Publications by authors named "Jue Liu"

216 Publications

A universal wet-chemistry synthesis of solid-state halide electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-metal batteries.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 8;7(37):eabh1896. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abh1896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442915PMC
September 2021

Structural Evolution and Transition Dynamics in Lithium Ion Battery under Fast Charging: An Operando Neutron Diffraction Investigation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 8:e2102318. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Electrification and Energy Infrastructures Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830, USA.

Fast charging (<15 min) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for electrical vehicles (EVs) is widely seen as the key factor that will greatly stimulate the EV markets, and its realization is mainly hindered by the sluggish diffusion of Li . To have a mechanistic understanding of Li diffusion within LIBs, in this study, structural evolutions of electrodes for a Ni-rich LiNi Mn Co O (NMC622) || graphite cylindrical cell with high areal loading (2.78 mAh cm ) are developed for operando neutron powder diffraction study at different charging rates. Via sequential Rietveld refinements, changes in structures of NMC622 and Li C are obtained during moderate and fast charging (from 0.27 C to 4.4 C). NMC622 exhibits the same structural evolution regardless of C-rates. For phase transitions of Li C , the stage I (LiC ) phase emerges earlier during the stepwise intercalation at a lower state of charge when charging rate is increased. It is also found that the stage II (LiC ) → stage I (LiC ) transition is the rate-limiting step during fast charging. The LiC → LiC transition mechanism is further analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model. It is concluded as a diffusion-controlled, 1D phase transition with decreasing nucleation kinetics under increasing chargingrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102318DOI Listing
September 2021

Crystallographic-Site-Specific Structural Engineering Enables Extraordinary Electrochemical Performance of High-Voltage LiNi Mn O Spinel Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 4:e2101413. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 2500, Australia.

The development of reliable and safe high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries is hindered by the structural instability of cathode materials during cycling, arising as a result of detrimental phase transformations occurring at high operating voltages alongside the loss of active materials induced by transition metal dissolution. Originating from the fundamental structure/function relation of battery materials, the authors purposefully perform crystallographic-site-specific structural engineering on electrode material structure, using the high-voltage LiNi Mn O (LNMO) cathode as a representative, which directly addresses the root source of structural instability of the Fd m structure. By employing Sb as a dopant to modify the specific issue-involved 16c and 16d sites simultaneously, the authors successfully transform the detrimental two-phase reaction occurring at high-voltage into a preferential solid-solution reaction and significantly suppress the loss of Mn from the LNMO structure. The modified LNMO material delivers an impressive 99% of its theoretical specific capacity at 1 C, and maintains 87.6% and 72.4% of initial capacity after 1500 and 3000 cycles, respectively. The issue-tracing site-specific structural tailoring demonstrated for this material will facilitate the rapid development of high-energy-density materials for lithium-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101413DOI Listing
September 2021

COVID-19 and Liver dysfunction: Epidemiology, Association and Potential Mechanisms.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 21:101793. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, No.38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191 China. Electronic address:

Currently, there have been more than one hundred million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with two million deaths worldwide. This has caused a huge medical burden. Severe COVID-19 patients can experience multi-organ damage, including cardiac injury, kidney injury, and liver injury. About 2.0%-4.9% of COVID-19 cases involve patients with preexisting liver diseases. Additionally, preexisting liver diseases were reported and associated with severity (odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) = 1.48-1.70) and mortality (OR or RR = 1.08-2.65) among COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the prevalence of liver injury was 16%-29% in COVID-19 patients. Higher prevalence of liver injury may worsen prognosis in patients (severity: OR or RR = 1.9-2.6; mortality: OR or RR = 1.1-4.0). The mechanisms of this association between liver injury and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection are complex, including direct cholangiocyte damage induced by SARS-COV-2, cytokine storm, and drug-induced liver injury. In particular, drug-induced liver injury may be the most important reason. This review discusses the epidemiology of COVID-19 and liver dysfunction as well as potential mechanisms underlying the association between COVID-19 and liver dysfunction or other preexisting liver diseases. However, the association between preexisting liver diseases and COVID-19 prognosis and potential mechanisms underlying these associations require further prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2021.101793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380064PMC
August 2021

Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in relation to Plasma Concentrations of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4: A Nested Case-Control Study in China.

J Diabetes Res 2021 28;2021:6681432. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objective: The study is aimed at examining the effects of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) on insulin resistance and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: Based on a prospective birth cohort in Beijing, China, we conducted a nested case-control study and analyzed 135 GDM case-control pairs matched by age and the gestational week when they took the oral glucose tolerance test. We performed linear regression to analyze the association of plasma FABP4 concentrations with insulin resistance. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of FABP4 for GDM, controlling for potential confounders, including dietary intake and physical activity.

