Publications by authors named "Juliana Almeida"

95 Publications

NEUTROPHIL EXTRACELLULAR TRAPS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES: IMPLICATIONS IN PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPEUTIC TARGETS.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jul 20:105779. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Cellular Biology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil; Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraíba, Paraíba, Brazil. Electronic address:

Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Among the various immune cells involved in IBD, neutrophils are the first to infiltrate and appear to contribute to the impairment of the epithelial barrier, destruction of tissues by oxidative and proteolytic damage, as well as to the perpetuation of inflammation by the release of cytokines and chemokines associated with pro-inflammatory effects. In addition to basic effector mechanisms, such as phagocytosis and chemotaxis, neutrophils can also form extracellular traps (NETs), which is made up of a mesh-like structure - which contains its chromatin (DNA + histones) together with granules and enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophilic elastase (NE) - and that acts as a trap that can result in the death of extracellular pathogens and/or can promote tissue damage. Recent evidence indicates that NETs also play an important and significant role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Previous studies have reported increased levels of NETs in tissue and serum samples from patients with IBD, as well as in experimental colitis. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about the formation of NETs and their role in the pathophysiology of IBD, pointing out potential mechanisms by which NETs promote tissue damage, as well as their involvement in complications associated with IBD. In addition, we propose potential targets for therapy to regulate the production of NETs, making it possible to expand the current spectrum of therapies for IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105779DOI Listing
July 2021

Harmful Leader Behaviors: Toward an Increased Understanding of How Different Forms of Unethical Leader Behavior Can Harm Subordinates.

J Bus Ethics 2021 Jun 28:1-30. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, University of Brasilia, Universidade de Brasília, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, ICC Sul, sala AT-013, Brasília, Brazil.

Research on unethical leadership has predominantly focused on interpersonal and high-intensity forms of harmful leader behavior such as abusive supervision. Other forms of harmful leader behavior such as excessively pressuring subordinates or acting in self-centered ways have received less attention, despite being harmful and potentially occurring more frequently. We propose a model of four types of harmful leader behavior (HLB) varying in intensity (high vs low) and orientation (people/relationships or tasks/goals): Intimidation, Lack of Care, Self-Centeredness, and Excessive Pressure for Results. We map out how these relate to other constructs in the unethical leader behavior field in order to integrate the existing work on how leaders can cause harm to followers. Next, in five studies ( = 35,  = 218,  = 352,  = 160,  = 1921 in 196 teams), we develop and test a new survey instrument measuring the four proposed types of perceived HLB. We provide initial validity evidence for this new measure, establish its psychometric properties, and examine its nomological network by linking the four types of HLB to related leadership constructs and soft and hard outcome correlates at the individual and team level. We find that HLB is negatively related to constructive forms of leadership (e.g., ethical and transformational) and positively to unethical ones (e.g., abusive supervision). HLB is also related in the expected direction to job satisfaction, engagement, psychological safety, knowledge sharing, knowledge hiding, deviance, and objectively recorded team-level stress-related absenteeism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04864-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238029PMC
June 2021

Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up of Children Intrauterine Exposed to Zika Virus.

Viruses 2021 03 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Pediatrics Department, Jundiaí Medical School, Jundiaí 13202-550, Brazil.

Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Some sequelae, particularly neurodevelopmental problems, may have a later onset. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 799 high-risk pregnant women who were followed up until delivery. Eighty-three women and/or newborns were considered ZIKV exposed and/or infected. Laboratory diagnosis was made by polymerase chain reaction in the pregnant mothers and their respective newborns, as well as Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, and ZIKV serology. Serology for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis infections were also performed in microcephalic newborns. The newborns included in the study were followed up until their third birthday. Developmental delay was observed in nine patients (13.2%): mild cognitive delay in three patients, speech delay in three patients, autism spectrum disorder in two patients, and severe neurological abnormalities in one microcephalic patient; sensorineural hearing loss, three patients and dysphagia, six patients. Microcephaly due to ZIKV occurred in three patients (3.6%). Clinical manifestations can appear after the first year of life in children infected/exposed to ZIKV, emphasizing the need for long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13030523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005078PMC
March 2021

Effects of inspiratory muscle training on walking capacity of individuals after stroke: A double-blind randomized trial.

Clin Rehabil 2021 Mar 11:269215521999591. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Objectives: Identify the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on walking capacity, strength and inspiratory muscle endurance, activities of daily living, and quality of life poststroke.

Design: Double-blind randomized trial.

Setting: The Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals.

Subjects: Adult poststroke inpatients with inspiratory muscle weakness.

Interventions: The Experimental Group (EG) ( = 23) underwent IMT for 30 minutes/day, five times/week over six weeks. The Control Group (CG) ( = 27) performed sham IMT. Both groups underwent standard rehabilitation.

