Publications by authors named "Juliana Germano"

8 Publications

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Hypothermia promotes mitochondrial elongation In cardiac cells via inhibition of Drp1.

Cryobiology 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Cedars-Sinai Smidt Heart Institute, Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Hypothermia is a valuable clinical tool in mitigating against the consequences of ischemia in surgery, stroke, cardiac arrest and organ preservation. Protection is afforded principally by a reduction of metabolism, manifesting as reduced rates of oxygen uptake, preservation of ATP levels, and a curtailing of ischemic calcium overload. The effects of non-ischemic hypothermic stress are relatively unknown. We sought to investigate the effects of clinically mild-to-severe hypothermia on mitochondrial morphology, oxygen consumption and protein expression in normoxic hearts and cardiac cells. Normoxic perfusion of rat hearts at 28-32 °C was associated with inhibition of mitochondrial fission, evidenced by a reduced abundance of the active phosphorylated form of the fission receptor Drp1 (pDrp1). Abundance of the same residue was reduced in H9c2 cells subjected to hypothermic culture (25-32 °C), in addition to a reduced abundance of the Drp1 receptor MFF. Hypothermia-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes exhibited elongated mitochondria and depressed rates of mitochondrial-associated oxygen consumption, which persisted upon rewarming. Hypothermia also promoted a reduction in mRNA expression of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in H9c2 cells. When normothermic H9c2 cells were transfected with TRPV1 siRNA we observed reduced pDrp1 and MFF abundance, elongated mitochondria, and reduced rates of mitochondrial-associated oxygen consumption, mimicking the effects of hypothermic culture. In conclusion hypothermia promoted elongation of cardiac mitochondria via reduced pDrp1 abundance which was also associated with suppression of cellular oxygen consumption. Silencing of TRPV1 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes reproduced the morphological and respirometric phenotype of hypothermia. This report demonstrates a novel mechanism of cold-induced inhibition of mitochondrial fission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2021.07.013DOI Listing
July 2021

Ultraviolet A light effectively reduces bacteria and viruses including coronavirus.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(7):e0236199. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Medically Associated Science and Technology (MAST) Program, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Antimicrobial-resistant and novel pathogens continue to emerge, outpacing efforts to contain and treat them. Therefore, there is a crucial need for safe and effective therapies. Ultraviolet-A (UVA) phototherapy is FDA-approved for several dermatological diseases but not for internal applications. We investigated UVA effects on human cells in vitro, mouse colonic tissue in vivo, and UVA efficacy against bacteria, yeast, coxsackievirus group B and coronavirus-229E. Several pathogens and virally transfected human cells were exposed to a series of specific UVA exposure regimens. HeLa, alveolar and primary human tracheal epithelial cell viability was assessed after UVA exposure, and 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was measured as an oxidative DNA damage marker. Furthermore, wild-type mice were exposed to intracolonic UVA as an in vivo model to assess safety of internal UVA exposure. Controlled UVA exposure yielded significant reductions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridioides difficile, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. UVA-treated coxsackievirus-transfected HeLa cells exhibited significantly increased cell survival compared to controls. UVA-treated coronavirus-229E-transfected tracheal cells exhibited significant coronavirus spike protein reduction, increased mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein and decreased coronavirus-229E-induced cell death. Specific controlled UVA exposure had no significant effect on growth or 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in three types of human cells. Single or repeated in vivo intraluminal UVA exposure produced no discernible endoscopic, histologic or dysplastic changes in mice. These findings suggest that, under specific conditions, UVA reduces various pathogens including coronavirus-229E, and may provide a safe and effective treatment for infectious diseases of internal viscera. Clinical studies are warranted to further elucidate the safety and efficacy of UVA in humans.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236199PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365468PMC
September 2020

Intermittent Use of a Short-Course Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy Limits Adverse Cardiac Remodeling via Parkin-dependent Mitochondrial Turnover.

Sci Rep 2020 05 19;10(1):8284. Epub 2020 May 19.

Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Smidt Heart Institute, Los Angeles, USA.