Results: Plasma FABP4 levels in the first and second trimesters were positively associated with fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the second trimester (both < 0.001). Compared with those in the lowest FABP4 tertile, women in the highest tertile of FABP4 levels in the first and second trimesters had 1.053 times (OR = 2.053, 95% CI 1.091 to 3.863) and 1.447 times (OR = 2.447, 95% CI 1.305 to 4.588) higher risk of developing GDM.

Conclusions: Elevated FABP4 levels in the first and second trimesters were associated with a higher level of insulin resistance and greater GDM risk, indicating FABP4 might predict women with high risk of developing GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6681432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342154PMC
July 2021

The global trends and regional differences in incidence and mortality of hepatitis A from 1990 to 2019 and implications for its prevention.

Hepatol Int 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Haidian District, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background And Purpose: Despite decades of improved sanitation and hygiene measures and vaccine introduction, hepatitis A has been spread through numerous outbreaks globally. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study to quantify hepatitis A burden at the global, regional and national levels.

Methods: Annual incident cases, deaths, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of hepatitis A between 1990 and 2019 were derived from the GBD study 2019. Percentage changes of cases and deaths, and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) of ASIRs and ASMRs were calculated to quantify their temporal trends.

Results: Global hepatitis A incident cases increased by 13.90% from 139.54 million in 1990 to 158.94 million in 2019. ASIR of hepatitis A remained stable (EAPC = 0.00, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.01), whereas ASMR decreased (EAPC = -4.63, 95% CI -4.94 to -4.32) between 1990 and 2019. ASIR increased in low (EAPC = 0.09, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.14) and low-middle (EAPC = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06) socio-demographic index (SDI) regions. For GBD regions, the most significant increases of ASIR were detected in high-income Asia Pacific (EAPC = 0.53, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.66), Oceania (EAPC = 0.31, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.36), and Australasia (EAPC = 0.28, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.44). EAPC of ASIR was positively associated with SDI value in countries and territories with SDI value ≥ 0.7 (ρ = -0.310, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: There is an unfavorable trend that hepatitis A is still pending in hyperendemic regions and is emerging in low endemic regions. These highlight the need of targeted and specific strategies to eliminate hepatitis A, such as sanitation measures and a comprehensive plan for surveillance and vaccination against hepatitis A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10232-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes among adults aged 45 years or older in China: A national cross-sectional study.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Jul 24;4(3):e00265. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Public Health Peking University Beijing China.

Background: Although there is preponderance of literature on disease burden of diabetes in developed countries, limited investigations have been conducted in less developed regions including China. This study aimed to explore the current prevalence and risk factors for diabetes, pre-diabetes, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes in China.

Methods: We included 12,458 adults from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. We estimated prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the overall sample and by socio-demographics. Bivariate associations of diabetes, pre-diabetes, awareness, control and treatment of diabetes with health and function measures were evaluated by chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: We found that the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes was 13.21% and 25.16%. The prevalence of diabetes increased with advanced age (12.37%, 15.98% and 16.52% among persons who were 45 to 55, 55 to 65 and ≥65 years old, respectively), educational background (14.52%, 15.52% and 15.58% among persons who were illiterate, had primary education and had secondary or above education) and weight (8.18%, 17.05% and 22.54% among persons with a body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9, 25.0 to 29.9 and ≥30.0, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes was higher among urban residents than among rural residents (19.04% vs. 12.85%). We also observed that aged between 55 and 65 years, obesity, history of hypertension and coronary heart disease, and inactivity were significant risk factors of awareness of diabetes.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that diabetes is high prevalent in adults aged 45 years or above in China. The potentially modifiable risk factors should be further studied to develop interventions and strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes among middle-aged and older Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279593PMC
July 2021

COVID-19 pandemic in BRICS countries and its association with socio-economic and demographic characteristics, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jul 8;10(1):97. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Haidian District, No. 38, Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Little attention has been paid to the comparison of COVID-19 pandemic responses and related factors in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. We aimed at evaluating the association of daily new COVID-19 cases with socio-economic and demographic factors, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response in BRICS countries.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on the COVID-19 pandemic and other indicators of BRICS countries from February 26, 2020 to April 30, 2021. We compared COVID-19 epidemic in BRICS countries and analyzed related factors by log-linear Generalized Additive Model (GAM) models.

