Publications by authors named "Jula Huppert"

6 Publications

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IL-17 controls central nervous system autoimmunity through the intestinal microbiome.

Sci Immunol 2021 Feb;6(56)

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Interleukin-17A- (IL-17A) and IL-17F-producing CD4 T helper cells (T17 cells) are implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T17 cells also orchestrate leukocyte invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) and subsequent tissue damage. However, the role of IL-17A and IL-17F as effector cytokines is still confused with the encephalitogenic function of the cells that produce these cytokines, namely, T17 cells, fueling a long-standing debate in the neuroimmunology field. Here, we demonstrated that mice deficient for IL-17A/F lose their susceptibility to EAE, which correlated with an altered composition of their gut microbiota. However, loss of IL-17A/F in T cells did not diminish their encephalitogenic capacity. Reconstitution of a wild-type-like intestinal microbiota or reintroduction of IL-17A specifically into the gut epithelium of IL-17A/F-deficient mice reestablished their susceptibility to EAE. Thus, our data demonstrated that IL-17A and IL-17F are not encephalitogenic mediators but rather modulators of intestinal homeostasis that indirectly alter CNS-directed autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aaz6563DOI Listing
February 2021

Bone marrow laminins influence hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell cycling and homing to the bone marrow.

Matrix Biol 2018 04 31;67:47-62. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Muenster, Germany; Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence, University of Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) functions are regulated by a specialized microenvironment in the bone marrow - the hematopoietic stem cell niche - of which the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an integral component. We describe here the localization of ECM molecules, in particular the laminin α4, α3 and α5 containing isoforms in the bone marrow. Laminin 421 (composed of laminin α4, β2, γ1 chains) is identified as a major component of the bone marrow ECM, occurring abundantly surrounding venous sinuses and in a specialized reticular fiber network of the intersinusoidal spaces of murine bone marrow (BM) in close association with HSPC. Bone marrow from Lama4 mice is significantly less efficient in reconstituting the hematopoietic system of irradiated wildtype (WT) recipients in competitive bone marrow transplantation assays and shows reduced colony formation in vitro. This is partially due to retention of Linc-kitSca-1CD48 long-term and short-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC/ST-HSC) in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in Lama4 bone marrow and hence a more quiescent phenotype. In addition, the extravasation of WT BM cells into Lama4 bone marrow is impaired, influencing the recirculation of HSPC. Our data suggest that these effects are mediated by a compensatory expression of laminin α5 containing isoforms (laminin 521/522) in Lama4 bone marrow. Collectively, these intrinsic and extrinsic effects lead to reduced HSPC numbers in Lama4 bone marrow and reduced hematopoietic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2018.01.007DOI Listing
April 2018

Molecular characterization of perivascular drainage pathways in the murine brain.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 04 28;38(4):669-686. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

1 Institute of Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Perivascular compartments surrounding central nervous system (CNS) vessels have been proposed to serve key roles in facilitating cerebrospinal fluid flow into the brain, CNS waste transfer, and immune cell trafficking. Traditionally, these compartments were identified by electron microscopy with limited molecular characterization. Using cellular markers and knowledge on cellular sources of basement membrane laminins, we here describe molecularly distinct compartments surrounding different vessel types and provide a comprehensive characterization of the arachnoid and pial compartments and their connection to CNS vessels and perivascular pathways. We show that differential expression of plectin, E-cadherin and laminins α1, α2, and α5 distinguishes pial and arachnoid layers at the brain surface, while endothelial and smooth muscle laminins α4 and α5 and smooth muscle actin differentiate between arterioles and venules. Tracer studies reveal that interconnected perivascular compartments exist from arterioles through to veins, potentially providing a route for fluid flow as well as the transport of large and small molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X17749689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5888861PMC
April 2018

An alternative pathway of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in the absence of interleukin-17 receptor a signaling.

J Invest Dermatol 2013 Feb 6;133(2):441-51. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Topical application of imiquimod (IMQ) on the skin of mice induces inflammation with common features found in psoriatic skin. Recently, it was postulated that IL-17 has an important role both in psoriasis and in the IMQ model. To further investigate the impact of IL-17RA signaling in psoriasis, we generated IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA)-deficient mice (IL-17RA(del)) and challenged these mice with IMQ. Interestingly, the disease was only partially reduced and delayed but not abolished when compared with controls. In the absence of IL-17RA, we found persisting signs of inflammation such as neutrophil and macrophage infiltration within the skin. Surprisingly, already in the naive state, the skin of IL-17RA(del) mice contained significantly elevated numbers of Th17- and IL-17-producing γδ T cells, assuming that IL-17RA signaling regulates the population size of Th17 and γδ T cells. Upon IMQ treatment of IL-17RA(del) mice, these cells secreted elevated amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-22, accompanied by increased levels of the chemokine CXCL2, suggesting an alternative pathway of neutrophil and macrophage skin infiltration. Hence, our findings have major implications in the potential long-term treatment of psoriasis by IL-17-targeting drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2012.318DOI Listing
February 2013

Pro-inflammatory effects of interleukin-17A on vascular smooth muscle cells involve NAD(P)H- oxidase derived reactive oxygen species.

J Vasc Res 2011 6;48(1):52-8. Epub 2010 Jul 6.

Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

T cells are known for their contribution to the inflammatory element of atherosclerosis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the Th17 derived cytokine IL-17 is involved in the pro-inflammatory response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) might be involved in this context. The effect of IL-17A on ROS generation was examined using the fluorescent dye 2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H(2)DCF) in primary murine VSMC. IL-17A induced an increase in H(2)DCF fluorescence in VSMC, and this effect was blocked by the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor apocynin and siRNA targeting Nox2. The p38-MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB202190 dose-dependently reduced the IL-17A induced ROS production. The IL-17A induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1 from VSMC, as detected by the Luminex technology, was completely abolished by NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibition. Taken together, our data indicate that IL-17A causes the NAD(P)H-oxidase dependent generation of ROS leading to a pro-inflammatory activation of VSMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000317400DOI Listing
January 2011

Cellular mechanisms of IL-17-induced blood-brain barrier disruption.

FASEB J 2010 Apr 25;24(4):1023-34. Epub 2009 Nov 25.

University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Duesbergweg 6, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Recently T-helper 17 (Th17) cells were demonstrated to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by the action of IL-17A. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms that underlie IL-17A-induced BBB breakdown. Barrier integrity was analyzed in the murine brain endothelial cell line bEnd.3 by measuring the electrical resistance values using electrical call impedance sensing technology. Furthermore, in-cell Western blots, fluorescence imaging, and monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration assays were performed. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice. IL-17A induced NADPH oxidase- or xanthine oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The resulting oxidative stress activated the endothelial contractile machinery, which was accompanied by a down-regulation of the tight junction molecule occludin. Blocking either ROS formation or myosin light chain phosphorylation or applying IL-17A-neutralizing antibodies prevented IL-17A-induced BBB disruption. Treatment of mice with EAE using ML-7, an inhibitor of the myosin light chain kinase, resulted in less BBB disruption at the spinal cord and less infiltration of lymphocytes via the BBB and subsequently reduced the clinical characteristics of EAE. These observations indicate that IL-17A accounts for a crucial step in the development of EAE by impairing the integrity of the BBB, involving augmented production of ROS.-Huppert, J., Closhen, D., Croxford, A., White, R., Kulig, P., Pietrowski, E., Bechmann, I., Becher, B., Luhmann, H. J., Waisman, A., Kuhlmann, C. R. W. Cellular mechanisms of IL-17-induced blood-brain barrier disruption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.09-141978DOI Listing
April 2010