents' supportive and rejecting behaviors.

J Couns Psychol 2020 Mar;67(2):156-170

Program for the Study of LGBT Health, New York State Psychiatric Institute/Columbia Psychiatry.

Transgender (trans) adolescents consistently report higher rates of adverse mental health outcomes compared to their cisgender peers. Parental support is a recognized adolescent protective factor; however, little is known about the specific parental behaviors that trans adolescents perceive as most or least supportive. To address this gap, we analyzed data from qualitative interviews conducted with an ethnically diverse, urban-based sample of trans adolescents (N = 24; 16-20 years old) to describe (a) the spectrum of specific parental behaviors across 3 categories-rejecting, supportive, and mixed (i.e., simultaneous supportive and rejecting behaviors)-and (b) the perceived psychosocial consequences across these 3 categories of parental behaviors. Qualitative data were gathered through lifeline interviews (i.e., visual representations from birth to present) and photo elicitation (i.e., photographs representing parental support and/or rejection). Supportive behaviors included instances where parents made independent efforts to learn about trans issues or help their child obtain gender-affirming health care. Rejecting behaviors included instances when parents refused to use their child's name or pronouns or failed to show empathy when their child struggled with gender-identity-related challenges. Mixed behaviors included examples when parents expressed support of their child's gender identity, but not of their sexual orientation (or vice versa). Overall, participants reported that rejecting and mixed parental behaviors contributed to a range of psychosocial problems (e.g., depression and suicidal ideation), while supportive behaviors increased positive wellbeing. These findings expand upon descriptions of parental support and rejection within the trans adolescent literature and can help practitioners target specific behaviors for interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000419DOI Listing
March 2020

Deportation Worry, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Trajectories, and Incident Hypertension: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 12 27;8(23):e013086. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health School of Public Health University of California Berkeley CA.

Background Worry about deportation has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in cross-sectional research. No research has evaluated this association longitudinally or examined the association between deportation worry and incident cardiovascular disease outcomes. Methods and Results We used data from an ongoing community-based cohort of 572 women primarily of Mexican origin. We estimated associations between self-reported deportation worry and: (1) trajectories of blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference with linear mixed models, and (2) incident hypertension with Cox proportional hazards models. Nearly half (48%) of women reported "a lot," 24% reported "moderate," and 28% reported "not too much" deportation worry. Higher worry at baseline was associated with nonlinear systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure trajectories. For example, compared with not too much worry, a lot of worry was associated with a faster initial increase (β, interaction with linear year term: 4.10; 95% CI, 1.17-7.03) followed by a faster decrease in systolic blood pressure (β, interaction with quadratic year term: -0.80; 95% CI, -1.55 to -0.06). There was weak evidence of an association between deportation worry and diastolic blood pressure and no association with body mass index, waist circumference, or pulse pressure trajectories. Among 408 women without baseline hypertension, reporting a lot (hazard ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.15-4.10) and moderate deportation worry (hazard ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.17-4.30) were each associated with greater risk of incident hypertension compared with reporting not too much worry. Conclusions Deportation worry may contribute to widening disparities in some cardiovascular disease risk factors and outcomes over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.013086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912982PMC
December 2019

Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS Cohort.

Environ Health Perspect 2019 10 25;127(10):107010. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: Previous studies suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates, ubiquitous synthetic chemicals, may adversely affect neurodevelopment. However, data are limited on how phthalates affect cognition, executive function, and behavioral function into adolescence.

Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of prenatal phthalate exposure with neurodevelopment in childhood and adolescence in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study.

Methods: We examined associations between maternal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations measured twice during pregnancy and a range of neurodevelopmental outcomes from ages 7 through 16 y in the CHAMACOS birth cohort (). We used age-specific linear regression models and generalized estimating equation models to assess longitudinal effects and examined differences by sex.

Results: Phthalate metabolites were detected in 88%-100% of samples, depending on the metabolite. Associations of phthalates with neurodevelopmental outcomes were largely null with some noteworthy patterns. Higher prenatal concentrations of metabolites of low-molecular weight phthalates () were associated with more self-reported hyperactivity [, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 1.4 per 2-fold increase in phthalates], attention problems (, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.2), and anxiety (, 95% CI: 0.0, 1.8) at age 16. We observed sex-specific differences for the sums of high-molecular-weight and di(2-ethylhexyl) metabolites and cognitive outcomes (e.g., for Full-Scale IQ for , 95% CI: , 0.3 and , 95% CI: , 0.3, respectively; for , 95% CI: 0.1, 3.4 and 1.6, 95% CI: 0.0, 3.2, respectively; for both).

