Publications by authors named "Julia Omar"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association between Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms (BsmI and FokI) and Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 8;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kota Bharu 16150, Malaysia.

(1) Several studies have suggested that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene plays a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility. Nonetheless, the association between T2DM and VDR polymorphisms remains inconclusive. We determined the genotype of VDR rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphisms among Malaysian patients with T2DM and their association with glycemic control factors (vitamin D levels, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate). (2) A total of 189 participants comprising 126 patients with T2DM (63 with good glycemic control and 63 with poor glycemic control) and 63 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. All biochemical assays were measured using spectrophotometric analysis. VDR gene FokI and BsmI polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion. (3) Our findings revealed no significant differences in VDR FokI and BsmI genotypes between participants with T2DM and healthy controls. Moreover, no significant association was observed between both single nucleotide polymorphisms and glycemic control factors. Participants with poor glycemic control had significantly lower serum magnesium levels and significantly higher HOMA-IR compared to the other groups. (4) The present study revealed that VDR gene BsmI and FokI polymorphisms were not significantly associated with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914454PMC
February 2021

Global Prevalence of Macroprolactinemia among Patients with Hyperprolactinemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 6;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Unit of Biostatistics and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Hyperprolactinemia (hPRL) often poses a diagnostic dilemma due to the presence of macroprolactin. Understanding the prevalence of macroprolactinemia (mPRL) has an important implication in managing patients with hPRL. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mPRL globally and to explore selected factors influencing the prevalence estimate. Studies with original data related to the prevalence of mPRL among patients with hPRL from inception to March 2020 were identified, and a random effects meta-analysis was performed. Of the 3770 records identified, 67 eligible studies from 27 countries were included. The overall global prevalence estimate was 18.9% (95% CI: 15.8%, 22.1%) with a substantial statistical heterogeneity (I = 95.7%). The highest random effects pooled prevalence was observed in the African region (30.3%), followed by Region of the Americas (29.1%), European (17.5%), Eastern Mediterranean (13.9%), South-East Asian (12.7%), and Western Pacific Region (12.6%). Lower prevalence was observed in studies involving both sexes as compared to studies involving only female participants (17.1% vs. 25.4%) and in more recent studies (16.4%, 20.4%, and 26.5% in studies conducted after 2009, between 2000 and 2009, and before 2000, respectively). The prevalence estimate does not vary according to the age group of study participants, sample size, and types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) used for detection of macroprolactin (PEG 6000 or PEG 8000). With macroprolactin causing nearly one-fifth of hPRL cases, screening for mPRL should be made a routine before an investigation of other causes of hPRL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664288PMC
November 2020

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test and diagnostic cutoff in precocious puberty: a mini review.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Sep 30;25(3):152-155. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Chemical Pathology, University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test is a valuable tool in diagnosing and differentiating causes of early pubertal occurrences. Utility of the test can be limited in some instances, however, including the early phases of pubertal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activation, in girls showing commonly overlapping pictures, and in obese children due to excess circulating estrogen that suppresses luteinizing hormone (LH). A lack of consistent baseline and stimulated gonadotropin cutoffs observed in different studies also contributes to limitations in testing. Nevertheless, early detection of true pathological causes for pubertal disorders is needed to allow prompt treatment and better prognosis. While basal LH can be beneficial as a good screening tool for detecting pubertal disorder, it does not preclude the need for GnRH testing. The aim of this review was to highlight the role of GnRH stimulation tests and varying testing cutoffs in diagnosis of precocious puberty and its classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6065/apem.2040004.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538306PMC
September 2020

Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Relationship with Insulin Resistance, Lipid Profile and Adiponectin.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2020 Mar-Apr;24(2):191-195. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Unit of Biostatistic and Research Methodology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Objectives: This study was done to estimate serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and to correlate serum AMH level with insulin resistance, lipid profile, and adiponectin levels.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (Hospital USM), Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Thirty newly diagnosed patients with PCOS attending gynecology clinic between July 2016 and April 2017 were recruited. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from the subjects. Serum AMH, insulin, adiponectin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and plasma glucose levels were measured, and insulin resistance was calculated based on homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The serum AMH level was estimated, and the correlation of serum AMH level with the metabolic parameters was analyzed.

