Publications by authors named "Jukka-Pekka Mecklin"

154 Publications

The Different Immune Profiles of Normal Colonic Mucosa in Cancer-Free Lynch Syndrome Carriers and Lynch Syndrome Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Gastroenterology 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Applied Tumor Biology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Cooperation Unit Applied Tumor Biology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background & Aims: Owing to the high load of immunogenic frameshift neoantigens, tumors arising in individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome, are characterized by a pronounced immune infiltration. However, the immune status of normal colorectal mucosa in LS is not well characterized. We assessed the immune infiltrate in tumor-distant normal colorectal mucosa from LS CRC patients, sporadic microsatellite-unstable (MSI) and microsatellite-stable (MSS) CRC patients, and cancer-free LS carriers.

Methods: CD3-positive, FOXP3-positive, and CD8-positive T cells were quantified in, respectively, 219, 233, and 201 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) normal colonic mucosa tissue sections from CRC patients and cancer-free LS carriers and 26, 22, and 19 LS CRCs. CD3-positive T cells were also quantified in an independent cohort of 97 FFPE normal rectal mucosa tissue sections from LS carriers enrolled in the CAPP2 clinical trial. The expression of 770 immune-relevant genes was analyzed in a subset of samples with the use of the NanoString nCounter platform.

Results: LS normal mucosa specimens showed significantly elevated CD3-, FOXP3-, and CD8-positive T-cell densities compared with non-LS control specimens. Gene expression profiling and cluster analysis revealed distinct immune profiles in LS carrier mucosa with and without cancer manifestation. Long-term follow-up of LS carriers within the CAPP2 trial found a correlation between mucosal T-cell infiltrate and time to subsequent tumor occurrence.

Conclusions: LS carriers show elevated mucosal T-cell infiltration even in the absence of cancer. The normal mucosa immune profile may be a temporary or permanent tumor risk modifier in LS carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.11.029DOI Listing
December 2021

Immunoprofiles and DNA Methylation of Inflammatory Marker Genes in Ulcerative Colitis-Associated Colorectal Tumorigenesis.

Biomolecules 2021 09 30;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Immunological and epigenetic changes are interconnected and contribute to tumorigenesis. We determined the immunoprofiles and promoter methylation of inflammation-related genes for colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas (CA-CRC). The results were compared with Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated colorectal tumors, which are characterized by an active immune environment through inherited mismatch repair defects. CA-CRCs ( = 31) were immunohistochemically evaluated for immune cell scores (ICSs) and PDCD1 and CD274 expression. Seven inflammation-associated genes (, , , , , , and ), the repair gene , and eight standard marker genes for the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) were investigated for promoter methylation in CA-CRCs, LS tumors ( = 29), and paired normal mucosae by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. All but one CA-CRCs were microsatellite-stable and all LS tumors were microsatellite-unstable. Most CA-CRCs had a high ICS (55%) and a positive CD274 expression in immune cells (52%). revealed frequent tumor-specific hypermethylation in CA-CRC and LS. When compared to LS mucosae, normal mucosae from patients with CA-CRC showed significantly higher methylation of and most CIMP markers. In conclusion, CA-CRCs share a frequent ICS/CD274 expression pattern with LS tumors. Elevated methylation in normal mucosa may indicate field cancerization as a feature of CA-CRC-associated tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11101440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533626PMC
September 2021

Descriptive study on subjective experience of genetic testing with respect to relationship, family planning and psychosocial wellbeing among women with lynch syndrome.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Sep 14;19(1):38. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Due to increased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, women belonging to known Lynch Syndrome (LS) families are recommended to undergo germline testing. Current practice in Finland is to offer counselling to women with pathogenic variant and advocate risk-reducing surgery (RRS) after completion of childbirth. The present study aimed to clarify the impacts of positive germline testing on family planning and reproductive decisions of these women, which are relatively unknown.

Methods: Seventy-nine carriers of germline MMR gene pathogenic variant (path_MMR) were identified from the Finnish LS Registry as having genetic testing performed before the age of 45 years and not having undergone hysterectomy or oophorectomy. These women were sent a questionnaire concerning family planning, intimate relationships and psychosocial wellbeing.

Results: Thirty-five women (44.3%) responded. Parity of path_MMR carriers (2.1) was slightly higher than parity among Finnish women in general (1.8). No significant differences were found between parity, number of induced abortions or sterilizations before and after genetic testing. Only minority of subjects reported any influence on family planning (20%) or negative impact on feminine self and body image (14%).

