Publications by authors named "Julia Dmitrieva"

37 Publications

Large-scale cis- and trans-eQTL analyses identify thousands of genetic loci and polygenic scores that regulate blood gene expression.

Nat Genet 2021 09 2;53(9):1300-1310. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland.

Trait-associated genetic variants affect complex phenotypes primarily via regulatory mechanisms on the transcriptome. To investigate the genetics of gene expression, we performed cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using blood-derived expression from 31,684 individuals through the eQTLGen Consortium. We detected cis-eQTL for 88% of genes, and these were replicable in numerous tissues. Distal trans-eQTL (detected for 37% of 10,317 trait-associated variants tested) showed lower replication rates, partially due to low replication power and confounding by cell type composition. However, replication analyses in single-cell RNA-seq data prioritized intracellular trans-eQTL. Trans-eQTL exerted their effects via several mechanisms, primarily through regulation by transcription factors. Expression of 13% of the genes correlated with polygenic scores for 1,263 phenotypes, pinpointing potential drivers for those traits. In summary, this work represents a large eQTL resource, and its results serve as a starting point for in-depth interpretation of complex phenotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00913-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432599PMC
September 2021

Fostering Healthy Futures Preventive Intervention for Children in Foster Care: Long-term Delinquency Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Prev Sci 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Colorado State Court Administrator's Office, 1300 Broadway UNIT 1200, Denver, CO, 80203, USA.

Child maltreatment and foster care placement are strong risk factors for delinquency and juvenile justice involvement, and there is substantial crossover between youth in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. This study examines the long-term impact of the Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, a 30-week mentoring and skills group preventive intervention for preadolescent maltreated children in foster care. Participants included 426 children recently placed in out-of-home care who were randomized to intervention or control conditions. Outcomes included both self-reported delinquency, measured at multiple time points between 6 months and 12 years post-intervention, as well as court records of delinquency charges, which were measured for 7 consecutive years beginning 3 months after the intervention began. Results from multilevel models indicated that the intervention group self-reported 30-82% less total and non-violent delinquency than the control group between ages 14 and 18. Court charges for total and violent delinquency in mid-adolescence were also 15-30% lower for the intervention group. These findings indicate that a mentoring and skills training program in preadolescence can reduce delinquency and justice involvement for children who are at high risk for these outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-021-01235-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Parental buffering in the context of poverty: positive parenting behaviors differentiate young children's stress reactivity profiles.

Dev Psychopathol 2020 12;32(5):1778-1787

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, CO, USA.

Experiencing poverty increases vulnerability for dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and compromises long-term health. Positive parenting buffers children from HPA axis reactivity, yet this has primarily been documented among families not experiencing poverty. We tested the theorized power of positive parenting in 124 parent-child dyads recruited from Early Head Start (Mage = 25.21 months) by examining child cortisol trajectories using five samples collected across a standardized stress paradigm. Piecewise latent growth models revealed that positive parenting buffered children's stress responses when controlling for time of day, last stress task completed, and demographics. Positive parenting also interacted with income such that positive parenting was especially protective for cortisol reactivity in families experiencing greater poverty. Findings suggest that positive parenting behaviors are important for protecting children in families experiencing low income from heightened or prolonged physiologic stress reactivity to an acute stressor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420001224DOI Listing
December 2020

Dependence in adult relationships: Latent classes of relational dependence and associated outcomes in women exposed to intimate partner abuse.

Psychol Trauma 2021 Mar 20;13(3):359-367. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Studies applying a betrayal trauma theory (BTT) framework to adult abuse have measured dependence by asking about the closeness of the victim-offender relationship. However, women's experiences of dependence may vary even in close victim-offender relationships, such as in the case of abuse perpetrated by intimate partners. This investigation assessed whether subgroups of women who were abused by intimate partners could be identified based on dependence characteristics. Further, we evaluated whether high-dependence subgroups were more likely to experience outcomes associated with BTT.

Method: Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined classes of dependence in a non-treatment-seeking community sample of 236 women who reported intimate partner abuse (IPA) to police. The validity of the dependence classes was evaluated from a BTT perspective using the classes to predict empirically supported betrayal-trauma outcomes.