Conclusion: We found predominantly null associations of prenatal phthalates with neurodevelopment in CHAMACOS, and weak associations of phthalates with internalizing and externalizing behaviors in adolescence. No previous studies have examined associations of prenatal phthalate exposure with neurodevelopment into adolescence, an important time for manifestations of effects. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5165.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP5165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6867166PMC
October 2019

Correction to: Breastfeeding and timing of pubertal onset in girls: a multiethnic population-based prospective cohort study.

BMC Pediatr 2019 Sep 5;19(1):317. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA.

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that Table 4 was incorrectly presented. The revised and corrected version is shown below.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1671-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6729063PMC
September 2019

Breastfeeding and timing of pubertal onset in girls: a multiethnic population-based prospective cohort study.

BMC Pediatr 2019 08 9;19(1):277. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA.

Background: Early puberty is associated with higher risk of adverse health and behavioral outcomes throughout adolescence and adulthood. US girls are experiencing earlier puberty with substantial racial/ethnic differences. We examined the association between breastfeeding and pubertal timing to identify modifiable risk factors of early puberty and potential sources of racial/ethnic differences in the timing of pubertal development.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of 3331 racially/ethnically diverse girls born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) between 2004 and 06. All data were obtained from KPNC electronic clinical and administrative datasets. Mother-reported duration of breastfeeding was obtained from questionnaires administered at each 'well-baby' check-up exam throughout the baby's first year and categorized as 'Not breastfed', 'Breastfed < 6 months', and 'Breastfed ≥ 6 months'. Pubertal development data used Tanner stages assessed by pediatricians during routine pediatric checkups starting at age 6. Pubertal onset was defined as transition from Tanner Stage 1 to Tanner Stage 2+ for breast (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche). Weibull regression models accommodating for left, right, and interval censoring were used in all analyses. Models were adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, parity and prepubertal body mass index (BMI). We also examined race/ethnicity as a potential effect modifier of these associations.

Results: Not breastfeeding was associated with earlier onset of breast and pubic hair development compared to breastfeeding ≥6 months (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.46; HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.05-1.46, respectively). Breastfeeding for < 6 months was also associated with the risk of earlier pubic hair development (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.30, compared to breastfeeding ≥6 months). Inclusion of girls' prepubertal BMI slightly attenuated the association between breastfeeding and timing of breast onset but remained significant. The association between not breastfeeding and early breast development may be stronger among African American girls (HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.01-3.66, no breastfeeding vs. ≥6 months) than other racial/ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Breastfeeding is an independent predictor of pubertal onset in girls, and the strength of the association may vary by race/ethnicity. Providing breastfeeding support and lactation education for high risk mothers may help prevent earlier pubertal onset and promote positive health outcomes later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1661-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688234PMC
August 2019

Association of Perceived Immigration Policy Vulnerability With Mental and Physical Health Among US-Born Latino Adolescents in California.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Jun 24. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.

Importance: Current US immigration policy targets immigrants from Mexico and other Latin American countries; anti-immigration rhetoric has possible implications for the US-born children of immigrant parents.

Objective: To assess whether concerns about immigration policy are associated with worse mental and physical health among US citizen children of Latino immigrants.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study of cohort data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a long-term study of Mexican farmworker families in the Salinas Valley region of California, included a sample of US-born adolescents (n = 397) with at least 1 immigrant parent. These adolescents underwent a health assessment before the 2016 presidential election (at age 14 years) and in the first year after the election (at age 16 years). Data were analyzed from March 23, 2018, to February 14, 2019.

Exposures: Adolescents aged 16 years self-reported their concern about immigration policy using 2 subscales (Threat to Family and Children's Vulnerability) of the Perceived Immigration Policy Effects Scale (PIPES) instrument.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Resting systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure; body mass index; maternal- and self-reported depression and anxiety problems (using Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd edition); self-reported sleep quality (using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]); and maternal rating of child's overall health. All measures except sleep quality were assessed at both the aged-14-years and aged-16-years visits. Health outcomes at age 16 years and the change in outcomes between ages 14 and 16 years were examined among youth participants who reported low or moderate PIPES scores vs high PIPES scores.