Main Measures: Primary outcome was post-intervention six-minute walking test (6MWT) distance. We also measured maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), inspiratory muscle endurance, activities of daily living (functional independence measure - FIM), and quality of life at baseline and post-intervention. Three months after intervention, we measured MIP, walking capacity and quality of life.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar, with mean age 53 ± 11 years and FIM 74 ± 10p. Both groups similarly increased the walking capacity at six weeks (63 vs 67 m,  = 0.803). Compared to the CG, the EG increased the inspiratory endurance (22 vs 7 cmHO,  = 0.034) but there was no variation in MEP (14 vs 5 cmHO,  = 0.102), MIP (27 vs 19 cmHO,  = 0.164), FIM (6 vs 6,  = 0.966) or quality of life (0 vs 0.19,  = 0.493). Gains in both groups were sustained at three months.

Conclusion: Adding IMT to a rehabilitation program improves inspiratory muscle endurance, but does not further improve MIP, 6-MWT distance, activities of daily living or quality of life of individuals after stroke beyond rehabilitation alone.Registered in Clinical Trials, NCT03171272.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269215521999591DOI Listing
March 2021

New plant breeding techniques and their regulatory implications: An opportunity to advance metabolomics approaches.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;258-259:153378. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Life Sciences and the Environment, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Over the previous decades, biotechnological innovations have led to improved agricultural productivity, more nutritious foods and lower chemical usage. Both in western societies and Low Medium Income Countries (LMICs). However, the projected increases in the global population, means the production of nutritious food stuffs must increase dramatically. Building on existing genetic modification technologies a series of New Plant Breeding Technologies (NPBT) has recently emerged. These approaches include, Agro-infiltration, grafting, cis and intragenesis and gene editing technologies. How these new techniques should be regulated has fostered considerable debate. Concerns have also been raised, to ensure over-regulation does not arise, creating administrative and economic burden. In this article the existing landscape of genetically modified crops is reviewed and the potential of several New Plant Breeding Techniques (NPBT) described. Metabolomics is an omic technology that has developed in a concurrent manner with biotechnological advances in plant breeding. There is potentially further opportunities to advance our metabolomic technologies to characterise the outputs of New Plant Breeding Technologies, in a manner that is beneficial both from an academic, biosafety and industrial perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2021.153378DOI Listing
June 2021

Proposal for computer-aided diagnosis based on ultrasound images of the kidney: is it possible to compare shades of gray among such images?

Radiol Bras 2021 Jan-Feb;54(1):27-32

Faculdade de Ciências Médicas de Campina Grande (Unifacisa), Campina Grande, PB, Brazil.

Objective: To compare ultrasound images of the kidney obtained, randomly or in a controlled manner (standardizing the physical aspects of the ultrasound system), by various professionals and with different devices.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated a total of 919 images of kidneys, obtained by five professionals using two types of ultrasound systems, in 24 patients. The images were categorized into four types, by how they were acquired and processed. We compared the gray-scale median and different gray-scale ranges representative of virtual histological tissues.

Results: There were statistically significant differences among the five professionals, regardless of the type of ultrasound system employed, in terms of the gray-scale medians for the images obtained ( < 2.2e-16). Analyzing the four categories of images-a totally random image (without any standardization); a standardized image (with fixed values for gain, time gain control, and dynamic range); a normalized version of the random image; and a normalized version of the standardized image-we determined that the random image, even after normalization, differed quite significantly among the professionals ( = 0.006098). The analysis of the normalized version of the standardized image did not differ significantly among the professionals ( = 0.7319).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that a gray-scale analysis of ultrasound images of the kidney performs better when the image acquisition process is standardized and the images undergo a process of normalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-3984.2019.0138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863708PMC
February 2021

5-Fluorouracil disrupts ovarian preantral follicles in young C57BL6J mice.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Apr 20;87(4):567-578. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Morphology, Institute of Biomedicine, Laboratory of the Biology of Tissue Healing, Ontogeny and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceara, 1315 Rua Cel. Nunes de Melo, Fortaleza, CE, 60430-270, Brazil.

Purpose: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), an anti-cancer drug, has been used for hepatoblastoma (HB) chemotherapy in children, who may have impaired  ovarian follicle pool reserve with lasting effects to reproduction. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate 5-FU effects on survival, growth, and morphology of ovarian preantral follicles from C57BL6J young mice.

Methods: Experiments were carried-out both in vivo and in vitro. Mice were treated with 5-FU injection (450 mg/kg i.p) or saline and sacrificed 3 days after to obtain ovaries for histology and molecular biology. Ovaries for in vitro studies were obtained from unchallenged mice and cultured under basic culture medium (BCM) or BCM plus 5-FU (9.2, 46.1, 92.2 mM). Preantral follicles were classified according to developmental stages, and as normal or degenerated. To assess cell viability, caspase-3 immunostaining was performed. Transcriptional levels for apoptosis (Bax, Bcl2, p53, Bax/Bcl2) and Wnt pathway genes (Wnt2 and Wnt4) were also analyzed. Ultrastructural analyses were carried-out on non-cultured ovaries. In addition, β-catenin immunofluorescence was assessed in mouse ovaries.