Conclusions: The positive germline testing does not seem to have a major negative impact on family planning, intimate relationships or feminine self and body image. According to the open comments, counselling, supportive and empathic attitude of the professionals seem to have a significant impact on this. These results are a valuable addition to the counselling of LS women at reproductive age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-021-00194-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439070PMC
September 2021

WNT2 activation through proximal germline deletion predisposes to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors and intestinal adenocarcinomas.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 11;30(24):2429-2440

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Many hereditary cancer syndromes are associated with an increased risk of small and large intestinal adenocarcinomas. However, conditions bearing a high risk to both adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors are yet to be described. We studied a family with 16 individuals in four generations affected by a wide spectrum of intestinal tumors, including hyperplastic polyps, adenomas, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, and colorectal and small intestinal adenocarcinomas. To assess the genetic susceptibility and understand the novel phenotype, we utilized multiple molecular methods, including whole genome sequencing, RNA sequencing, single cell sequencing, RNA in situ hybridization and organoid culture. We detected a heterozygous deletion at the cystic fibrosis locus (7q31.2) perfectly segregating with the intestinal tumor predisposition in the family. The deletion removes a topologically associating domain border between CFTR and WNT2, aberrantly activating WNT2 in the intestinal epithelium. These consequences suggest that the deletion predisposes to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors and small and large intestinal adenocarcinomas, and reveals the broad tumorigenic effects of aberrant WNT activation in the human intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8643507PMC
November 2021

Distinct Mutational Profile of Lynch Syndrome Colorectal Cancers Diagnosed under Regular Colonoscopy Surveillance.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 1;10(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Applied Tumour Biology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Cooperation Unit Applied Tumour Biology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Regular colonoscopy even with short intervals does not prevent all colorectal cancers (CRC) in Lynch syndrome (LS). In the present study, we asked whether cancers detected under regular colonoscopy surveillance (incident cancers) are phenotypically different from cancers detected at first colonoscopy (prevalent cancers). We analyzed clinical, histological, immunological and mutational characteristics, including panel sequencing and high-throughput coding microsatellite (cMS) analysis, in 28 incident and 67 prevalent LS CRCs ( total = 95). Incident cancers presented with lower UICC and T stage compared to prevalent cancers ( < 0.0005). The majority of incident cancers (21/28) were detected after previous colonoscopy without any pathological findings. On the molecular level, incident cancers presented with a significantly lower codon 12/13 (1/23, 4.3% vs. 11/21, 52%; = 0.0005) and pathogenic mutation frequency (0/17, 0% vs. 7/21, 33.3%; = 0.0108,) compared to prevalent cancers; 10/17 (58.8%) incident cancers harbored one or more truncating mutations, all showing mutational signatures of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. The proportion of MMR deficiency-related mutational events was significantly higher in incident compared to prevalent CRC ( = 0.018). In conclusion, our study identifies a set of features indicative of biological differences between incident and prevalent cancers in LS, which should further be monitored in prospective LS screening studies to guide towards optimized prevention protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198627PMC
June 2021

No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in and : A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 28;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Medical Genetics, Institute for Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown.

Objective: To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the and genes.

Methods: Carriers of pathogenic variants of () and () genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity.

Results: Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately.

Conclusion: Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269121PMC
June 2021

Stromal hyaluronan accumulation is associated with low immune response and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 06 9;11(1):12216. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pathology, Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Hyaluronan (HA) accumulation has been associated with poor survival in various cancers, but the mechanisms for this phenomenon are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of stromal HA accumulation and its association with host immune response in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The study material consisted of 101 radically treated patients for PDAC from a single geographical area. HA staining was evaluated using a HA-specific probe, and the patterns of CD3, CD8, CD73 and PD-L1 expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. HA staining intensity of tumour stromal areas was assessed digitally using QuPath. CD3- and CD8-based immune cell score (ICS) was determined. High-level stromal HA expression was significantly associated with poor disease-specific survival (p = 0.037) and overall survival (p = 0.013) In multivariate analysis, high-level stromal HA expression was an independent negative prognostic factor together with histopathological grade, TNM stage, CD73 positivity in tumour cells and low ICS. Moreover, high-level stromal HA expression was associated with low ICS (p = 0.017). In conclusion, stromal HA accumulation is associated with poor survival and low immune response in PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91796-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190291PMC
June 2021

Genetic and Epigenetic Characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Colorectal Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2021 08 27;161(2):592-607. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Applied Tumor Genomics Research Program, Research Programs Unit, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorder associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). IBD-associated CRC (IBD-CRC) may represent a distinct pathway of tumorigenesis compared to sporadic CRC (sCRC). Our aim was to comprehensively characterize IBD-associated tumorigenesis integrating multiple high-throughput approaches, and to compare the results with in-house data sets from sCRCs.