Results: Low-, medium-, and high-dependence subgroups emerged when dependence characteristics were analyzed using LCA. As hypothesized, greater dependence was linked with increased likelihood of women maintaining the relationship with the offender, higher self-report dissociation scores, and greater service disengagement. Counter to study hypotheses, dependence subgroups were unrelated to women's revictimization and self-reported memory for the target IPA incident 12 months later.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that dependence can vary even in close adult relationships. Further, we identified links between dependence subgroups and outcomes predicted by BTT. Implications for BTT research and IPA victim support and intervention are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000661DOI Listing
March 2021

Prospective associations, longitudinal patterns of childhood socioeconomic status, and white matter organization in adulthood.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 09 12;41(13):3580-3593. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA.

The association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development is an emerging area of research. The primary focus to date has been on SES and variations in gray matter structure with much less known about the relation between childhood SES and white matter structure. Using a longitudinal study of SES, with measures of income-to-needs ratio (INR) at age 9, 13, 17, and 24, we examined the prospective relationship between childhood SES (age 9 INR) and white matter organization in adulthood using diffusion tensor imaging. We also examined how changes in INR from childhood through young adulthood are associated with white matter organization in adult using a latent growth mixture model. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) we found that there is a significant prospective positive association between childhood INR and white matter organization in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, bilateral cingulum bundle, bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corpus callosum (p < .05, FWE corrected). The probability that an individual was in the high-increasing INR profile across development compared with the low-increasing INR profile was positively associated with white matter organization in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum, and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus. The results of the current study have potential implications for interventions given that early childhood poverty may have long-lasting associations with white matter structure. Furthermore, trajectories of socioeconomic status during childhood are important-with individuals that belong to the latent profile that had high increases in INR having greater regional white matter organization in adulthood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416042PMC
September 2020

Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G is regulated by a large network of genes pleiotropic with inflammatory diseases.

Sci Adv 2020 02 19;6(8):eaax0301. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Effector functions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) are regulated by the composition of a glycan moiety, thus affecting activity of the immune system. Aberrant glycosylation of IgG has been observed in many diseases, but little is understood about the underlying mechanisms. We performed a genome-wide association study of IgG N-glycosylation ( = 8090) and, using a data-driven network approach, suggested how associated loci form a functional network. We confirmed in vitro that knockdown of decreases the expression of fucosyltransferase FUT8, resulting in increased levels of fucosylated glycans, and suggest that RUNX1 and RUNX3, together with SMARCB1, regulate expression of glycosyltransferase MGAT3. We also show that variants affecting the expression of genes involved in the regulation of glycoenzymes colocalize with variants affecting risk for inflammatory diseases. This study provides new evidence that variation in key transcription factors coupled with regulatory variation in glycogenes modifies IgG glycosylation and has influence on inflammatory diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7030929PMC
February 2020

Cross-Country Differences in Parental Reporting of Symptoms of ADHD.

J Cross Cult Psychol 2019 Jul 4;50(6):806-824. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

University of Colorado Boulder and Linköping University.

Previous studies within the United States suggest there are cultural and contextual influences on how Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms are perceived. If such influences operate within a single country, they are likely to also occur between countries. In the current study, we tested whether country differences in mean ADHD scores also reflect cultural and contextual differences, as opposed to actual etiological differences. The sample for the present study included 974 participants from four countries tested at two-time points, the end of preschool and the end of 2 grade. Consistent with previous research, we found lower mean ADHD scores in Norway and Sweden in comparison to Australia and the United States, and we tested four explanations for these country differences: 1) Genuine etiological differences, 2) Slower introduction to formal academic skills in Norway and Sweden than in the United States and Australia that indicated a context difference, 3) Under-reporting tendency in Norway and Sweden, or 4) Over-reporting tendency in the United States and Australia. Either under-or over-reporting would be examples of cultural differences in the perception of ADHD symptoms. Of these explanations, results of ADHD measurement equivalence tests across countries rejected the first three explanations and supported the fourth explanation: an over-reporting tendency in the United States and Australia. These findings indicate that parental reporting of ADHD symptoms is more accurate in Norway and Sweden than in Australia and the United States, and thus have important clinical and educational implications for how parental reporting informs an ADHD diagnosis in these countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022119852422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625658PMC
July 2019

Defining the genetic control of human blood plasma N-glycome using genome-wide association study.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 06;28(12):2062-2077

Genos Glycoscience Research Laboratory, Borongajska cesta 83h, Zagreb, Croatia.

Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation is associated with a number of human diseases. Defining genetic factors altering glycosylation may provide a basis for novel approaches to diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. Here we report a genome-wide association study of the human blood plasma N-glycome composition in up to 3811 people measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) technology. Starting with the 36 original traits measured by UPLC, we computed an additional 77 derived traits leading to a total of 113 glycan traits. We studied associations between these traits and genetic polymorphisms located on human autosomes. We discovered and replicated 12 loci. This allowed us to demonstrate an overlap in genetic control between total plasma protein and IgG glycosylation. The majority of revealed loci contained genes that encode enzymes directly involved in glycosylation (FUT3/FUT6, FUT8, B3GAT1, ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, ST3GAL4, MGAT3 and MGAT5) and a known regulator of plasma protein fucosylation (HNF1A). However, we also found loci that could possibly reflect other more complex aspects of glycosylation process. Functional genomic annotation suggested the role of several genes including DERL3, CHCHD10, TMEM121, IGH and IKZF1. The hypotheses we generated may serve as a starting point for further functional studies in this research area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664388PMC
June 2019

Intensity, not emotion: The role of poverty in emotion labeling ability in middle childhood.

J Exp Child Psychol 2019 04 14;180:131-140. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA.

Poverty exposure has been linked to difficulties in emotion expression recognition, which further increases risks for negative emotional outcomes among children. The current study aimed to investigate whether the difficulties in emotion expression recognition among children experiencing poverty may be emotion specific or expression intensity specific. Thus, the current study investigated the relationship between poverty exposure and emotion labeling ability in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of children (N = 46) in middle childhood. A novel experimental design measured emotion labeling ability at different valences of emotion (fearful, angry, and happy) and at varying intensities (0-100%) of emotion presentation. Using a hierarchical logistic regression, we found a significant interaction between the percentage of time since birth a child has lived in poverty and the intensity of the emotional stimulus in affecting correct emotion identification. Children who lived longer in poverty gained less accuracy for equivalent increases in intensity compared with children who had not lived in poverty. On average, children who chronically lived in poverty required emotional intensity set at 60% in order to reach levels of accuracy observed at 30% intensity among children who were never exposed to poverty. We found no significant emotion-specific effect. These findings demonstrate that children who experience chronic poverty require more intense expressions to recognize emotions across valences. This further elaborates the existing understanding of a relationship between poverty exposure and emotion recognition, informing future studies examining expression recognition as a mechanism involved in developing psychopathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743495PMC
April 2019

Author Correction: Genome-wide association and HLA fine-mapping studies identify risk loci and genetic pathways underlying allergic rhinitis.

Nat Genet 2018 09;50(9):1343

Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

In the version of this article initially published, in Fig. 3, the y-axis numbering did not match the log scale indicated in the axis label. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0197-6DOI Listing
September 2018

Genome-wide association and HLA fine-mapping studies identify risk loci and genetic pathways underlying allergic rhinitis.

Nat Genet 2018 08 16;50(8):1072-1080. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Allergic rhinitis is the most common clinical presentation of allergy, affecting 400 million people worldwide, with increasing incidence in westernized countries. To elucidate the genetic architecture and understand the underlying disease mechanisms, we carried out a meta-analysis of allergic rhinitis in 59,762 cases and 152,358 controls of European ancestry and identified a total of 41 risk loci for allergic rhinitis, including 20 loci not previously associated with allergic rhinitis, which were confirmed in a replication phase of 60,720 cases and 618,527 controls. Functional annotation implicated genes involved in various immune pathways, and fine mapping of the HLA region suggested amino acid variants important for antigen binding. We further performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses of allergic sensitization against inhalant allergens and nonallergic rhinitis, which suggested shared genetic mechanisms across rhinitis-related traits. Future studies of the identified loci and genes might identify novel targets for treatment and prevention of allergic rhinitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0157-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068780PMC
August 2018

IBD risk loci are enriched in multigenic regulatory modules encompassing putative causative genes.

Nat Commun 2018 06 21;9(1):2427. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, 9713 GZ, The Netherlands.