Results: The median of serum AMH levels in women with PCOS was 6.8 ng/mL (interquartile range: 7.38 ng/mL). There was a significant negative correlation between serum AMH and HOMA-IR or triglyceride levels ( = -0.49, = 0.006 and = -0.55, = 0.002, respectively). A significant positive correlation was observed between serum AMH and serum HDL-C or serum adiponectin levels ( = 0.56, = 0.001 and = 0.44, = 0.014, respectively) in all study subjects.

Conclusion: The serum AMH level is associated with HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL-C, and adiponectin levels, and hence it may be used as a potential cardiometabolic risk marker in women with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijem.IJEM_305_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333742PMC
April 2020

Procalcitonin as an Early Laboratory Marker of Sepsis in Neonates: Variation in Diagnostic Performance and Discrimination Value.

Malays J Med Sci 2019 Jul 29;26(4):61-69. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: As an early recognition of neonatal sepsis is important for triggering the initiation of treatment, this study was thus designed to assess the diagnostic performance and discrimination value of procalcitonin (PCT) in neonatal sepsis cases.

Methods: This cross-sectional study, which was carried out at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia, had involved 60 neonates admitted for suspected sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and the area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for PCT were determined at initial presentation (0 h) as well as 12 h and 24 h after presentation in comparison to blood culture as the gold standard.

Results: The study consisted of 27 (45.0%) male and 33 (55.0%) female neonates with a mean (SD) age of 76.8 (48.25) h. At cut-off PCT value of > 2 ng/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 66.7%, 66.7%, 33.3% and 88.9% at 0 h. The respective parameters were 83.3%. 56.3%, 32.3% and 93.1% at 12 h and 83.3%, 52.1%, 30.3% and 92.6% at 24 h. AUC was 71.6%, 76.6% and 71.7% at 0 h, 12 h and 24 h.

Conclusions: Diagnostic performance and discrimination values of PCT for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis varied with time of obtaining the blood samples. The PCT result at 12 h demonstrates the most optimal diagnostic performance and discrimination values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2019.26.4.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719890PMC
July 2019

Evaluation of Chondroprotective Activity of Channa striatus in Rabbit Osteoarthritis Model.

Biomed Res Int 2019 3;2019:6979585. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia.

Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the chondroprotective activity of (Channa) and glucosamine sulphate (glucosamine) on histomorphometric examinations, serum biomarker, and inflammatory mediators in experimental osteoarthritis (OA) rabbit model.

Design: Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was performed to induce OA in thirty-three male New Zealand white rabbits and were randomly divided into three groups: Channa, glucosamine, and control group. The control group received drinking water and the Channa and glucosamine groups were orally administered with 51.4 mg/kg of Channa extract and 77.5 mg/kg of glucosamine sulphate in drinking water, respectively, for eight weeks and then sacrificed. The articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using semiquantitative and quantitative methods. Serum cartilage oligomeric matric protein (COMP), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme, and prostaglandin E (PGE) were also determined.