Methods: Whole-genome sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, RNA sequencing, genome-wide methylation analysis, and immunohistochemistry were performed using fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed tissue samples of tumor and corresponding normal tissues from 31 patients with IBD-CRC.

Results: Transcriptome-based tumor subtyping revealed the complete absence of canonical epithelial tumor subtype associated with WNT signaling in IBD-CRCs, dominated instead by mesenchymal stroma-rich subtype. Negative WNT regulators AXIN2 and RNF43 were strongly down-regulated in IBD-CRCs and chromosomal gains at HNF4A, a negative regulator of WNT-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were less frequent compared to sCRCs. Enrichment of hypomethylation at HNF4α binding sites was detected solely in sCRC genomes. PIGR and OSMR involved in mucosal immunity were dysregulated via epigenetic modifications in IBD-CRCs. Genome-wide analysis showed significant enrichment of noncoding mutations to 5'untranslated region of TP53 in IBD-CRCs. As reported previously, somatic mutations in APC and KRAS were less frequent in IBD-CRCs compared to sCRCs.

Conclusions: Distinct mechanisms of WNT pathway dysregulation skew IBD-CRCs toward mesenchymal tumor subtype, which may affect prognosis and treatment options. Increased OSMR signaling may favor the establishment of mesenchymal tumors in patients with IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.04.042DOI Listing
August 2021

Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Risk of Cancer in Lynch Syndrome.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Gerontology Research Centre and Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (VIV), 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.

Lynch syndrome (LS) increases cancer risk. There is considerable individual variation in LS cancer occurrence, which may be moderated by lifestyle factors, such as body weight and physical activity (PA). The potential associations of lifestyle and cancer risk in LS are understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, PA, and cancer risk among Finnish LS carriers. The participants ( = 465, 54% women) self-reported their adulthood body weight and PA at 10-year intervals. Overall cancer risk and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was analyzed separately for men and women with respect to longitudinal and near-term changes in body weight and PA using extended Cox regression models. The longitudinal weight change was associated with an increased risk of all cancers (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and CRC (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.05) in men. The near-term weight change was associated with a lower CRC risk in women (HR 0.96, 0.92-0.99). Furthermore, 77.6% of the participants retained their PA category over time. Men in the high-activity group had a reduced longitudinal cancer risk of 63% (HR 0.37, 0.15-0.98) compared to men in the low-activity group. PA in adulthood was not associated with cancer risk among women. These results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity PA throughout the lifespan in cancer prevention, particularly in men with LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069994PMC
April 2021

Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Multimodal Management and Survival from Colorectal Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 17;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

This retrospective population-based study examined the impact of age and comorbidity burden on multimodal management and survival from colorectal cancer (CRC). From 2000 to 2015, 1479 consecutive patients, who underwent surgical resection for CRC, were reviewed for age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) including 19 well-defined weighted comorbidities. The impact of ACCI on multimodal management and survival was compared between low (score 0-2), intermediate (score 3) and high ACCI (score ≥ 4) groups. Changes in treatment from 2000 to 2015 were seen next to a major increase of laparoscopic surgery, increased use of adjuvant chemotherapy and an intensified treatment of metastatic disease. Patients with a high ACCI score were, by definition, older and had higher comorbidity. Major elective and emergency resections for colon carcinoma were evenly performed between the ACCI groups, as were laparoscopic and open resections. (Chemo)radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma was less frequently used, and a higher rate of local excisions, and consequently lower rate of major elective resections, was performed in the high ACCI group. Adjuvant chemotherapy and metastasectomy were less frequently used in the ACCI high group. Overall and cancer-specific survival from stage I-III CRC remained stable over time, but survival from stage IV improved. However, the 5-year overall survival from stage I-IV colon and rectal carcinoma was worse in the high ACCI group compared to the low ACCI group. Five-year cancer-specific and disease-free survival rates did not differ significantly by the ACCI. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that high ACCI was an independent predictor of poor overall survival ( < 0.001). Our results show that despite improvements in multimodal management over time, old age and high comorbidity burden affect the use of adjuvant chemotherapy, preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and management of metastatic disease, and worsen overall survival from CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073362PMC
April 2021

Immune Contexture of MMR-Proficient Primary Colorectal Cancer and Matched Liver and Lung Metastases.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Education and Research, Hospital Nova of Central Finland, 40620 Jyväskylä, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate immune cell infiltration, the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) expression and their prognostic value in a series of mismatch proficient (pMMR) CRC with matched liver and lung metastases.

Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections stained for CD3, CD8, PD-L1 and PD-1 from 113 primary CRC tumours with 105 liver and 59 lung metastases were analyzed. The amount of CD3 and CD8 positive lymphocytes were combined as immune cell score (ICS). Comparative analyses on immune contexture were performed both between the primary tumour and matched metastases and between the metastatic sites.

Results: In liver metastases, immune cell infiltration was increased in general compared to primary tumours but did not correlate case by case. On the contrary, ICS between lung metastases and primary tumours correlated well, but the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 was increased in lung metastases. The proportion of tumours with high ICS together with PD-L1-positivity almost doubled in metastases (39%) compared to primary tumours (20%). High ICS (compared to lowest) in patient's least immune-infiltrated metastasis was an independent prognostic marker for disease-specific (HR 9.14, 95%CI 2.81-29.68) and overall survival (HR 6.95, 95%CI 2.30-21.00).

Conclusions: Our study confirms the prognostic value of high ICS in least immune-infiltrated metastases in pMMR CRC patients. Major differences observed in immune contexture between primary tumours and metastases may have significance for treatment strategies for patients with advanced CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037224PMC
March 2021

Uptake of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Eur J Cancer 2021 05 17;148:124-133. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; MGZ- Medical Genetics Center, Munich, Germany; The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT), The Polyposis Registry, St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ, UK; European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG), C/o Lindsays, Caledonian Exchange, 19A Canning Street, Edinburgh, EH3 8HE, United Kingdom.

Purpose: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years.

Results: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery.

Conclusion: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.022DOI Listing
May 2021

No evidence of EMAST in whole genome sequencing data from 248 colorectal cancers.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 07 19;60(7):463-473. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Medicum/Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR), and manifests as accumulation of small insertions and deletions (indels) in short tandem repeats of the genome. Another form of repeat instability, elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST), has been suggested to occur in 50% to 60% of colorectal cancer (CRC), of which approximately one quarter are accounted for by MSI. Unlike for MSI, the criteria for defining EMAST is not consensual. EMAST CRCs have been suggested to form a distinct subset of CRCs that has been linked to a higher tumor stage, chronic inflammation, and poor prognosis. EMAST CRCs not exhibiting MSI have been proposed to show instability of di- and trinucleotide repeats in addition to tetranucleotide repeats, but lack instability of mononucleotide repeats. However, previous studies on EMAST have been based on targeted analysis of small sets of marker repeats, often in relatively few samples. To gain insight into tetranucleotide instability on a genome-wide level, we utilized whole genome sequencing data from 227 microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs, 18 MSI CRCs, 3 POLE-mutated CRCs, and their corresponding normal samples. As expected, we observed tetranucleotide instability in all MSI CRCs, accompanied by instability of mono-, di-, and trinucleotide repeats. Among MSS CRCs, some tumors displayed more microsatellite mutations than others as a continuum, and no distinct subset of tumors with the previously proposed molecular characters of EMAST could be observed. Our results suggest that tetranucleotide repeat mutations in non-MSI CRCs represent stochastic mutation events rather than define a distinct CRC subclass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22941DOI Listing
July 2021

Somatic mutation profiles as molecular classifiers of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 06 13;148(12):2997-3007. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Ulcerative colitis increases colorectal cancer risk by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. We approached this question by determining the genetic and epigenetic profiles of colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas (CA-CRC). The findings were compared to Lynch syndrome (LS), a different form of cancer predisposition that shares the importance of immunological factors in tumorigenesis. CA-CRCs (n = 27) were investigated for microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype and somatic mutations of 999 cancer-relevant genes ("Pan-cancer" panel). A subpanel of "Pan-cancer" design (578 genes) was used for LS colorectal tumors (n = 28). Mutational loads and signatures stratified CA-CRCs into three subgroups: hypermutated microsatellite-unstable (Group 1, n = 1), hypermutated microsatellite-stable (Group 2, n = 9) and nonhypermutated microsatellite-stable (Group 3, n = 17). The Group 1 tumor was the only one with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and exhibited the mismatch repair deficiency-associated Signatures 21 and 15. Signatures 30 and 32 characterized Group 2, whereas no prominent single signature existed in Group 3. TP53, the most common mutational target in CA-CRC (16/27, 59%), was similarly affected in Groups 2 and 3, but DNA repair genes and Wnt signaling genes were mutated significantly more often in Group 2. In LS tumors, the degree of hypermutability exceeded that of the hypermutated CA-CRC Groups 1 and 2, and somatic mutational profiles and signatures were different. In conclusion, Groups 1 (4%) and 3 (63%) comply with published studies, whereas Group 2 (33%) is novel. The existence of molecularly distinct subgroups within CA-CRC may guide clinical management, such as therapy options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33492DOI Listing
June 2021

Risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in female heterozygotes of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Genet Med 2021 04 1;23(4):705-712. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026395PMC
April 2021

The shared frameshift mutation landscape of microsatellite-unstable cancers suggests immunoediting during tumor evolution.