GWAS have identified >200 risk loci for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The majority of disease associations are known to be driven by regulatory variants. To identify the putative causative genes that are perturbed by these variants, we generate a large transcriptome data set (nine disease-relevant cell types) and identify 23,650 cis-eQTL. We show that these are determined by ∼9720 regulatory modules, of which ∼3000 operate in multiple tissues and ∼970 on multiple genes. We identify regulatory modules that drive the disease association for 63 of the 200 risk loci, and show that these are enriched in multigenic modules. Based on these analyses, we resequence 45 of the corresponding 100 candidate genes in 6600 Crohn disease (CD) cases and 5500 controls, and show with burden tests that they include likely causative genes. Our analyses indicate that ≥10-fold larger sample sizes will be required to demonstrate the causality of individual genes using this approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04365-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6013502PMC
June 2018

Cultural orientation moderates the association between desired affect and depressed mood among Chinese international students living in the United States.

Emotion 2019 Mar 26;19(2):371-375. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver.

Culture is thought to shape an individual's ideal/desired emotions, which may in turn regulate actual emotional experiences (Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006). In particular, European Americans tend to favor high-arousal positive (HAP) affect, whereas East Asians favor low-arousal positive affect. This study examined whether cultural adaptation from the East Asian to Western culture is associated with similar differences in ideal and actual affect. We recruited 150 Chinese international students enrolled in a midsize university in the United States and investigated the role of acculturation to U.S. culture in participants' ideal and actual affect as well as associated differences in depressive symptoms. Results showed that acculturation was associated with higher ideal and actual HAP affect (but not lower low-arousal positive affect). Consistent with Mauss et al. (2012), higher ideal HAP affect was directly associated with higher depressive symptoms for all participants. However, among participants with higher orientation to the U.S. culture, higher ideal HAP also had an indirect protective association with depressed mood (i.e., higher ideal HAP affect was associated with higher actual HAP affect, which in turn was associated with lower depressed mood). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000415DOI Listing
March 2019

Analysis of Genes Associated With Monogenic Primary Immunodeficiency Identifies Rare Variants in XIAP in Patients With Crohn's Disease.

Gastroenterology 2018 06 6;154(8):2165-2177. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Protein Signalling and Interactions, Groupe Interdisciplinaire de Génoprotéomique Appliquée, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Background & Aims: A few rare monogenic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that resembles Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated whether 23 genes associated with 10 of these monogenic disorders contain common, low-frequency, or rare variants that increase risk for CD.

Methods: Common and low frequency variants in 1 Mb loci centered on the candidate genes were analyzed using meta-data corresponding to genotypes of approximately 17,000 patients with CD or without CD (controls) in Europe. The contribution of rare variants was assessed by high-throughput sequencing of 4750 individuals, including 660 early-onset and/or familial cases among the 2390 patients with CD. Variants were expressed from vectors in SW480 or HeLa cells and functions of their products were analyzed in immunofluorescence, luciferase, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblot assays.

Results: We reproduced the association of the interleukin 10 locus with CD (P = .007), although none of the significantly associated variants modified the coding sequence of interleukin 10. We found XIAP to be significantly enriched for rare coding mutations in patients with CD vs controls (P = .02). We identified 4 previously unreported missense variants associated with CD. Variants in XIAP cause the PID X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 2, yet none of the carriers of these variants had all the clinical features of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 2. Identified XIAP variants S123N, R233Q, and P257A were associated with an impaired activation of NOD2 signaling after muramyl dipeptide stimulation.

Conclusions: In a systematic analysis of variants in 23 PID-associated genes, we confirmed the association of variants in XIAP with CD. Further screenings for CD-associated variants and analyses of their functions could increase our understanding of the relationship between PID-associated genes and CD pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.02.028DOI Listing
June 2018

Women's Experiences of Social Reactions From Informal and Formal Supports: Using a Modified Administration of the Social Reactions Questionnaire.

J Interpers Violence 2021 02 22;36(3-4):1498-1519. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

University of Denver, CO, USA.