Results: The percentage of all-types normal follicles was significantly lower after 5-FU challenge. A total loss of secondary normal follicles was found in the 5-FU group. The highest 5-FU concentrations reduced the percentage of cultured normal primordial follicles. Large vacuoles were seen in granulosa cells and ooplasm of preantral follicles by electron microscopy. A significantly higher gene expression for Bax and Bax/Bcl2 ratio was seen after 5-FU treatment. A marked reduction in β-catenin immunolabeling was seen in 5-FU-challenged preantral follicles. In the in vitro experiments, apoptotic and Wnt gene transcriptions were significantly altered.

Conclusion: Altogether, our findings suggest that 5-FU can deleteriously affect the ovarian follicle reserve by reducing preantral follicles survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04217-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Follow-up of infants born to mothers with Graves' disease.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2021 Aug-Sep;68(7):472-480. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Pediatric Endrocrinology Unit of Pediatric Department, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal.

Introduction: The prevalence of neonatal hyperthyroidism (HN) due to maternal Graves Disease (GD) ranges from 0.1 to 2.7%. It may occur in pregnant women with the following: active DG, after treatment with radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid or thyroidectomy or with a previous child with hyperthyroidism. The aim of our observational study was to evaluate the follow-up of infants born to mothers with GD at a Tertiary Hospital prior to the implementation of a follow-up protocol.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study using data from the medical records of mothers with a diagnosis of GD and their newborns from January 2013 until May 2018. Newborns were divided into two groups: high and low risk for NH according to maternal TRAb, third trimester treatment and signs of fetal hyperthyroidism.

Results: We identified 31 newborns, 58% female; 87% high risk. In none of the newborns was umbilical cord blood collected. In the high risk group, 22% had thyroid function evaluation at day-1, one patient presented with hyperthyroidism and 82% were asymptomatic. Considering the cases with an insufficient blood sample for analysis, 9 consultations would have been spared. We found a significant delay in obtaining the high-risk group results which would have spared 10 appointments. A positive correlation was found between age at outpatient clinic discharge and the number of appointments and the maternal TRAb titer.

Conclusion: The correct surveillance of pregnancy and newborns with identification of those at high risk is essential to avoid unnecessary consultations and blood analyses that increase parental anxiety and hospital costs. Consequently, a multidisciplinary protocol was created to standardize the approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endinu.2020.09.005DOI Listing
December 2020

Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of 17α-ethinylestradiol and estrone under UV and visible light using nanotubular oxide arrays grown on Ti-0.5wt%W.

Environ Res 2020 12 17;191:110044. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua São Nicolau, 210, Diadema, SP, 09913-030, Brazil; Unesp, National Institute for Alternative Technologies of Detection, Toxicological Evaluation and Removal of Micropollutants and Radioactives (INCT-DATREM), Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 355, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Environmental concern with emerging contaminants has increased in recent years, especially with regard to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), among them hormones. Conventional water treatment processes have been shown to be ineffective in removing these compounds from water and sewage, while heterogeneous photocatalysis has been demonstrated to be a promising technique. However, the catalytic efficiency is strongly related to the choice of the photocatalyst material. In order to obtain a fast and efficient degradation of these endocrine disruptors, nanotubes grown on Ti-0.5wt%W alloy (NT/Ti-0.5W) were used in photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) processes for the degradation of estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) under irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. The NT/Ti-0.5W catalysts were synthesized by an anodization process, followed by thermal treatment at 450 °C. Raman, X-ray diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analyses indicated that the tungsten doping process had modified the nanotubular TiO. The doped samples exhibited superior photoactivity compared to un-doped samples and other semiconductors under UV and visible irradiation due to a reduction in the rate of recombination of photogenerated charges and the displacement of the flat-band potential to more negative values. Higher values of the degradation rate constant were found for both hormones in the PEC process using NT/Ti-0.5W under UV radiation; the percentage removals of EE2 and E1 were 66% and 53.4%, respectively, after only 2 min of treatment. With visible light, 1.8 min and 4.6 h were required for the removal of 50% of E1 and EE2, respectively. The degradation of E1 could be fit with a zero-order kinetic model, while a first-order kinetic model was required for EE2 degradation. Degradation routes were suggested for E1 and EE2. The results demonstrate that the combined use of NT/Ti-0.5W and the PEC process provides excellent performance for the degradation of emerging contaminants in wastewater when compared to a NT/TiO electrode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110044DOI Listing
December 2020

A transcriptomic, metabolomic and cellular approach to the physiological adaptation of tomato fruit to high temperature.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Jul 15;44(7):2211-2229. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, UK.