Results: In the sample of 397 US-born Latino adolescents (207 [52.1%] female) and primarily Mexican American individuals, nearly half of the youth participants worried at least sometimes about the personal consequences of the US immigration policy (n = 178 [44.8%]), family separation because of deportation (177 [44.6%]), and being reported to the immigration office (164 [41.3%]). Those with high compared with low or moderate PIPES scores had higher self-reported mean anxiety T scores (5.43; 95% CI, 2.64-8.23), higher maternally reported anxiety T scores (2.98; 95% CI, 0.53-5.44), and worse PSQI scores (0.98; 95% CI, 0.36-1.59). Youth participants with high PIPES scores reported statistically significantly increased levels of anxiety over the 2 visits (adjusted mean difference-in-differences, 2.91; 95% CI, 0.20-5.61) and not significantly increased levels of depression (adjusted mean difference-in-differences, 2.63; 95% CI, -0.28 to 5.54).

Conclusions And Relevance: Fear and worry about the personal consequences of current US immigration policy and rhetoric appear to be associated with higher anxiety levels, sleep problems, and blood pressure changes among US-born Latino adolescents; anxiety significantly increased after the 2016 presidential election.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593622PMC
June 2019

Invalidation Experiences Among Non-Binary Adolescents.

J Sex Res 2020 02 9;57(2):222-233. Epub 2019 May 9.

Program for the Study of LGBT Health, New York State Psychiatric Institute/Columbia Psychiatry and Nursing.

Mental health disparities among transgender adolescents are well documented and have generally been attributed to minority stress. However, significantly less is known about the minority stress experiences of non-binary adolescents or those who do not identify as exclusively male or female. This study qualitatively explored the unique ways that non-binary adolescents experience minority stress and how it influences their mental health and well-being. Lifeline methodology and photo elicitation were used to interview 14 ethnically diverse non-binary adolescents between the ages of 16 and 20, residing in New York City (NYC) and the San Franscicso Bay Area (SFBA). We present participants' experiences using a novel construct of defined as the refusal to accept one's identity as real or true. Our findings indicate that invalidation is conceptually distinct from the established minority stressor of "non-affirmation." Non-binary adolescents experienced myriad forms of invalidation within multiple social contexts, which contributed to negative affective and cognitive processes, including confusion, self-doubt, rumination, and internalized shame. For many participants, the cumulative stressors related to invalidation contributed to poor mental health outcomes. Data from this study suggest that identity invalidation is a unique form of minority stress that may especially affect non-binary individuals, with significant implications for their social and emotional well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2019.1608422DOI Listing
February 2020

The association between religiosity and pregnancy acceptability among Latino/a young adults: does generational status matter?

Cult Health Sex 2020 02 1;22(2):184-200. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Sexual Health and Reproductive Equity (SHARE) Program, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The US Latino/a population is considered to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy; some research indicates that Latino/a parents are more likely to express happiness about an unintended pregnancy than other racial/ethnic groups. Associations between pregnancy attitudes and factors such as religiosity and nativity have also been documented in the Latino/a population, but existing research is sparse, dated and primarily focused on women of Mexican heritage. This study sought to expand this literature by examining the relationship between religiosity and pregnancy acceptability and assessing effect modification by generational status and gender in a national sample of young Latino/a cisgender women and men of various ancestral backgrounds currently in relationships. In multivariable logistic regression models, there was a positive association between importance of religion and pregnancy acceptability for both men and women; being highly or moderately religious was associated with elevated odds of finding a pregnancy acceptable. Effect modification by generational status was significant for women, but not for men. Results suggest that religiosity, gender and generational status have differential influences on and relationships to pregnancy orientations for Latina women and Latino men and should be considered in the design and delivery of family planning care for Latino/a clients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2019.1581260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607687PMC
February 2020

Associations of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity With the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Daughters.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 07;188(7):1262-1269

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, California.

Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes, but little is known regarding early-life determinants influencing pubertal timing. We examined the associations between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and the timing of the onset of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair development (pubarche) in a cohort of 2,070 girls born in a Kaiser Permanente Northern California facility between 2005 and 2006. Using Weibull regression models accommodating interval censoring and adjusting for important confounders, we found that excess GWG was associated with increased risk of early thelarche (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.78) and early pubarche (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.66). Inadequate GWG was associated with early thelarche (HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.71). The associations between excess or inadequate GWG and risk of earlier thelarche were stronger if mothers were obese before or at the beginning of pregnancy (body mass index ≥30 kg body weight per m height squared) (HR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.53, 2.63; HR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.98, respectively). Similar associations were found for pubarche outcome. Inclusion of girls' prepubertal body mass index slightly attenuated these associations, but they remained significant. Monitoring of maternal weight before and throughout pregnancy might help prevent early pubertal onset and subsequent negative health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601524PMC
July 2019

Next Steps in Puberty Research: Broadening the Lens Toward Understudied Populations.

J Res Adolesc 2019 03;29(1):133-154

Iowa State University.

Decades of puberty research have yielded key scientific discoveries. Building on the field's rich history, we highlight four understudied populations: youth of color, boys, sexual minority youth, and gender minority youth. We explore why scientific study has been slow to evolve in these groups and propose paths forward for exciting new work. For ethnically racially diverse youth, we discuss the need to incorporate culture and context. For boys, we highlight methodological issues and challenges of mapping existing conceptual models onto boys. For sexual and gender minority youth, we discuss unique challenges during puberty and suggest ways to better capture their experiences. With an eye toward a new era, we make recommendations for next steps and underscore the importance of transdisciplinary research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827435PMC
March 2019

Puberty Education in a Global Context: Knowledge Gaps, Opportunities, and Implications for Policy.

J Res Adolesc 2019 03;29(1):177-195

University of Michigan.

Youth programs and policies provide opportunities for institutions and societies to support healthy adolescent development. Puberty education programs are universally important, as they provide crucial knowledge and skills to help youth and their caregivers navigate the physical, emotional, and interpersonal changes of puberty with positive outcomes. However, few puberty programs have been rigorously evaluated, resulting in a lack of evidence-based knowledge and practice in this area. This review examines the status of research on puberty education and related programs and draws on the broader intervention literature and recent research findings on adolescence to identify program features that might improve program effectiveness. Implications for policy are also discussed. The need for rigorous program evaluation is emphasized throughout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12452DOI Listing
March 2019

Financial Strain and Contraceptive Use Among Women in the United States: Differential Effects by Age.

Womens Health Issues 2019 Mar - Apr;29(2):153-160. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Sexual Health and Reproductive Equity Program, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California. Electronic address:

Introduction: Low-income and young women experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy. Traditional measures of socioeconomic status may not be appropriate indicators of financial status, particularly during emerging adulthood. This study investigates the relationship between financial strain and contraceptive use, focusing on the differential effects by age group.

Methods: Multinomial logistic regression analyses assessed the relationship between financial strain and contraceptive use in a national sample of U.S. women ages 18-39 years (N = 932). Models were adjusted for income, employment status, and other sociodemographic characteristics and tested the interaction of financial strain and age group.

Results: Women with high financial strain were less likely to use short-acting methods (compared with using no method) in the adjusted model; when the age and financial strain interaction was included, associations held only for women ages 18-24 and 25-29 years of age. Relative to contraceptive nonuse, women ages 18-24 years with high financial strain were less likely to use long-acting reversible (relative risk ratio [RRR], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.99) and short-acting hormonal (RRR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.00-0.18) methods. Women ages 25-29 with high financial strain were less likely to use short-acting hormonal (RRR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.87) and coital-specific (RRR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.51) methods.

Implications For Practice And/or Policy: Young women may be vulnerable to the effect of high financial strain on contraceptive nonuse. Providers working with this group should consider incorporating financial strain into screening tools to identify patients who may need extra attention in contraceptive decision-making conversations. Antipoverty programs could also have a positive effect on effective contraceptive use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2018.12.006DOI Listing
May 2019

Early-Life Home Environment and Obesity in a Mexican American Birth Cohort: The CHAMACOS Study.

Psychosom Med 2019 Feb/Mar;81(2):209-219

From the Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Objective: Little is known about the impact of the home environment on biomarkers of obesity, such as adipokines, in children. In this study, we examined the relationship of maternal depressive symptoms and potentially protective social factors, including maternal support and the home learning environment, with body mass index and adipokines.