A growing literature links social reactions to disclosures of intimate violence to posttraumatic outcomes. The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ), a widely used measure developed to assess social reactions, asks about reactions received from people generally. The ability to examine the impact of social reactions from specific groups of people-such as criminal justice personnel versus community-based providers-has become increasingly more important from both research and practice perspectives. For example, as sexual assault responses nationally have relied on community-coordinated models that involve both criminal justice and community-based systems, tools are lacking to systematically assess the impact of social reactions from criminal justice personnel and community-based providers on survivors. Using the SRQ, the current study asked women to report on reactions received from criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, and informal supports. We recruited a diverse community sample of women ( = 228, ages 18-63, 19% lesbian/bisexual, 44% ethnic minority) who experienced a sexual assault in the previous year and disclosed to the criminal justice system and/or a community-based provider. Multilevel analyses revealed considerable variability in the social reactions reported by women across criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, and informal supports. Analyses supported a seven-factor structure for the SRQ when the measure is yoked to particular experiences of disclosure, in this case to criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, or informal supports. The utility of this modified administration and scoring of the SRQ and the importance of considering reactions across different groups are described.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260517742149DOI Listing
February 2021

The role of callous/unemotional traits in mediating the association between animal abuse exposure and behavior problems among children exposed to intimate partner violence.

Child Abuse Negl 2017 Oct 14;72:421-432. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, CO, United States.

Children exposed to intimate partner violence are at increased risk for concomitant exposure to maltreatment of companion animals. There is emerging evidence that childhood exposure to maltreatment of companion animals is associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. However, few studies have explored developmental factors that might help to explain pathways from animal maltreatment exposure to children's maladjustment. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining relations between children's exposure to animal maltreatment, callous/unemotional traits (i.e., callousness, uncaring traits, and unemotional traits), and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. A sample of 291 ethnically diverse children (55% Latino or Hispanic) between the ages of 7 and 12 was recruited from community-based domestic violence services. A meditational path model indicated that child exposure to animal maltreatment was associated with callousness (β=0.14), which in turn was associated with greater internalizing (β=0.32) and externalizing problems (β=0.47). The effect of animal maltreatment exposure on externalizing problems was mediated through callousness. Results suggest that callous/unemotional traits are a potential mechanism through which childhood exposure to animal maltreatment influences subsequent behavior problems. Future research is needed to evaluate the extent to which exposure to animal maltreatment affects children's adjustment over time in the context of other co-occurring adverse childhood experiences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.09.004DOI Listing
October 2017

Sleep timing is associated with self-reported dietary patterns in 9- to 15-year-olds.

Sleep Health 2017 08 7;3(4):269-275. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine sleep timing differences in self-reported dietary patterns of children and adolescents.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Participants: Students aged 9-15 years (n=119, 11.7±1.3 years, 76% female) attending a summer program for the gifted. The upper and lower quartiles of reported midsleep time (weighted weekday-weekend average) were used to identify early (n=28) and late (n=27) sleep timing groups.

Methods: Sleep patterns were assessed via self-report. Participants also rated their likelihood to consume 9 different categories of food and drinks on a 5-point scale ranging from "no likelihood" to "high likelihood." Foods were grouped as follows: (1) sugary and caffeinated beverages; (2) high-energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (ie, sugary, salty, fatty foods); and (3) low-energy-dense, nutrient-rich foods (ie, vegetables, proteins, carbohydrates, fruits).

Results: Midsleep time was 02:11±00:25 for the early and 06:14±01:00 for the late sleep timing groups. Participants reporting later sleep timing were more likely to consume sugary/caffeinated beverages and high-energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods throughout the day compared with their early sleep timing peers. The late vs the early sleep timing group also had a higher likelihood of overall consumption of foods and drinks from all categories into the evening and nighttime hours.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that children and adolescents who exhibit late sleep timing are more likely to make poorer dietary choices, which may have important implications for understanding pathways to adiposity and obesity risk during this sensitive period of development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2017.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558841PMC
August 2017

Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution.

Nature 2017 07 28;547(7662):173-178. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Group, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here we report fine-mapping of 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals. We pinpoint 18 associations to a single causal variant with greater than 95% certainty, and an additional 27 associations to a single variant with greater than 50% certainty. These 45 variants are significantly enriched for protein-coding changes (n = 13), direct disruption of transcription-factor binding sites (n = 3), and tissue-specific epigenetic marks (n = 10), with the last category showing enrichment in specific immune cells among associations stronger in Crohn's disease and in gut mucosa among associations stronger in ulcerative colitis. The results of this study suggest that high-resolution fine-mapping in large samples can convert many discoveries from genome-wide association studies into statistically convincing causal variants, providing a powerful substrate for experimental elucidation of disease mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature22969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5511510PMC
July 2017

The effects of economic and sociocultural stressors on the well-being of children of Latino immigrants living in poverty.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2017 01;23(1):15-26

Department of Psychology, University of Denver.