High temperatures can negatively influence plant growth and development. Besides yield, the effects of heat stress on fruit quality traits remain poorly characterised. In tomato, insights into how fruits regulate cellular metabolism in response to heat stress could contribute to the development of heat-tolerant varieties, without detrimental effects on quality. In the present study, the changes occurring in wild type tomato fruits after exposure to transient heat stress have been elucidated at the transcriptome, cellular and metabolite level. An impact on fruit quality was evident as nutritional attributes changed in response to heat stress. Fruit carotenogenesis was affected, predominantly at the stage of phytoene formation, although altered desaturation/isomerisation arose during the transient exposure to high temperatures. Plastidial isoprenoid compounds showed subtle alterations in their distribution within chromoplast sub-compartments. Metabolite profiling suggests limited effects on primary/intermediary metabolism but lipid remodelling was evident. The heat-induced molecular signatures included the accumulation of sucrose and triacylglycerols, and a decrease in the degree of membrane lipid unsaturation, which influenced the volatile profile. Collectively, these data provide valuable insights into the underlying biochemical and molecular adaptation of fruit to heat stress and will impact on our ability to develop future climate resilient tomato varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13854DOI Listing
July 2021

Apolipoprotein E Effects on Mammalian Ovarian Steroidogenesis and Human Fertility.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2020 11 16;31(11):872-883. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Manipulation of Oocytes and Preantral Follicles (LAMOFOPA), State University of Ceara, 1700 Av. Dr. Silas Munguba, Fortaleza, CE 60740-903, Brazil.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a glycoprotein consisting of 299 amino acids, highly produced in the mammalian ovaries. The main function of the ApoE is to transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to be metabolized in the liver. In humans, the ApoE gene is polymorphic, with three alleles in a single chromosome-19 locus: APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. ApoE has also been implicated in cholesterol transport within ovarian follicles to regulate steroidogenesis. Ovarian thecal and granulosa cell cholesterol uptake requires ApoE either by participating in the lipoprotein-receptor complex or lipid endocytosis. In this review, we summarize ApoE role on mammalian ovarian steroidogenesis and on human fertility and discuss recent findings of ApoE4 as an antagonistic pleiotropy gene under adverse environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2020.06.003DOI Listing
November 2020

Profile of Enterobacteria Resistant to Beta-Lactams.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jul 15;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, 235 Street, Goiânia 74605-050, Brazil.

A serious emerging problem worldwide is increased antimicrobial resistance. Acquisition of coding genes for evasion methods of antimicrobial drug mechanisms characterizes acquired resistance. This phenomenon has been observed in Enterobacteriaceae family. Treatment for bacterial infections is performed with antibiotics, of which the most used are beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to correlate antimicrobial resistance profiles in Enterobacteriaceae by phenotypic methods and molecular identification of 14 beta-lactamase coding genes. In this study, 70 exclusive isolates from Brazil were used, half of which were collected in veterinary clinics or hospitals Phenotypic methodologies were used and real-time PCR was the molecular methodology used, through the Sybr Green system. Regargding the results found in the tests it was observed that 74.28% were resistant to ampicillin, 62.85% were resistant to amoxicillin associated with clavalunate. The mechanism of resistance that presented the highest expression was ESBL (17.14%). The genes studied that were detected in a greater number of species were GIM and SIM (66.66% of the samples) and the one that was amplified in a smaller number of samples was VIM (16.66%). Therefore, high and worrying levels of antimicrobial resistance have been found in enterobacteria, and a way to minimize the accelerated emergence of their resistance includes developing or improving techniques that generate diagnoses with high efficiency and speed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400480PMC
July 2020

Health-related quality of life in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 Nov-Dec;42(6):599-607

Departamento de Farmácia Social, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To assess health-related quality of life and associated factors in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, as well as to determine utility values using the EuroQol-5D-3L instrument.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a state-run pharmacy in the Brazilian National Health System. Individuals were included if they were using a single atypical antipsychotic and completed the EuroQol-5D-3L. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected. The dependent variable was the EuroQol-5D-3L utility score. Associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable were analyzed in a multiple linear regression model.

Results: A total of 394 patients were included, and their mean utility score was 0.664±0.232. Patients treated with clozapine had the highest mean score (0.762 [0.202]), followed by olanzapine (0.687 [0.230]), risperidone (0.630 [0.252]), ziprasidone (0.622 [0.234]), and quetiapine (0.620 [0.243]). The following variables were related to higher utility scores: income, employment, clozapine use, no illicit psychoactive substance use, no suicide attempts, and no comorbidities.

Conclusion: Evaluating health-related quality of life differences in the available atypical antipsychotics can facilitate the choice of treatment, improve health outcomes, and ensure rational prescriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678897PMC
November 2020

Effects of disorder on two-photon absorption in amorphous semiconductors.

Opt Lett 2020 Jun;45(12):3228-3231

Structural disorder inherent to amorphous materials affords them unique, tailorable properties desirable for diverse applications, but our ability to exploit these phenomena is limited by a lack of understanding of complex structure-property relationships. Here we focus on nonlinear optical absorption and derive a relationship between disorder and the two-photon absorption (2PA) coefficient. We employ an open-aperture Z-scan to measure the 2PA spectra of arsenic (III) sulfide () chalcogenide glass films processed with two solvents that impart different levels of structural disorder. We find that the effect of solvent choice on 2PA depends on the energy of the exciting photons and explain this as a consequence of bonding disorder and electron state localization. Our results demonstrate how optical nonlinearities in can be enhanced through informed processing and present a fundamental relationship between disorder and 2PA for a generalized amorphous solid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.391197DOI Listing
June 2020

Pediatric tracheostomy: epidemiology and characterization of tracheal secretion - a literature review.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2019 Dec;65(12):1502-1507

. Professora da Universidade Federal de Goiás (Faculdade de Medicina), Goiânia, GO, Brasil.