Methods: Data were obtained from 326 Mexican American participants from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas cohort. Plasma adipokine levels were assessed in 326 children by enzyme-linked immunoassay at birth or ages 5, 9, or 14 years. Maternal depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale when children were 1, 3.5, 7, and 9 years old; social support was assessed by the Duke-University of North Carolina Questionnaire at ages 1 and 5 years; and home learning environment by the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) at ages of 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, 7, 9, and 10.5 years.

Results: Age was significantly associated with adiponectin (B = -5.0, SE = 0.2) and leptin (B = 0.01, SE = 0.003) levels. Individual time point analyses identified significant positive associations of HOME scores in childhood with adiponectin at ages 9 years (HOME score; age 3.5 years: B = 0.9, p = .04) and 14 years (HOME score; age 7 years: B = 0.6, p = .02, age 9 years: B = 0.6, p = .05, age 10.5 years: B = 0.5, p = .04). We observed significant relationships of maternal depressive symptoms at age 9 years with adiponectin and body mass index z-score at age 14 years (B = -0.2, p = .003 and B = 0.02, p = .002, resp.), which were confirmed in longitudinal models.

Conclusions: This study adds new evidence that adverse and protective aspects of the home environment could lead to altered obesity status in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355358PMC
April 2020

Salivary Pubertal Hormones, Sleep Disturbance, and an Evening Circadian Preference in Adolescents: Risk Across Health Domains.

J Adolesc Health 2019 04 1;64(4):523-529. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California. Electronic address:

Purpose: Puberty influences biological and psychological development during adolescence. This includes a shift toward an evening circadian preference, which is characterized by greater physical and mental activity at night compared to the morning. This study examines how pubertal hormones are related to risk across key health domains among adolescents with an evening circadian preference.

Methods: Participants were adolescents with an evening circadian preference (n = 165, 96 female and 69 male, mean age = 14.8) from an NICHD-funded study. Hormones included testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and estradiol (females only). Sleep measures included weeknight total sleep time and weeknight bedtime. Circadian preference was assessed with the Children's Morningness-Eveningness Preferences Scale. Health domains included emotional, cognitive, behavioral, social, and physical health.

Results: For female adolescents, estradiol was related to higher risk in the emotional domain. Among female adolescents with later bedtimes, higher estradiol was associated with higher behavioral domain risk (specifically alcohol and substance use). For male adolescents with a more extreme evening circadian preference, higher DHEA and testosterone were associated with higher behavioral domain risk, specifically greater alcohol and substance use or sensation seeking (DHEA only). Among female adolescents with a more extreme evening circadian preference, higher DHEA was associated with greater physical health risk.

Conclusions: Pubertal hormones may be associated with heightened risk across select health domains. Specifically, higher levels of hormones may contribute to increased risk for alcohol and substance use as well as sensation seeking in the context of an evening circadian preference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.10.003DOI Listing
April 2019

Intergenerational Associations Between Parental Incarceration and Children's Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood.

J Adolesc Health 2019 03 1;64(3):398-404. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Berkeley, California.

Purpose: Research on parental incarceration and the health of offspring is relatively scarce despite studies linking childhood adverse experiences to a range of physical and mental health conditions. This study aimed to estimate the associations between parental incarceration and sexual risk outcomes (early sexual onset, inconsistent condom use, and sexually transmitted infections [STIs]) in young adulthood.

Methods: We used logistic regression to estimate associations of sexual risk taking behaviors with parental incarceration during childhood in a sample of 3,972 participants in The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) between 2001 and 2009.

Results: Parental incarceration was associated with early sexual onset (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-2.03) and STIs (AOR =2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2). Maternal incarceration was associated with increased odds of early sexual onset (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.9-6.7), inconsistent condom use (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3-8.9), and STIs (AOR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.7-17.6). Additionally, paternal incarceration and parental incarceration occurring before age 10 were associated with STIs (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.7).

Conclusions: Parental incarceration, especially maternal imprisonment, is associated with risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections in young adults in the United States. Intervening during or prior to the adolescent developmental period may ameliorate risky sexual behaviors and related health outcomes among children of incarceration parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.09.028DOI Listing
March 2019

Sleep duration in Mexican American children: Do mothers' and fathers' parenting and family practices play a role?