Nat Commun 2020 09 21;11(1):4740. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Applied Tumor Biology, Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The immune system can recognize and attack cancer cells, especially those with a high load of mutation-induced neoantigens. Such neoantigens are abundant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient, microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancers. MMR deficiency leads to insertion/deletion (indel) mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS) and to neoantigen-inducing translational frameshifts. Here, we develop a tool to quantify frameshift mutations in MSI colorectal and endometrial cancer. Our results show that frameshift mutation frequency is negatively correlated to the predicted immunogenicity of the resulting peptides, suggesting counterselection of cell clones with highly immunogenic frameshift peptides. This correlation is absent in tumors with Beta-2-microglobulin mutations, and HLA-A*02:01 status is related to cMS mutation patterns. Importantly, certain outlier mutations are common in MSI cancers despite being related to frameshift peptides with functionally confirmed immunogenicity, suggesting a possible driver role during MSI tumor evolution. Neoantigens resulting from shared mutations represent promising vaccine candidates for prevention of MSI cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18514-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506541PMC
September 2020

Immunophenotype based on inflammatory cells, PD-1/PD-L1 signalling pathway and M2 macrophages predicts survival in gastric cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 11 18;123(11):1625-1632. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Surgery, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Background: Immune response against cancer has prognostic impact but its role in gastric cancer is poorly known. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic significance of immune cell score (CD3+, CD8+), tumour immune escape (PD-L1, PD-1) and immune tolerance (Clever-1).

Methods: After exclusion of Epstein-Barr virus positive (n = 4) and microsatellite instable (n = 6) tumours, the study included 122 patients with GC undergoing D2 gastrectomy. CD3+ and CD8+ based ICS, PD-L1, PD-1 and Clever-1 expressions were evaluated. Differences in survival were examined using Cox regression adjusted for confounders. The primary outcome was 5-year survival.

Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 43.4%. High ICS was associated with improved overall survival (adjusted HR 0.48 (95% CI 0.26-0.87)) compared to low ICS. In the high ICS group, patients with PD-L1 expression (5-year survival 69.2 vs. 53.1%, p = 0.317), high PD-1 (5-year survival 70.6 vs. 55.3% p = 0.312) and high Clever-1 (5-year survival 72.0% vs. 45.5% (p = 0.070) had poor prognosis.

Conclusions: High ICS was associated with improved survival. In the high ICS group, patients with high PD-L1, PD-1 and Clever-1 had poor prognosis highlighting the importance of immune escape and immune tolerance in GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01053-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687887PMC
November 2020

Letter to the Editor-Recent advances in Lynch syndrome.

Fam Cancer 2021 04 8;20(2):117-118. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-020-00200-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic Value of Immune Environment Analysis in Small Bowel Adenocarcinomas with Verified Mutational Landscape and Predisposing Conditions.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 23;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Abdominal Center, Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki, Finland.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare yet insidious cancer with poor survival. The abundance of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with improved survival, but the role of the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway in tumour escape is controversial. We evaluated immune cell infiltration, PD1/PD-L1 expression and their prognostic value in a series of SBAs with previously verified predisposing conditions and exome-wide somatic mutation characterization. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections stained for CD3, CD8, PD-L1 and PD-1 were analysed from 94 SBAs. An immune cell score (ICS) was formed from the amount of the CD3 and CD8 positive lymphocytes from the tumour centre and invasive margin. The PD-L1 and PD-1 positive immune cells (ICs) and ICS were combined into a variable called Immunoprofile. High ICS, PD-L1 and PD-1, individually and combined as Immunoprofile, were prognostic for better patient outcome. Sixty-five (69%) SBAs expressed ≥1% positive PD-L1. A high tumour mutation burden was common (19%) and associated with immune markers. Immunoprofile, adjusted for TNM stage, mismatch repair status, tumour location, sex and age were independent prognostic markers for disease-specific and overall survival. Analysing tumoral immune contexture provides prognostic information in SBA. Combining ICS, PD-1 and PD-L1 as Immunoprofile enhanced the prognostic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463640PMC
July 2020

Risk-Reducing Gynecological Surgery in Lynch Syndrome: Results of an International Survey from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 18;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to _ and carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years).