Introduction: Despite the benefits, tracheostomized children are susceptible to respiratory infections, since the tube is located in a strategic region where there is colonization by several bacteria and biofilm formation. Biofilm is formed when the bacteria adhere strongly to the surfaces of the tubes, providing protection against various types of aggression, such as antibiotic treatment.

Objective: To carry out a literature review of the last ten years on tracheostomized pediatric patients, in order to characterize the bacteria isolated in children's tracheal secretions, and verify which ones are the most frequent.

Methods: Two authors searched the Lilacs, SciELO, Medline Plus, and PubMed databases. The MeSH terms used were: 'tracheostomy' and 'tracheotomy' associated with 'infections', 'children', 'child', and 'bacterial' as qualifiers.

Results: Of the 512 studies on the subject, 19 were selected for review. The total number of children evaluated in the studies was 4,472, with a mean age of 7.5 years. As for the bacteria found in the secretions of tracheostomized children, 12 species of bacteria were more frequent, P. aeruginosa was the predominant bacterium, followed by S. aureus (63.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (57.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (47.3%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (47.3%).

Conclusion: One of the main complications treated in tracheostomized patients were infections, since the respiratory system is colonized by several bacteria that can cause serious infections, which are associated with the formation of biofilms. The predominant bacterium in most of the studies was P. aeruginosa, and the second species commonly reported was S. aureus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.65.12.1502DOI Listing
December 2019

Mayaro Virus Replication Restriction and Induction of Muscular Inflammation in Mice Are Dependent on Age, Type-I Interferon Response, and Adaptive Immunity.

Front Microbiol 2019 1;10:2246. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emergent arbovirus first described in forest regions of the American continent, with recent and increasing notification of urban area circulation. Similar to Chikungunya (CHIKV) and other arthritogenic Alphavirus, MAYV-induced disease shows a high prevalence of persistent arthralgia, and myalgia. Despite this, knowledge regarding pathogenesis and characteristics of host immune response of MAYV infections are still limited. Here, using different ages of wild-type (WT), adult Type I Interferon receptor deficient (IFNAR), and adult recombination activation gene-1 deficient (RAG) mice, we have investigated the dependence of age, innate and adaptive immunity for the control of MAYV replication, tissue damage, and inflammation in mice. We have found that MAYV induces clinical signal and replicates in young WT mice, which gain the ability to restrict MAYV replication with aging. In addition, we observed that mice age and type I interferon response are related to restriction of MAYV infection and muscular inflammation in mice. Moreover, MAYV continues to replicate persistently in RAG mice, being detected at blood and tissues 40 days post infection, indicating that adaptive immunity is essential to MAYV clearance. Despite chronic replication, infected adult RAG mice did not develop an apparent signal of muscle damage in early and late infection. On the other hand, MAYV infection in young WT and adult IFNAR-/- mice triggers an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF, IL-6, KC, IL-1β, MCP-1, and RANTES, in muscle tissue, and decreases TGF-β expression, that were not significantly modulated in adult WT and RAG mice. Taken together, our data demonstrated that age, innate and adaptive immunity are important to restrict MAYV replication and that adaptive immunity is also involved in MAYV-induced tissue damage. These results contribute to the comprehension of MAYV pathogenesis, and describe translational mice models for further studies of MAYV infection, vaccine tests, and therapeutic strategies against this virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779782PMC
October 2019

Mucosal delivery of Lactococcus lactis carrying an anti-TNF scFv expression vector ameliorates experimental colitis in mice.

BMC Biotechnol 2019 06 25;19(1):38. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Laboratório de Imunologia Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Background: Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha therapy has become clinically important for treating inflammatory bowel disease. However, the use of conventional immunotherapy requires a systemic exposure of patients and collateral side effects. Lactic acid bacteria have been shown to be effective as mucosal delivering system for cytokine and single domain antibodies, and it is amenable to clinical purposes. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria may function as vehicles for delivery of therapeutic antibodies molecules to the gastrointestinal tract restricting the pharmacological effect towards the gut. Here, we use the mucosal delivery of Lactococcus lactis carrying an anti-TNFα scFv expression plasmid on a DSS-induced colitis model in mice.

Results: Experimental colitis was induced with DSS administered in drinking water. L. lactis carrying the scFv expression vector was introduced by gavage. After four days of treatment, animals showed a significant improvement in histological score and disease activity index compared to those of untreated animals. Moreover, treated mice display IL-6, IL17A, IL1β, IL10 and FOXP3 mRNA levels similar to health control mice. Therefore, morphological and molecular markers suggest amelioration of the experimentally induced colitis.

Conclusion: These results provide evidence for the use of this alternative system for delivering therapeutic biopharmaceuticals in loco for treating inflammatory bowel disease, paving the way for a novel low-cost and site-specific biotechnological route for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12896-019-0518-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593574PMC
June 2019

The Impact of Spirituality and Religiosity on Mental Health and Quality of Life of Patients with Active Crohn's Disease.