Given that adverse remodeling is the leading cause of heart failure and death in the USA, there is an urgent unmet need to develop new methods in dealing with this devastating disease. Here we evaluated the efficacy of a short-course glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy-specifically 2-quinoxalinamine, 6,7-dichloro-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)-,6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (DMB; aka Compound 2) - in attenuating adverse LV remodeling. We also examined the role, if any, of mitochondrial turnover in this process. Wild-type, Parkin knockout and MitoTimer-expressing mice were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation, then treated briefly with DMB. LV remodeling and cardiac function were assessed by histology and echocardiography. Autophagy and mitophagy markers were examined by western blot and mitochondrial biogenesis was inferred from MitoTimer protein fluorescence and qPCR. We found that DMB given post-infarction significantly reduced adverse LV remodeling and the decline of cardiac function. This paralleled an increase in autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. The salutary effects of the drug were lost in Parkin knockout mice, implicating Parkin-mediated mitophagy as part of its mechanism of action. Our findings suggest that enhancing Parkin-associated mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis after infarction is a viable target for therapeutic mitigation of adverse remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64924-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237417PMC
May 2020

Antiviral Effects of Menthol on Coxsackievirus B.

Viruses 2020 03 28;12(4). Epub 2020 Mar 28.

The Smidt Heart Institute and the Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is a common human enterovirus that causes systemic infection but specifically replicates to high titers in the pancreas. It was reported that certain viruses induce mitochondrial fission to support infection. We documented that CVB triggers mitochondrial fission and blocking mitochondrial fission limits infection. The transient receptor potential channels have been implicated in regulating mitochondrial dynamics; namely, the heat and capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) contributes to mitochondrial depolarization and fission. When we transiently warmed HeLa cells to 39 °C prior to CVB exposure, infection was heightened, whereas cooling cells to 25 °C reduced infection. Inducing "cold" by stimulating transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) with menthol led to reduced infection and also resulted in lower levels of mitochondrial fission during infection. Additionally, menthol stabilized levels of mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) which is known to be tied to mitochondrial dynamics. Taken together, this highlights a novel pathway wherein CVB relies on TRPV1 to initiate proviral mitochondrial fission, which may contribute to the disruption of antiviral immunity. TRPM8 has been shown to antagonize TRPV1, and thus we hypothesize that stimulating TRPM8 blocks TRPV1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation following CVB exposure and attenuates infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232514PMC
March 2020

Dysregulation of microRNAs and target genes networks in human abdominal aortic aneurysm tissues.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(9):e0222782. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Cardiology, Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological enlargement of infrarenal aorta close to the aortic bifurcation, and it is an important cause of mortality in the elderly. Therefore, the biomarker identification for early diagnosis is of great interest for clinical benefit. It is known that microRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles via target genes regulation in many diseases. This study aimed to identify miRNAs and their target genes involved in the pathogenesis of AAA.

Methods: Tissue samples were obtained from patients who underwent AAA surgery and from organ donors (control group). Quantitative PCR Array was applied to assess 84 genes and 384 miRNAs aiming to identify differentially expressed targets (AAA n = 6, control n = 6), followed by validation in a new cohort (AAA n = 18, control n = 6) by regular qPCR. The functional interaction between validated miRNAs and target genes was performed by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software.

Results: The screening cohort assessed by PCR array identified 10 genes and 59 miRNAs differentially expressed (≥2-fold change, p<0.05). Among these, IPA identified 5 genes and 9 miRNAs with paired interaction. ALOX5, PTGIS, CX3CL1 genes, and miR-193a-3p, 125b-5p, 150-5p maintained a statistical significance in the validation cohort. IPA analysis based on the validated genes and miRNAs revealed that eicosanoid and metalloproteinase/TIMP synthesis are potentially involved in AAA.

Conclusion: Paired interactions of differentially expressed ALOX5, PTGIS, CX3CL1 genes, and miR-193b-3p, 125b-5p, 150-5p revealed a potentially significant role of the eicosanoid synthesis and metalloproteinase/TIMP pathways in the AAA pathogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222782PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754147PMC
March 2020

Coxsackievirus B infection induces the extracellular release of miR-590-5p, a proviral microRNA.