Conclusions: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of , and variants but less so for carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408942PMC
July 2020

The "unnatural" history of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: Lessons from colonoscopy surveillance.

Int J Cancer 2021 02 3;148(4):800-811. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Applied Tumour Biology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS), one of the most common inherited cancer syndromes, are at increased risk of developing malignancies, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopy with polypectomy is recommended to reduce CRC risk in LS individuals. However, recent independent studies demonstrated that a substantial proportion of LS individuals develop CRC despite regular colonoscopy. The reasons for this surprising observation confirmed by large prospective studies are a matter of debate. In this review, we collect existing evidence from clinical, epidemiological and molecular studies and interpret them with regard to the origins and progression of LS-associated CRC. Alongside with hypotheses addressing colonoscopy quality and pace of progression from adenoma to cancer, we discuss the role of alternative precursors and immune system in LS-associated CRC. We also identify gaps in current knowledge and make suggestions for future studies aiming at improved CRC prevention for LS individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33224DOI Listing
February 2021

Prognostic impact of CD73 expression and its relationship to PD-L1 in patients with radically treated pancreatic cancer.

Virchows Arch 2021 Feb 16;478(2):209-217. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Pathology, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Immune suppressing molecule CD73 is overexpressed in various cancers and associated with poor survival. Little is so far known about the predictive value of CD73 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of CD73 in PDAC. The study material consisted of 110 radically treated patients for PDAC. Tissue microarray blocks were constructed and stained immunohistochemically using CD73 antibody. Staining intensity and numbers of stained tumour cells, inflammatory cells, stroma, and blood vessels were assessed. High-level CD73 expression in tumour cells was positively associated with PD-L1 expression, perineural invasion, and histopathological grade. CD73 positivity in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Lymphocytic CD73 positivity was also associated with staining positivity in both stroma and vascular structures. In addition, CD73 positivity in vascular structures and stroma were associated with each other. There were no significant associations between CD73 positive tumour cells and CD73 positivity in any other cell types. PD-L1 expression was associated with CD73 staining positivity in stroma (p = 0.007) and also with histopathological grade (p = 0.033) and T class (p = 0.016) of the primary tumour. CD73 positivity in tumour cells was significantly associated with poor disease-specific (p = 0.021) and overall survival (p = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, CD73 positivity in tumour cells was an independent negative prognostic factor together with histopathological grade, TNM stage, and low immune cell score. In conclusion, high CD73 expression in tumour cells is associated with poor survival in PDAC independently of the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes or TNM stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02888-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969575PMC
February 2021

Molecular Basis of Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency in Tumors from Lynch Suspected Cases with Negative Germline Test Results.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 9;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Some 10-50% of Lynch-suspected cases with abnormal immunohistochemical (IHC) staining remain without any identifiable germline mutation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR proteins form heterodimeric complexes, giving rise to distinct IHC patterns when mutant. Potential reasons for not finding a germline mutation include involvement of an MMR gene not predicted by the IHC pattern, epigenetic mechanism of predisposition, primary mutation in another DNA repair or replication-associated gene, and double somatic MMR gene mutations. We addressed these possibilities by germline and tumor studies in 60 Lynch-suspected cases ascertained through diagnostics ( = 55) or research ( = 5). All cases had abnormal MMR protein staining in tumors but no point mutation or large rearrangement of the suspected MMR genes in the germline. In diagnostic practice, MSH2/MSH6 (MutS Homolog 2/MutS Homolog 6) deficiency prompts mutation screening; in our study, 3/11 index individuals (27%) with this IHC pattern revealed pathogenic germline mutations in . Individuals with isolated absence of MSH6 are routinely screened for mutations alone; we found a predisposing mutation in in 1/7 such cases (14%). Somatic deletion of the - region, joint loss of MSH6 and MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3) proteins, and hindered MSH2/MSH6 dimerization offered explanations to misleading IHC patterns. Constitutional epimutation hypothesis was pursued in the MSH2 and/or MSH6-deficient cases plus 38 cases with MLH1 (MutL Homolog 1)-deficient tumors; a primary epimutation was identified in one case with an MLH1-deficient tumor. We conclude that both and should be screened in MSH2/6- and MSH6-deficient cases. In MLH1-deficient cases, constitutional epimutations of warrant consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408769PMC
July 2020

MicroRNAs Associated With Biological Pathways of Left- and Right-sided Colorectal Cancer.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jul;40(7):3713-3722

School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Background/aim: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to investigate miRNAs and their relation to cancer-related signaling pathways in site-specific CRC.