J Relig Health 2020 Jun;59(3):1273-1286

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, University Hospital, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, University of Juiz de Fora School of Medicine, Maria José Leal Street, 296, CEP 36036-247, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

We aim to investigate the association among religious/spiritual coping (RSC), quality of life (QOL), and mental health in patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). This cross-sectional study included 102 patients with active CD. Religious and spiritual beliefs were common among patients, being positive RSC higher than negative RSC. Negative coping was associated with mood disorders (depressive or anxiety symptoms) through the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (β = 0.260, p < 0.01) but not with QOL (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) (β = - 0.105, p = NS) after adjustments. Positive coping and other religious/spiritual beliefs and behaviors were not associated with either QOL or mental health. This study suggests that a negative RSC is associated with worse mental health outcomes. This may detrimentally impact adaptations to deal with CD in the active phase, although patients generally tend to use more common positive strategies. These findings may increase the awareness of health professionals while dealing with spiritual beliefs in patients with CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00801-1DOI Listing
June 2020

The new food classification: theory, practice and difficulties.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4165-4176

Divisão de Planejamento, UFGD. Dourados MS Brasil.

The objective of this work was to present the theory, propose the practice and evaluate the difficulties of the new food classification system that was presented in the second edition of the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. The questionnaire used included a list of 30 foods divided into four groups: in natura or minimally processed foods (I), culinary ingredients (C), processed foods (P) and ultra-processed foods (U). The participants categorized the foods before and after a mini-course. The correct classification score in the Global Assessment (C, I, U, P) was significantly higher after the mini-course (Median = 23) than before the mini-course (Median = 13) (Wilcoxon Signal Test; z = -7.33; p = 0.000; Cliff's Delta δ = 0.96). The low percentage of correct answers before the mini-course justifies the wide dissemination of the theme and the need for more similar courses for students, professionals and the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320182312.30872016DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluation of the use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty.

Rev Bras Ortop 2018 Nov-Dec;53(6):761-767. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Centro de Cirurgia do Joelho, Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (Into), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing bleeding in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

Methods: 101 patients were randomized into two groups: the tranexamic acid group ( = 51) and the placebo group ( = 50). Patients were compared regarding the following parameters: reduction of hemoglobin, total estimated blood loss, drain output, and postoperative blood transfusion rate.

Results: Comparing the groups, there were statistically significant differences ( < 0.05) in the following parameters: reduction of hemoglobin, decreased hematocrit, estimated blood loss, and drain output. All values were lower in the tranexamic acid group. Only placebo group patients required blood transfusion.

Conclusion: The use of intravenous tranexamic acid is effective to reduce bleeding in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rboe.2018.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205013PMC
September 2018

Characterization of CRISPR-Cas systems in the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

Mol Plant Pathol 2019 02 9;20(2):223-239. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (BIOAGRO), Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, 36570-000, Brazil.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are composed of an array of short DNA repeat sequences separated by unique spacer sequences that are flanked by associated (Cas) genes. CRISPR-Cas systems are found in the genomes of several microbes and can act as an adaptive immune mechanism against invading foreign nucleic acids, such as phage genomes. Here, we studied the CRISPR-Cas systems in plant-pathogenic bacteria of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC). A CRISPR-Cas system was found in 31% of RSSC genomes present in public databases. Specifically, CRISPR-Cas types I-E and II-C were found, with I-E being the most common. The presence of the same CRISPR-Cas types in distinct Ralstonia phylotypes and species suggests the acquisition of the system by a common ancestor before Ralstonia species segregation. In addition, a Cas1 phylogeny (I-E type) showed a perfect geographical segregation of phylotypes, supporting an ancient acquisition. Ralstoniasolanacearum strains CFBP2957 and K60 were challenged with a virulent phage, and the CRISPR arrays of bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIMs) were analysed. No new spacer acquisition was detected in the analysed BIMs. The functionality of the CRISPR-Cas interference step was also tested in R. solanacearum CFBP2957 using a spacer-protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) delivery system, and no resistance was observed against phage phiAP1. Our results show that the CRISPR-Cas system in R. solanacearum CFBP2957 is not its primary antiviral strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637880PMC
February 2019

A Tomato Tocopherol-Binding Protein Sheds Light on Intracellular α-Tocopherol Metabolism in Plants.

Plant Cell Physiol 2018 Nov;59(11):2188-2203

Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 277, São Paulo, Brazil.

Tocopherols are non-polar compounds synthesized in the plastids, which function as major antioxidants of the plant cells and are essential in the human diet. Both the intermediates and final products of the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway must cross plastid membranes to reach their sites of action. So far, no protein with tocopherol binding activity has been reported in plants. Here, we demonstrated that the tomato SlTBP protein is targeted to chloroplasts and able to bind α-tocopherol. SlTBP-knockdown tomato plants exhibited reduced levels of tocopherol in both leaves and fruits. Several tocopherol deficiency phenotypes were apparent in the transgenic lines, such as alterations in photosynthetic parameters, dramatic distortion of thylakoid membranes and significant variations in the lipid profile. These results, along with the altered expression of genes related to photosynthesis, and tetrapyrrole, lipid, isoprenoid, inositol/phosphoinositide and redox metabolism, suggest that SlTBP may act in conducting tocopherol (or its biosynthetic intermediates) between the plastid compartments and/or at the interface between chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum membranes, affecting interorganellar lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcy191DOI Listing
November 2018

Effects of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) Leaves on Metabolic and Inflammatory Dysfunction Induced by High Refined Carbohydrate-Containing Diet in Mice.