J Sleep Res 2019 08 5;28(4):e12784. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Community Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

This study examined parenting styles, parenting practices and family practices that may be associated with weeknight sleep duration among 8- to 10-year-old Mexican American (MA) children. This cross-sectional study of MA children used baseline data from a 2-year cohort study of mother-child pairs (n = 308) with additional data on fathers (n = 166). Children's weeknight sleep duration was accelerometer estimated and averaged for 2 weeknights. Parents reported on their parenting styles and practices regarding food and family food-related practices. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine sleep duration with parenting styles and practices, and family practices, and adjusting for child gender and body mass index. Model 1 included mothers' parenting styles and practices; Model 2 included both mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and practices. Children's average sleep duration was 9.5 (SD = 0.8) hr. Mothers who used pressure to encourage their children to eat and those who used food to control behavior had children with longer sleep duration (β = 0.21, p < 0.01; β = 0.15, p = 0.03, respectively). Mothers who reported their children ate dinner with the TV on and those who valued eating dinner as a family had children with shorter sleep duration (β = -0.16, p = 0.01; β = -0.18, p = 0.01, respectively). Fathers who restricted the amount of food their children ate had children with shorter sleep duration (β = -0.27, p = 0.01). Mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, the child's eating dinner with the TV on, and valuing family dinners, played a role in children's weeknight sleep duration among Mexican American families. Parental feeding practices and family mealtime contexts may have an effect on children's weeknight sleep duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597317PMC
August 2019

The role of bicultural adaptation, familism, and family conflict in Mexican American adolescents' cortisol reactivity.

Dev Psychopathol 2018 12 8;30(5):1571-1587. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health.

Scarce research has examined stress responsivity among Latino youths, and no studies have focused on the role of acculturation in shaping cortisol stress response in this population. This study assessed Mexican American adolescents' Mexican and Anglo cultural orientations and examined prospective associations between their patterns of bicultural orientation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortisol reactivity to an adapted Trier Social Stress Test. The sample included 264 youths from a longitudinal birth cohort study who completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided saliva samples at age 14. The youths completed assessments of cultural orientation at age 12, and family conflict and familism at age 14. Analyses testing the interactive effects of Anglo and Mexican orientation showed significant associations with cortisol responsivity, including the reactivity slope, peak levels, and recovery, but these associations were not mediated by family conflict nor familism values. Findings revealed that bicultural youth (high on both Anglo and Mexican orientations) showed an expected pattern of high cortisol responsivity, which may be adaptive in the context of a strong acute stressor, whereas individuals endorsing only high levels of Anglo orientation had a blunted cortisol response. Findings are discussed in relation to research on biculturalism and the trade-offs and potential recalibration of a contextually responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis for acculturating adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418001116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857642PMC
December 2018

Associations between cumulative neighborhood deprivation, long-term mobility trajectories, and gestational weight gain.

Health Place 2018 07 5;52:101-109. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, 101 Haviland Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States. Electronic address:

Existing research on neighborhood environment and gestational weight gain (GWG) focuses on point-in-time measures of neighborhood context. This precludes understanding how long-term exposure to adverse neighborhood environments influences GWG. We estimated associations between average exposure to and trajectories of long-term neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and risk of inadequate or excessive GWG. Using data from 5690 full-term, singleton pregnancies in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimated associations between cumulative deprivation and GWG, overall and by race/ethnicity, controlling for individual and residential covariates. A one standard deviation unit (8-point) increase in neighborhood deprivation increased risk of inadequate GWG (Relative Risk (RR): 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00-1.16) for all women and excessive GWG (RR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21) for white women. Persistent low deprivation (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.94) and upward mobility (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96), compared to persistent high deprivation, reduced risk of inadequate GWG. Persistent low deprivation also reduced risk of excessive GWG (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98). Long-term neighborhood deprivation contributes to patterns of GWG over women's life course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960020PMC
July 2018

Prenatal Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Traits Related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Population Living in Proximity to Agriculture.

Environ Health Perspect 2018 04 25;126(4):047012. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides has been linked with poorer neurodevelopment and behaviors related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in previous studies, including in the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort living in the agricultural Salinas Valley in California.

Objectives: To investigate the association of prenatal exposure to OP pesticides with traits related to ASD, in childhood and adolescents in CHAMACOS.