Materials And Methods: We used a total of 24 left- and right-sided Finnish CRC samples (discovery cohort) and The Cancer Genome Atlas public mature miRSeq dataset of 201 CRC samples (validation cohort). MiRNA differential expression and biological pathway analyses were performed using DESeq2 and the DIANA/mirPath tool, respectively.

Results: We found 17 significantly differentially up-regulated [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05] miRNAs in left-sided CRC ("left miRNAs"), and 15 in right-sided CRC ("right miRNAs"). The left miRNAs participate in the mTor, Wnt, PI3K-Akt signaling pathways (FDR<0.05). The right miRNAs participate in the TGF-β signaling pathway. We also observed that both cohorts share six miRNAs. One of these (hsa-miR-196b-5p) was significantly (FDR<0.05) up-regulated in left-sided CRC. The rest of them (hsa-miR-625-3p, hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-625-5p, hsa-miR-31-5p and hsa-miR-330-5p) showed significant (FDR<0.05) up-regulation in right-sided CRC.

Conclusion: Left and right miRNAs are associated with predominant biological pathways of left- and right-sided CRC, respectively. Our results may be beneficial for classifying CRC and for future biomarker studies of site-specific CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14360DOI Listing
July 2020

Cancer prevention with aspirin in hereditary colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome), 10-year follow-up and registry-based 20-year data in the CAPP2 study: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2020 06;395(10240):1855-1863

Division of Haematology and Immunology, Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St James's, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: Lynch syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and with a broader spectrum of cancers, especially endometrial cancer. In 2011, our group reported long-term cancer outcomes (mean follow-up 55·7 months [SD 31·4]) for participants with Lynch syndrome enrolled into a randomised trial of daily aspirin versus placebo. This report completes the planned 10-year follow-up to allow a longer-term assessment of the effect of taking regular aspirin in this high-risk population.

Methods: In the double-blind, randomised CAPP2 trial, 861 patients from 43 international centres worldwide (707 [82%] from Europe, 112 [13%] from Australasia, 38 [4%] from Africa, and four [<1%] from The Americas) with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg aspirin daily or placebo. Cancer outcomes were monitored for at least 10 years from recruitment with English, Finnish, and Welsh participants being monitored for up to 20 years. The primary endpoint was development of colorectal cancer. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN59521990.

Findings: Between January, 1999, and March, 2005, 937 eligible patients with Lynch syndrome, mean age 45 years, commenced treatment, of whom 861 agreed to be randomly assigned to the aspirin group or placebo; 427 (50%) participants received aspirin and 434 (50%) placebo. Participants were followed for a mean of 10 years approximating 8500 person-years. 40 (9%) of 427 participants who received aspirin developed colorectal cancer compared with 58 (13%) of 434 who received placebo. Intention-to-treat Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed a significantly reduced hazard ratio (HR) of 0·65 (95% CI 0·43-0·97; p=0·035) for aspirin versus placebo. Negative binomial regression to account for multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio of 0·58 (0·39-0·87; p=0·0085). Per-protocol analyses restricted to 509 who achieved 2 years' intervention gave an HR of 0·56 (0·34-0·91; p=0·019) and an incidence rate ratio of 0·50 (0·31-0·82; p=0·0057). Non-colorectal Lynch syndrome cancers were reported in 36 participants who received aspirin and 36 participants who received placebo. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed no effect. For all Lynch syndrome cancers combined, the intention-to-treat analysis did not reach significance but per-protocol analysis showed significantly reduced overall risk for the aspirin group (HR=0·63, 0·43-0·92; p=0·018). Adverse events during the intervention phase between aspirin and placebo groups were similar, and no significant difference in compliance between intervention groups was observed for participants with complete intervention phase data; details reported previously.

Interpretation: The case for prevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin in Lynch syndrome is supported by our results.

Funding: Cancer Research UK, European Union, MRC, NIHR, Bayer Pharma AG, Barbour Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30366-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294238PMC
June 2020

Does breast carcinoma belong to the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum? - Somatic mutational profiles vs. ovarian and colorectal carcinomas.