J Med Food 2018 Dec 21;21(12):1266-1275. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

1 CEPLAMT, Museu de História Natural e Jardim Botânico, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte, Brazil .

Obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been shown to be involved in the development of comorbidities such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and liver damage. Phytochemicals found in plants may modulate inflammation and improve health problems associated with the excess of adiposity. Teas prepared with many plants are used in Brazil for losing weight. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. on metabolic and inflammatory disarrangement induced by high refined carbohydrate (HC)-containing diet in mice. BALB/c mice were fed with chow or HC diet for 8 weeks. After this period, the HC diet was supplemented for 4 weeks with three different doses, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg, of crude extract of R. viburnoides. Ethanol extract at the lowest dose (40 mg/kg) reduced adipocyte size, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A lower concentration of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in the liver and adipose tissue, and reduced levels of cholesterol and resistin in the serum were also observed. High concentrations of chlorogenic and caffeic acids, and the flavonoids, rutin and quercetin, were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector. Therefore, these data confirm the potential of R. viburnoides leaves as nutraceutical agents for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory changes associated with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.0016DOI Listing
December 2018

Modulation of Intestinal Immune and Barrier Functions by Vitamin A: Implications for Current Understanding of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections in Children.

Nutrients 2018 Aug 21;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

The micronutrient vitamin A refers to a group of compounds with pleiotropic effects on human health. These molecules can modulate biological functions, including development, vision, and regulation of the intestinal barrier. The consequences of vitamin A deficiency and supplementation in children from developing countries have been explored for several years. These children live in an environment that is highly contaminated by enteropathogens, which can, in turn, influence vitamin A status. Vitamin A has been described to modulate gene expression, differentiation and function of diverse immune cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This review aims to summarize the most updated advances on elucidating the vitamin A effects targeting intestinal immune and barrier functions, which may help in further understanding the burdens of malnutrition and enteric infections in children. Specifically, by covering both clinical and in vivo/in vitro data, we describe the effects of vitamin A related to gut immune tolerance/homeostasis, intestinal barrier integrity, and responses to enteropathogens in the context of the environmental enteric dysfunction. Some of the gaps in the literature that require further research are also highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164597PMC
August 2018

Cutaneous nocardiosis by a new pathogenic species: .

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 4;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Dermatology, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal.

Nocardiosis is a rare, predominantly opportunistic, suppurative disease caused by bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. There are currently more than 100 species of described, less than half are pathogenic to humans. Cutaneous nocardiosis can be caused by direct inoculation from a contaminated material or by secondary dissemination. The authors present a 70-year-old man with an autoimmune haemolytic anaemia treated with prednisolone and azathioprine. The patient presented multiple erythematous tender nodules with linear distribution and proximal progression along the left upper limb with 2 months of evolution. The skin biopsy revealed non-specific inflammation with areas of abscess. Culture was positive for bacteria of the genus , and molecular techniques revealed The patient was treated with minocycline with good response, but the disease recurred. was first identified in 2012 in a bioprospecting process. The authors now describe the first case of cutaneous nocardiosis caused by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-225441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5990108PMC
June 2018

Treatment of dental biofilm with a tincture of leaves: an - study.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Dec 21;33(23):3432-3435. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.

The inhibitory activity of a tincture (TBF) was investigated against oral microorganism's strains and against a mature oral biofilm. The viability of planktonic cells was analyzed by Minimal Inhibitory and Microbicidal concentrations of TBF. Salivary samples from health volunteers were collected and mixed to form a saliva pool. An aliquot from this pool were seeded on membranes, which were incubated to form biofilm (48 h). The biofilm was treated according to the groups: G1-Chlorhexidine 0.12%; G2-TBF at the highest MMC; G3-Ethanol at the TBF highest MMC. G4 was the growth control. spp. (S) and total microorganisms (TM) from biofilm were counted. TBF was microbicidal against all oral pathogens. G2 was able to reduce the counts of S and TM from biofilm compared to G3 and G4, but less than G1 ( < 0.05). TBF is able to reduce the microbial levels from a mature oral biofilm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1477146DOI Listing
December 2019

Alcohol use in adolescence: 5 years admissions at a pediatric emergency department.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2018 Apr 13;32(4). Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Pediatrics Department, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal.