Objective: This article explored whether preschoolers' physical (body mass index [BMI] and salivary cortisol levels) and psychological (internalizing/externalizing behaviors) well-being were predicted by economic hardship, as has been previously documented, and further, whether parental immigration-related stress and/or acculturation level moderated this relationship in low-income Latino families.

Method: The sample for the current study included 71 children of Latino immigrants (M = 4.46 years, SD = .62). Parents completed questionnaires assessing immigration-related stress, acculturation level, economic hardship, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Child's BMI was also calculated from height and weight. Salivary cortisol samples were collected midmorning and midafternoon at home on non-child-care days. Salivary cortisol values were averaged and log transformed.

Results: Children's salivary cortisol was predicted by an interaction between economic hardship and acculturation, with lower cortisol values except when children were protected by both lower acculturation and lower economic hardship. Both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were predicted by an interaction between economic hardship and immigration-related stress, with highest behaviors among children whose parents reported high levels of both economic hardship and immigration-related stress.

Conclusions: The effects of economic hardship on the well-being of young children of Latino immigrants may depend on concurrent experiences of sociocultural stress, with detrimental effects emerging for these outcomes only when economic hardship and sociocultural stressors are high. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5338689PMC
January 2017

Self-Regulation and Economic Stress in Children of Hispanic Immigrants and Their Peers: Better Regulation at a Cost?

Early Educ Dev 2016 15;27(7):914-931. Epub 2015 May 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver.

Research Findings: Although there is a well-established relationship between economic stress and children's self-regulation, few studies have examined this relationship in children of Hispanic immigrants (COHIs), a rapidly growing population. In a sample of preschool children ( = 165), we examined whether economic stress predicted teacher evaluations of children's self-regulation, whether economic stress predicted children's physiological reactivity (via cortisol levels), and whether economic stress had a similar effect on self-regulation and children's cortisol for COHI versus nonimmigrant children. Greater economic stress was associated with poorer child self-regulation and heightened physiological reactivity across a challenging classroom task for the sample as a whole. However, when we examined children by group, greater economic stress was associated with poorer teacher-reported self-regulation for nonimmigrant children only. In contrast, greater economic stress was related to greater cortisol reactivity across a challenge task for COHIs but not for nonimmigrants.

Practice Or Policy: Results demonstrate the importance of considering physiological indices of self-regulation (heightened stress physiology), in addition to traditional external indices (teacher report), when assessing self-regulation or risk more generally among preschool samples that are diverse in terms of ethnicity, economic risk, and parents' nativity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2015.1036345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608096PMC
May 2015

The Impact of Program Structure on Cortisol Patterning in Children Attending Out-of-Home Child Care.

Early Child Res Q 2016 1st Quarter;34:92-103

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, 2155 S. Race St, Denver, CO, 80208, USA.

Full-day center-based child care has repeatedly been associated with rising levels of cortisol, a hormone that helps the body manage challenge, across the day at child care. This article presents findings from two studies examining the relationship between child care program structure (number of days per week, and hours per day) and cortisol production across the day. Study 1 presents findings comparing cortisol production in 3- to 5-year-old children enrolled in either full-day ( = 55) or half-day ( = 63) Head-Start-funded programs. Study 2 presents findings comparing young children enrolled in either full-day full-time (5 days per week; = 37) or full-day part-time (2-3days/week; = 41) primarily tuition-funded programs. Using multilevel modeling and controlling for a number of child factors, attending full-day, full-time programs (as compared to either half-day or part-time programs) was associated with increased cortisol production across the day on child care and home days. Implications for early childhood educators are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4639940PMC
November 2015

Culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness predicts higher or lower well-being.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2015 Dec 7;144(6):1053-62. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Department of Psychology.