Oncotarget 2020 Apr 7;11(14):1244-1256. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Inherited DNA mismatch repair (MMR) defects cause predisposition to colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, and other cancers occurring in Lynch syndrome (LS). It is unsettled whether breast carcinoma belongs to the LS tumor spectrum. We approached this question through somatic mutational analysis of breast carcinomas from LS families, using established LS-spectrum tumors for comparison. Somatic mutational profiles of 578 cancer-relevant genes were determined for LS-breast cancer (LS-BC, = 20), non-carrier breast cancer (NC-BC, = 10), LS-ovarian cancer (LS-OC, = 16), and LS-colorectal cancer (LS-CRC, = 18) from the National LS Registry of Finland. Microsatellite and MMR protein analysis stratified LS-BCs into MMR-deficient (dMMR, = 11) and MMR-proficient (pMMR, = 9) subgroups. All NC-BCs were pMMR and all LS-OCs and LS-CRCs dMMR. All but one dMMR LS-BCs were hypermutated (> 10 non-synonymous mutations/Mb; average 174/Mb per tumor) and the frequency of MMR-deficiency-associated signatures 6, 20, and 26 was comparable to that in LS-OC and LS-CRC. LS-BCs that were pMMR resembled NC-BCs with respect to somatic mutational loads (4/9, 44%, hypermutated with average mutation count 33/Mb vs. 3/10, 30%, hypermutated with average 88 mutations/Mb), whereas mutational signatures shared features of dMMR LS-BC, LS-OC, and LS-CRC. Epigenetic regulatory genes were significantly enriched as mutational targets in LS-BC, LS-OC, and LS-CRC. Many top mutant genes of our LS-BCs have previously been identified as drivers of unselected breast carcinomas. In conclusion, somatic mutational signatures suggest that conventional MMR status of tumor tissues is likely to underestimate the significance of the predisposing MMR defects as contributors to breast tumorigenesis in LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147090PMC
April 2020

Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction at 7-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Surg 2020 04;155(4):283-289

Turku University Hospital, Division of Digestive Surgery and Urology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Importance: Long-term results support antibiotics for uncomplicated acute appendicitis as an alternative to appendectomy. To our knowledge, treatment-related long-term patient satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) are not known.

Objective: To determine patient satisfaction and QOL after antibiotic therapy and appendectomy for treating uncomplicated acute appendicitis.

Interventions: Open appendectomy vs antibiotics with intravenous ertapenem, 1 g once daily, for 3 days followed by 7 days of oral levofloxacin, 500 mg once daily, and metronidazole, 500 mg 3 times per day.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This observational follow-up of the Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing appendectomy with antibiotics included 530 patients age 18 to 60 years with computed tomography-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis who were randomized to undergo appendectomy (273 [52%]) or receive antibiotics (257 [49%]). The trial was conducted from November 2009 to June 2012; the last follow-up was May 9, 2018. The data were analyzed in February 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: In this analysis, post hoc secondary end points of postintervention QOL (EQ-5D-5L) and patient satisfaction and treatment preference were evaluated.

Results: Of the 530 patients enrolled in the trial (appendectomy group: 273 [174 men (64%)] with a median age of 35 years; (antibiotic group: 257 [155 men (60%)] with a median age of 33 years), 423 patients (80%) were available for phone interview at a median follow-up of 7 years; 206 patients (80%) took antibiotics and 217 (79%) underwent appendectomy. Of the 206 patients taking antibiotics, 81 (39%) had undergone appendectomy. The QOL between appendectomy and antibiotic group patients was similar (median health index value, 1.0 in both groups; 95% CI, 0.86-1.0; P = .96). Patients who underwent appendectomy were more satisfied in the treatment than patients taking antibiotics (68% very satisfied, 21% satisfied, 6% indifferent, 4% unsatisfied, and 1% very unsatisfied in the appendectomy group and 53% very satisfied, 21% satisfied, 13% indifferent, 7% unsatisfied, and 6% very unsatisfied in the antibiotic group; P < .001) and in a subgroup analysis this difference was based on the antibiotic group patients undergoing appendectomy. There was no difference in patient satisfaction after successful antibiotic treatment compared with appendectomy (cumulative odds ratio [COR], 7.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3; P < .36). Patients with appendectomy or with successful antibiotic therapy were more satisfied than antibiotic group patients who later underwent appendectomy (COR, 7.7; 95% CI, 4.6-12.9; P < .001; COR, 9.7; 95% CI, 5.4-15.3; P < .001, respectively). Of the 81 patients taking antibiotics who underwent appendectomy, 27 (33%) would again choose antibiotics as their primary treatment.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this analysis, long-term QOL was similar after appendectomy and antibiotic therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Patients taking antibiotics who later underwent appendectomy were less satisfied than patients with successful antibiotics or appendectomy.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01022567.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2019.6028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042917PMC
April 2020

Associations of Pathogenic Variants in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 With Risk of Colorectal Adenomas and Tumors and With Somatic Mutations in Patients With Lynch Syndrome.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 8;158(5):1326-1333. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients.

Methods: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1.

Results: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 years was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P < .001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 years (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P = .001 and P = .003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P = .015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P = .002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC.

Conclusions: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.032DOI Listing
April 2020
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