Results: Macroscopic analysis revealed that Channa group have a significantly lower severity grade of total macroscopic score compared to the control (p < 0.001) and glucosamine (p < 0.05) groups. Semiquantitative histology scoring showed that both Channa and glucosamine groups had lower severity grading of total histology score compared to the control group (p < 0.001). In comparison with the control, Channa group had lower histopathological changes in three compartments of the joint compared to glucosamine group which had lower histological scoring in two compartments only. The cartilage thickness, area, and roughness of both Channa (p < 0.05) and glucosamine (p < 0.05) groups were superior compared to the control group. However, the Channa group demonstrated significantly less cartilage roughness compared to the glucosamine group (p < 0.05). Serum COMP levels were lower in both Channa (p < 0.05) and glucosamine (p < 0.05) groups compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Both oral administration of Channa extract and glucosamine exhibited chondroprotective action on an ACLT OA-induced rabbit model. However, Channa was superior to glucosamine in maintaining the structure of the cartilage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6979585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636483PMC
December 2019

Hemolyzed Specimens: Major Challenge for Identifying and Rejecting Specimens in Clinical Laboratories.

Oman Med J 2019 Mar;34(2):94-98

Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Pre-analytical quality in clinical chemistry testing is as important as analytical and post-analytical quality. The most prevalent pre-analytical interference and a major source of error producing unreliable laboratory test results is hemolysis of blood samples. In vitro hemolysis may be due to the blood withdrawal technique or sample handling whereas in vivo hemolysis can originate from acquired, hereditary, or iatrogenic conditions and is not technique dependent. Interpreting in vivo or in vitro hemolysis requires clinicians to supply reliable clinical history and findings. Even then, to reject or release the result with interpretation is still under debate. Thus, hemolyzed specimens are a serious pre-analytical problem calling for well-designed and strictly implemented laboratory guidelines. The aim of this non-systematic review (addressed to healthcare professionals) was to highlight the challenges in identifying and rejecting hemolysis specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2019.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425048PMC
March 2019

Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Channa striatus Extract on Measurement of the Uterus, Pulsatility Index, Resistive Index of Uterine Artery and Superficial Skin Wound Artery in Post Lower Segment Caesarean Section Women.

PLoS One 2015 29;10(7):e0133514. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

International Medical University, Seremban, Malaysia.

Aim: To compare the mean of anteroposterior (AP) measurements of the uterus in longitudinal and oblique transverse planes, and the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) of the uterine artery and superficial skin wound artery between patients taking Channa striatus and placebo.

Background: Channa striatus, also known as haruan, is a fresh water snakehead fish consumed in many parts of Southeast Asia. Channa striatus is also normally consumed by women postpartum to promote wound healing as well as to reduce post-operative pain.

Methodology: This study is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in women after Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS). Subjects were randomised to either a Channa striatus or a placebo group and were given a daily dosage of 500 mg of Channa striatus extract or 500 mg maltodextrin, respectively, for six weeks post LSCS. The anteroposterior measurements of the uterus in the longitudinal and oblique transverse planes, and the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) of the uterine and superficial skin wound arteries were assessed using pelvic Gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound at baseline (Day 3) and at two weeks, four weeks and six weeks post-operatively.

Results: Sixty-six subjects were randomised into the study with 33 in the Channa striatus group and 33 in the placebo group. No significant differences were detected in terms of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistive index (RI) of the uterine and superficial skin wound arteries between the Channa striatus and placebo groups. However, in the Channa striatus group, the AP measurements of the uterus on the longitudinal and oblique transverse planes were significantly lower compared to the placebo group (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Daily intake of Channa striatus extract results in marked differences compared to placebo in terms of uterine involution and recovery in women post LSCS.

Trial Registration: www.isrctn.com 11960786.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133514PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4519193PMC
May 2016

The Effect of Channa striatus (Haruan) Extract on Pain and Wound Healing of Post-Lower Segment Caesarean Section Women.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 25;2015:849647. Epub 2015 May 25.

Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 15586 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Channa striatus has been consumed for decades as a remedy to promote wound healing by women during postpartum period. The objectives of this study were to compare postoperative pain, wound healing based on wound evaluation scale (WES), wound cosmetic appearance based on visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and patient satisfaction score (PSS), and safety profiles between C. striatus group and placebo group after six weeks of lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) delivery. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Subjects were randomised in a ratio of 1 : 1 into either the C. striatus group (500 mg daily) or placebo group (500 mg of maltodextrin daily). 76 subjects were successfully randomised, with 38 in the C. striatus group and 35 in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain (p = 0.814) and WES (p = 0.160) between the C. striatus and placebo groups. However, VAS and PSS in the C. striatus group were significantly better compared with the placebo group (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, resp.). The safety profiles showed no significant differences between the groups. In conclusion, six-week supplementation of 500 mg of C. striatus extract showed marked differences in wound cosmetic appearance and patient's satisfaction and is safe for human consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/849647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4458554PMC
June 2015

Intracerebral haematomas after deep brain stimulation surgery in a patient with Tourette syndrome and low factor XIIIA activity.

J Clin Neurosci 2010 Oct;17(10):1343-4

Department of Neuroscience, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

A 24-year-old male patient with refractory Tourette syndrome was treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) and developed subsequent bilateral subcortical haematomas. Additional blood tests revealed abnormalities of plasma factor XIIIA and tryptophan levels, which may be associated with Tourette syndrome. Neurosurgeons who perform DBS surgery on patients with Tourette syndrome must be aware of possible disastrous complications resulting from factor XIIIA disorders of blood haemostasis. Routine screening for this condition is not typically performed prior to surgery in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2010.01.054DOI Listing
October 2010

The effect of delayed transportation of blood samples on serum bilirubin values in neonates.

Malays J Med Sci 2010 Jul;17(3):27-31

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Delays in transporting blood samples may cause inaccurate results. Samples may be exposed to light or heat during delays, resulting in the degradation of analytes, for example, bilirubin. This study was done to determine the effect of delays in the transportation of blood samples on serum bilirubin test results.

Methods: Samples taken from neonates admitted to a tertiary hospital with jaundice were included in the study. The samples were collected through venipuncture in 3 labelled containers. The first container was sent immediately to the laboratory, while the second and third containers were sent after being kept in the ward for 1 and 3 hours, respectively. Bilirubin values were measured colourimetrically at a wavelength of 578 nm using a Roche Hitachi 912 Chemistry Analyser upon arrival in the laboratory.

Results: A total of 36 serum samples were studied. The mean of the indirect bilirubin measurements for 0-, 1-, and 3-hour samples were 174 (SD 68.65), 186.97 (SD 60.47), and 184.56 (SD 66.93), respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean indirect bilirubin measurement of 1-hour samples (P = 0.047, 95% CI -24.66 to -1.18) and 3-hour samples (P = 0.045, 95% CI -19.77 to -0.23) compared with 0-hour samples. There were no significant differences observed in either the mean total bilirubin or the mean direct bilirubin measurements of different time intervals.

Conclusion: This study confirms that delays in the transportation of blood samples influence the bilirubin test results.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3216170PMC
July 2010

A pilot study on percent free prostate specific antigen as an additional tool in prostate cancer screening.

Malays J Med Sci 2009 Jan;16(1):44-7

School Of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Jln Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

A cross sectional pilot study was carried out to look into the usefulness of percent free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer in HUSM patients. All patients who attended surgical clinic and admitted to surgical wards with signs and symptoms of prostate problems during the study period were taken as the study subjects. Total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) was estimated by immunoassay technique and those values of 4 ng/mL or more were proceeded for estimation of fPSA. Using the cut-off value of less than 25% fPSA for diagnosing patients with prostate cancer, our study showed that majority of the prostate cancer patients have a ratio of fPSA:tPSA more than 25% and a significantly higher level of total prostate specific antigen (P<0.005) when compared with patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Unexpectedly, the fPSA values were high in patients diagnosed as prostate cancer compared to BPH. Ratio of percent fPSA to tPSA was found not to be sensitive and specific, in diagnosing prostate cancer at the cut-off value of 25%. In conclusion, total PSA is a more useful biochemical test for diagnosing prostate cancer in our patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3336174PMC
January 2009