Methods: We assessed OP exposure during pregnancy with measurements of dialkyl phosphates (DAP) metabolites in urine, and residential proximity to OP use during pregnancy using California's Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) data and estimated associations with ASD-related traits using linear regression models. We measured traits reported by parents and teachers as well as the child's performance on tests that evaluate the ability to use facial expressions to recognize the mental state of others at 7, 10/, and 14 years of age.

Results: Prenatal DAPs were associated with poorer parent and teacher reported social behavior [e.g., a 10-fold DAP increase was associated with a 2.7-point increase (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 4.5) in parent-reported Social Responsiveness Scale, Version 2, T-scores at age 14]. We did not find clear evidence of associations between residential proximity to OP use during pregnancy and ASD-related traits.

Conclusions: These findings contribute mixed evidence linking OP pesticide exposures with traits related to developmental disorders like ASD. Subtle pesticide-related effects on ASD-related traits among a population with ubiquitous exposure could result in a rise in cases of clinically diagnosed disorders like ASD. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2580.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP2580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071837PMC
April 2018

Associations Between Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy Hyperglycemia and Timing of Puberty Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Population-Based Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2018 07;187(7):1362-1369

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, California.

Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity is associated with daughters' pubertal timing using 15,267 racially/ethnically diverse Kaiser Permanente Northern California members aged 6-11 years with pediatrician-assessed Tanner staging (2003-2017). We calculated maternal body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) during pregnancy from the electronic health record data. Using a proportional hazards model with interval censoring, we examined the associations between maternal obesity and girls' pubertal timing, as well as effect modification by race/ethnicity and mediation by prepubertal BMI. Maternal obesity (BMI ≥30) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9) were associated with earlier onset of breast development in girls (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.49) and HR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.29), respectively), after adjustment for girl's race/ethnicity, maternal age, education, parity, and smoking during pregnancy. There was interaction by race/ethnicity for associations between maternal obesity and girls' pubic hair onset: Associations were strongest among Asian and non-Hispanic white girls (HR = 1.53 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.90) and HR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.52), respectively) and absent for African-American girls. Adjustment for girl's prepubertal BMI only slightly attenuated associations. Our results suggest the importance of maternal metabolic factors during pregnancy in the timing of girls' puberty and potential differences in the associations by race/ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030998PMC
July 2018

Worry About Deportation and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Adult Women: The Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas Study.

Ann Behav Med 2018 02;52(2):186-193

Division of Community Health and Human Development; Center for Environmental Research and Children©s Health (CERCH), UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA.

Background: U.S. Latinos report high levels of concern about deportation for themselves or others. No previous research has tested the link between worry about deportation and clinical measures of cardiovascular risk.

Purpose: We estimate the associations between worry about deportation and clinically measured cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: Data come from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study. The analytic sample includes 545 Mexican-origin women.

Results: In multivariable models, reporting a lot of worry about deportation was significantly associated with greater body mass index, greater risk of obesity, larger waist circumference, and higher pulse pressure. Reporting moderate deportation worry was significantly associated with greater risk of overweight and higher systolic blood pressure. Significant associations between worry about deportation and greater body mass index, waist circumference, and pulse pressure, respectively, held after correcting for multiple testing at p < .05.

Conclusions: Worry about deportation may be an important cardiovascular risk factor for ethnic minority populations in the USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kax007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858722PMC
February 2018

Adolescent Sleep Barriers: Profiles within a Diverse Sample of Urban Youth.

J Youth Adolesc 2018 Oct 2;47(10):2169-2180. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Most adolescents face numerous obstacles to good sleep, which may undermine healthy development. In this study, we used latent class analysis and identified four categories of sleep barriers in a diverse sample of 553 urban youth (57% female). The majority profile, School/Screens Barriers, reported the most homework and extracurricular barriers, along with high screen time. The Home/Screens Barriers class (i.e., high environmental noise, light, screen use) and the High/Social Barriers class (i.e., high barriers across domains, particularly social) reported the poorest sleep quality and highest depressive/anxiety symptoms. The Minimal Barriers class-predominately male, with low depressive/anxiety symptoms-reported more sleep per night. We discuss implications of our findings for targeting interventions to address poor adolescent sleep among specific clusters of students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0829-2DOI Listing
October 2018