Pursuing happiness can paradoxically impair well-being. Here, the authors propose the potential downsides to pursuing happiness may be specific to individualistic cultures. In collectivistic (vs. individualistic) cultures, pursuing happiness may be more successful because happiness is viewed--and thus pursued--in relatively socially engaged ways. In 4 geographical regions that vary in level of collectivism (United States, Germany, Russia, East Asia), we assessed participants' well-being, motivation to pursue happiness, and to what extent they pursued happiness in socially engaged ways. Motivation to pursue happiness predicted lower well-being in the United States, did not predict well-being in Germany, and predicted higher well-being in Russia and in East Asia. These cultural differences in the link between motivation to pursue happiness and well-being were explained by cultural differences in the socially engaged pursuit of happiness. These findings suggest that culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness is linked with better or worse well-being, perhaps via how people pursue happiness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658246PMC
December 2015

The cortisol awakening response (CAR) in toddlers: Nap-dependent effects on the diurnal secretory pattern.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2015 Oct 4;60:46-56. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Sleep and Development Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, 354 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cortisol levels in adults show a sharp decrease from mid-morning to mid-afternoon. Most toddlers take afternoon naps, which is associated with a less mature diurnal pattern characterized by a midday plateau in cortisol secretion. Napping in preschoolers produces a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), which may account for such maturational differences. This experimental study extends prior work by examining whether the presence and timing of the nap-dependent CAR influences the diurnal cortisol pattern in toddlers.

Methods: Toddlers (n = 28; 13 females; 30-36 months) followed a strict biphasic sleep schedule (≥ 12.5h time in bed; ≥ 90 min nap) for ≥ 3 days before each of four randomly ordered, in-home cortisol assessments. For each assessment, saliva samples were obtained at morning awakening, ∼ 09:30, pre-nap, 0, 15, 30, 45, 90, and 135 min post-nap awakening (verified with actigraphy), and ∼ 19:30. On one day, children napped at their scheduled time, and parents collected saliva samples. On another day, children missed their nap, and parents collected saliva samples at matched times. On two other days, children napped 4h (morning) and 7h (afternoon) after awakening in the morning, during which time researchers collected pre- and post-nap saliva samples. Saliva was assayed for cortisol (μg/dl).

Results: Three-level multilevel models were used to estimate the CAR and diurnal cortisol patterns in all four conditions. Compared to the no-nap condition (no observed CAR; b = -0.78, p = 0.65), we found a pronounced cortisol rise following the morning nap (b = 11.00, p < 0.001) and both afternoon naps whether samples were collected by parents (b = 5.19, p < 0.01) or experimenters (b = 4.97, p < 0.01). Napping in the morning resulted in the most robust post-nap cortisol rise (b = 10.21, p < 0.001). Diurnal patterns were analyzed using piecewise growth modeling that estimated linear coefficients for five separate periods throughout the day (corresponding to morning decline, noon decline, post-nap rise, post-nap decline, and evening decline). We observed a significant post-nap rise in cortisol values on the parent-collected afternoon nap (b = 3.41, p < 0.01) and the experimenter-collected morning nap (b = 7.50, p < 0.01) days as compared to the no-nap day (b = -0.17, p = 0.82). No other differences in diurnal profiles were observed between the parent-collected nap and no-nap conditions; however, toddlers had a steeper evening decline on the day of the morning nap compared to the parent-collected afternoon nap (b = 0.30, p < 0.05) and no-nap conditions (b = 0.27, p < 0.05).

Discussion: These well-controlled findings suggest that the presence and timing of daytime naps influence the pattern of diurnal cortisol secretion in toddlers. They also provide support for the hypothesis that napping is the primary state driving the immature midday plateau in cortisol secretion, which becomes more adult-like across childhood. Prior studies of the diurnal cortisol pattern have employed a cubic model, and therefore, have not detected all possible variations due to napping. Our experimental data have important methodological implications for researchers examining associations between the slope of the diurnal cortisol pattern and developmental outcomes, as well as those utilizing afternoon cortisol reactivity protocols in napping children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4526341PMC
October 2015

Prenatal Programming of Postnatal Susceptibility to Memory Impairments: A Developmental Double Jeopardy.

Psychol Sci 2015 Jul 10;26(7):1054-62. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Women and Children's Health and Well-Being Project, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine Department of Psychology, University of Denver

In the study reported here, we examined the effects of fetal exposure to a synthetic stress hormone (synthetic glucocorticoids) on children's susceptibility to postnatal sociodemographic adversity. We recruited children who were born healthy and at term. Twenty-six had been treated with steroid hormones (glucocorticoids) during the prenatal period, and 85 had not. Only children exposed to both prenatal stress hormones and postnatal sociodemographic adversity showed impaired performance on standardized tests of memory function. The association was specific to long-term memory. General intellectual functioning and expressive language were not affected by fetal glucocorticoid exposure. Results were independent of maternal intelligence and maternal depression at the time of the study. These findings are consistent with a vulnerability-stress model: Prenatal exposure to synthetic stress hormones is associated with increased susceptibility to subsequent adversity, with consequences for cognitive functioning that persist 6 to 10 years after birth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797615580299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504787PMC
July 2015

Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior.