Objective To characterize the profile and pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents, admitted with acute alcoholic intoxication (AAI) at a pediatric emergency department of North Portugal. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of adolescents aged between 10 and 17 years, admitted with AAI between 2012 and 2016. The following variables were evaluated: age, gender, drinking context, quantity and type of alcohol, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), previous episodes, associated injuries, transport to the emergency department, other drug consumption, blood alcohol level (BAL), blood glucose level, treatment and orientation. The χ2/Fisher's exact test and t-Student test were performed (p < 0.05). Results A total of 180 adolescents with AAI presented. The majority of adolescents were older than 15 years old (71%) and 3% were younger than 14 years old. The mean age was 15.9 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.1 years] and 65% were males. The most common type of alcohol consumed was distilled drinks (60%). Recurrent alcohol use was identified in 7% and binge drinking was reported in 37% of patients. The mean BAL was 1.58 g/L (SD 0.6 g/L) and there were other drug consumptions (mainly cannabinoids) observed in 11% of patients. After emergency department discharge, 17% were followed at hospital consultation. There was no significant difference between boys and girls or between BAL and injuries or other drugs consumption. Conclusion This study confirms a high rate of alcohol use among adolescents, in particular "heavy episodic drinking", revealing an easy access to alcohol at this age. The integration of alcohol use prevention programs in community and education systems should be encouraged and implemented in every adolescent consultation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0166DOI Listing
April 2018

Marginal Fit of Metal-Ceramic Copings: Effect of Luting Cements and Tooth Preparation Design.

J Prosthodont 2019 Jan 22;28(1):e265-e270. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Araraquara, Araraquara, Brazil.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the triad finish line design, axial wall convergence angle, and luting cement on the marginal fit of metal copings used in metal-ceramic crowns.

Materials And Methods: Schematic dies and their respective copings were cast in NiCr alloy. The dies exhibited the following finish line/convergence angle combinations: sloping shoulder/6°, sloping shoulder/20°, shoulder/6°, shoulder/20°. Marginal fit was evaluated under a stereomicroscope, before and after cementation. Copings were air-abraded with 50 μm Al O particles and cemented with Cimento de Zinco, RelyX U100, or Panavia F cements (n = 10/group). Data were square-root transformed and analyzed by 3-way factorial random effect model and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05).

Results: Statistical analysis showed significance for the interactions finish line and convergence angle (p < 0.05), convergence angle and time (p < 0.001), and luting cement and time (p < 0.001). Sloping shoulder/20° provided the highest marginal discrepancy when compared to the other finish line/convergence angle combinations, which were statistically similar among each other. For both convergence angles and for all luting cements, the marginal discrepancy was significantly higher after cementation. Before and after cementation, 6° provided better marginal fit than 20°. After cementation, Panavia F provided higher marginal discrepancy than Cimento de Zinco.

Conclusion: Lower convergence angle combined with shoulder and a low-consistency luting cement is preferable to cement metal copings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12685DOI Listing
January 2019

Morphometric variation in Periglischrus torrealbai (Acari: Spinturnicidae) on three species of host bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) with a new record of host species.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jan 8;117(1):257-264. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Box 43131, Lubbock, TX, 79409, USA.

We evaluated morphometric variation of the mite Periglischrus torrealbai (Spinturnicidae) on three species of host bats: Phyllostomus discolor, P. hastatus, and Tonatia bidens (Phyllostomidae). A total of 67 females and 74 males of P. torrealbai were collected from 41 host individuals of these three bat species that were sampled in Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru. Twenty-one measurements from the dorsal side and 28 from the ventral side were recorded from female mites and 21 dorsal and 34 ventral measurements were taken from males. To evaluate morphological variation of P. torrealbai on different species of host bats, principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis with Euclidean distances were used. Both analyses showed three groups of mites clearly separated: group 1 comprised all ectoparasites collected from T. bidens, group 2 included all mites from P. hastatus, and group 3 had all those from P. discolor. This result indicates that P. torrealbai varies morphologically by host bat species and suggests that this nominal species comprises three morphologically distinct species. In the present study, we record for the first time, the association between P. torrealbai and T. bidens. Our data reinforce the high relationship of specificity between Periglischrus mites and phyllostomid bat species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5700-yDOI Listing
January 2018

Essential role for phytol kinase and tocopherol in tolerance to combined light and temperature stress in tomato.

J Exp Bot 2017 12;68(21-22):5845-5856

Laboratory of Plant Physiology, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

In a changing environment, plants need to cope with the impact of rising temperatures together with high light intensity. Here, we used lipidomics in the tomato model system to identify lipophilic molecules that enhance tolerance to combined high-temperature and high-light stress. Among several hundred metabolites, the two most strongly up-regulated compounds were α-tocopherol and plastoquinone/plastoquinol. Both are well-known lipid antioxidants and contribute to the protection of photosystem II (PSII) against photodamage under environmental stress. To address the protective function of tocopherol, an RNAi line (vte5) with decreased expression of VTE5 and reduced levels of α-tocopherol was selected. VTE5 encodes phytol kinase, which acts in the biosynthetic pathway of tocopherols. vte5 suffered strong photoinhibition and photobleaching when exposed to combined high-light and high-temperature stress, but neither stress alone produced a visible phenotype. As vte5 had plastoquinone levels similar to those of the wild type under combined stress, the strong phenotype could be attributed to the lack of α-tocopherol. These findings suggest that VTE5 protects against combined high-light and high-temperature stress and does so by supporting α-tocopherol production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erx356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854125PMC
December 2017
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