Virology 2019 03 30;529:169-176. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

The Smidt Heart Institute and the Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Coxsackievirus B is a significant human pathogen and is a leading cause of myocarditis. We and others have observed that certain enteroviruses including coxsackievirus B cause infected cells to shed extracellular vesicles containing infectious virus. Recent reports have shown that vesicle-bound virus can infect more efficiently than free virus. Though microRNAs are differentially regulated in cells following infection, few have been associated with the vesicles shed from infected cells. Here we report exclusive trafficking of specific microRNAs into viral vesicles compared to vesicles from non-infected cells. We found that the most highly-expressed unique microRNA in viral vesicles was miR-590-5p, which facilitates prolonged viral replication by blocking apoptotic factors. Cells over-expressing this miR were significantly more susceptible to infection. This may be a mechanism by which coxsackievirus B boosts subsequent rounds of infection by co-packaging virus and a select set of pro-viral microRNAs in extracellular vesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382511PMC
March 2019

Dynamic Proteomic and miRNA Analysis of Polysomes from Isolated Mouse Heart After Langendorff Perfusion.

J Vis Exp 2018 08 29(138). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

The Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center;

Studies in dynamic changes in protein translation require specialized methods. Here we examined changes in newly-synthesized proteins in response to ischemia and reperfusion using the isolated perfused mouse heart coupled with polysome profiling. To further understand the dynamic changes in protein translation, we characterized the mRNAs that were loaded with cytosolic ribosomes (polyribosomes or polysomes) and also recovered mitochondrial polysomes and compared mRNA and protein distribution in the high-efficiency fractions (numerous ribosomes attached to mRNA), low-efficiency (fewer ribosomes attached) which also included mitochondrial polysomes, and the non-translating fractions. miRNAs can also associate with mRNAs that are being translated, thereby reducing the efficiency of translation, we examined the distribution of miRNAs across the fractions. The distribution of mRNAs, miRNAs, and proteins was examined under basal perfused conditions, at the end of 30 min of global no-flow ischemia, and after 30 min of reperfusion. Here we present the methods used to accomplish this analysis-in particular, the approach to optimization of protein extraction from the sucrose gradient, as this has not been described before-and provide some representative results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231915PMC
August 2018

ABCC3 Polymorphisms and mRNA Expression Influence the Concentration of a Carboxylic Acid Metabolite in Patients on Clopidogrel and Aspirin Therapy.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 May 16;120(5):466-474. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel combined therapy has been reported to be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Antiplatelet drug resistance, especially to clopidogrel, is a multifactorial phenomenon that affects a large number of ACS patients. The genetic contribution to this drug response is not fully elucidated. We investigated the relationship of ABC-type efflux subfamily C member 3 (ABCC3) polymorphisms and mRNA expression with plasma concentrations of clopidogrel, salicylic acid (SA) and a carboxylic acid metabolite (CAM). Clopidogrel, CAM and SA plasma concentrations were measured simultaneously by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) from 83 ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. ABCC3 (rs757421, rs733392 and rs739923) and CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) polymorphisms as well as mRNA expression were evaluated. A positive correlation was found between CAM concentrations and ABCC3 mRNA expression (r = 0.494, p < 0.0001). Patients carrying genotype AA (rs757421 variant) had higher CAM concentrations and ABCC3 mRNA expression as compared to those of GG + GA carriers (p = 0.017). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that ABCC3 mRNA expression (p = 0.017), rs757421 AA genotype (p = 0.001), blood collection time (p = 0.018) and clopidogrel dose (p = 0.001) contributed to the concentration of CAM. No associations were observed for the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism. These results suggest that up-regulation of ABCC3 mRNA expression leads to increased plasma CAM levels through MRP3-mediated cell efflux. The ABCC3 rs757421 polymorphism may contribute to gene expression. Therefore, ABCC3 may be a potential biomarker for the response to clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12703DOI Listing
May 2017
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