J Res Adolesc 2014 Mar;24(1):12-26

Elizabeth Cauffman University of California, Irvine 4308 Social & Behavioral Sciences Gateway Irvine, CA 92697.

The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097381PMC
March 2014

Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth.

J Res Adolesc 2014 Jun 23;24(2):220-234. Epub 2014 May 23.

Columbia Law School 435 West 116th Street New York, NY 10027.

This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830496PMC
June 2014

A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013 Oct 14;38(10):2354-65. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth mixture modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or flattened (7% of days). Relative to the normative trajectory, the elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the normative profile, elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered growth mixture modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776005PMC
October 2013

Interaction network of antimicrobial peptides of Arabidopsis thaliana, based on high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2012 Sep 14;58:245-52. Epub 2012 Jul 14.

Unité de Biologie Animale et Microbienne, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Université de Liège, 6 avenue du Maréchal Juin, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium.

One mechanism used by plants to respond to infection is the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In addition to a role in defence, AMPs seem to have other biological functions. Furthermore, the number of cysteine-rich AMP-like peptides appears to have been underpredicted in plant genomes. Such peptides could be involved in plant defence and/or in other biological processes. Here we generated an interaction network between 15 AMPs/AMP-like peptides and ca. 8000 other Arabidopsis thaliana proteins (AtORFeome2.0) and found 53 putative novel interactions. These interactions involve five transcription factors, a subunit of the COP9 signalosome, a heat shock protein, a MAP kinase kinase, a thioredoxin and 4 uncharacterized proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.07.007DOI Listing
September 2012

Arrested development: the effects of incarceration on the development of psychosocial maturity.

Dev Psychopathol 2012 Aug;24(3):1073-90

Department of Psychology, Frontier Hall, 2155 South Race Street, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA.

Improvements in temperance, perspective, and responsibility are a part of typical development of psychosocial maturity during adolescence. The existing literature suggests that the developmental course of psychosocial maturity is influenced by normative variations in social context, but little is known about how atypical contexts, such as incarceration, influence its development. The study investigates how the development of psychosocial maturity is affected by incarceration, using data from a 7-year longitudinal study of 1,171 adolescent males. We compared the effects of confinement in juvenile facilities with varying degrees of focus on incarceration versus rehabilitation (i.e., secure vs. residential treatment facilities) and tested whether facility quality and age at incarceration moderate the effect of incarceration on psychosocial maturity. The results indicate that incarceration in a secure setting, but not a residential treatment facility, is associated with a short-term decline in temperance and responsibility. The total amount of time incarcerated in a residential treatment facility, but not a secure setting, had a negative effect on the developmental trajectory of psychosocial maturity. Age at incarceration, but not the facility quality, moderated the effect of recent incarceration: older youths were more susceptible to short-term negative effects of recent incarceration in a secure setting, but they also benefited more than younger participants from short-term positive effects of incarceration in a residential treatment setting. Furthermore, youths who perceived their incarceration setting as unsafe evinced a decline in temperance. Future research and policy implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000545DOI Listing
August 2012

A cross-lagged model of the development of ADHD inattention symptoms and rapid naming speed.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2012 Nov;40(8):1313-26

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Frontier Hall. 2155 S. Race St., Denver, CO 80208, USA.

Although previous research has identified contemporaneous associations between cognitive deficits and symptom phenotypes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, no studies have as yet attempted to identify direction of effect. The present study used cross-lagged path modeling to examine competing hypotheses about longitudinal associations between rapid naming speed and symptoms of inattention in children. 1,506 school-age twins from Australia and the U.S. were tested for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and rapid naming speed at three and four time points, respectively. Symptom severity of inattention from Kindergarten to fourth grade is consistently predicted by previous rapid naming, over and above auto-regressive and correlational associations in the model. Likewise, inattention symptoms have a small but significant predictive effect on subsequent rapid naming. The findings support a reciprocal relationship between naming speed and ADHD inattentive symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9644-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3546520PMC
November 2012
-->