Results: In BRICS countries, India had the highest totally of confirmed cases with 18.76 million, followed by Brazil (14.45 million), Russia (4.81 million), and South Africa (1.58 million), while China (0.10 million) had the lowest figure. South Africa had the lowest rate of administered vaccine doses (0.18 million) among BRICS countries as of April 30, 2021. In the GAM model, a 1 unit increase in population density and policy stringency index was associated with a 5.17% and 1.95% growth in daily new COVID-19 cases (P < 0.001), respectively. Exposure-response curves for the effects of policy stringency index on daily new cases showed that there was a rapid surge in number of daily new COVID-19 cases when the index ranged from 0 to 45. The number of infections climbed slowly when the index ranged from 46 to 80, and decreased when the index was above 80 (P < 0.001). In addition, daily new COVID-19 cases (all P < 0.001) were also correlated with life expectancy at birth (-1.61%), extreme poverty (8.95%), human development index (-0.05%), GDP per capita (-0.18%), diabetes prevalence (0.66%), proportion of population aged 60 and above (2.23%), hospital beds per thousand people (-0.08%), proportion of people with access to improved drinking water (-7.40%), prevalence of open defecation (0.69%), and annual tourist/visitor arrivals (0.003%), after controlling other confounders. Different lag structures showed similar results in the sensitivity analysis.

Conclusions: Strong policy response is crucial to control the pandemic, such as effective containment and case management. Our findings also highlighted the importance of reducing socio-economic inequalities and strengthening the resilience of health systems to better respond to public health emergencies globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00881-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264992PMC
July 2021

Association between Occupational Dysfunction and Social Isolation in Japanese Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 21;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8577, Ibaraki, Japan.

We clarified the relationship between occupational dysfunction and social isolation among community-dwelling adults. We used a self-administered questionnaire with a cross-sectional study for 2879 independently living older adults in Kasama City, Japan. Participants responded to a self-reported questionnaire in November 2019. Occupational dysfunction and social isolation were assessed. The participants were classified into two groups: healthy occupational function group, and occupational dysfunction group. To examine the relationship between occupational dysfunction and social isolation, we performed a logistic regression analysis with social isolation as a dependent variable and occupational dysfunction as an independent variable. In the crude model, the occupational dysfunction group had a higher risk of social isolation than the healthy occupational function group (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.63-2.55; < 0.001). In the adjusted model, the occupational dysfunction group had a higher risk of social isolation than the healthy occupational function group (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.17-1.94; = 0.001). The results showed that occupational dysfunction was significantly associated with social isolation. These results can be used in constructing a support method for social isolation from a new perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296447PMC
June 2021

Maternal Socs3 knockdown attenuates postnatal obesity caused by an early life environment of maternal obesity and intrauterine overnutrition in progeny mice.

IUBMB Life 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Graduate, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

Pathological states in the early life environment of mammalian offspring, including maternal obesity and intrauterine overnutrition, can induce obesity and metabolic disorder later in life. Leptin resistance caused by upregulation of Socs3 in the hypothalamus of offspring was believed to be the main mechanism of this effect. In this study, obese mother (OM) and lean mother (LM) models were generated by feeding C57BL/6N female mice a high-fat diet or standard lean diet, respectively. Additionally, an obese mother with intervention (OMI) model was generated by injecting the high-fat diet group with Socs3-shRNA lentivirus during early pregnancy. The offspring of the groups was correspondingly named OM-F , LM-F , and OMI-F , representing progeny mouse models of different early life environments. The offspring were fed a high-fat diet to test their propensity for obesity. The body weight, food intake and fat accumulation were higher, while glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were worse in the OM-F group than LM-F group. By contrast, the obesity phenotype, hyperphagia and metabolic disorder were alleviated in the OMI-F group compared with the OM-F group. The mechanism was identified that downregulation of hypothalamic SOCS3 resulted in an increased level of p-STAT3 and p-JAK2, which ameliorated the leptin resistance and restored the lean expression of appetite regulatory genes (Pomc and Agrp) in hypothalamus of OMI-F group. Taken together, these results indicate that reducing maternal Socs3 expression during pregnancy can attenuate obesity caused by the early life environment in mice, which may inspire therapies that enable obese mothers to bear metabolically healthy children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2526DOI Listing
June 2021

Systemic Analysis of the DNA Replication Regulator MCM Complex in Ovarian Cancer and Its Prognostic Value.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:681261. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Clinical Anatomy & Reproductive Medicine Application Institute, Department of Histology and Embryology, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Microliposome maintenance (MCM) 2, MCM3, MCM4, MCM5, MCM6, and MCM7 are DNA replication regulators and are involved in the progression of multiple cancer types, but their role in ovarian cancer is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to clarify the biological function and prognostic value of the MCM complex in ovarian cancer (OS) progression. We analyzed DNA alterations, mRNA and protein levels, protein structure, PPI network, functional enrichment, and prognostic value in OC based on the Oncomine, cBioPortal, TCGA, CPTAC, PDB, GeneMANIA, DAVID, KEGG, and GSCALite databases. The results indicated that the protein levels of these DNA replication regulators were increased significantly. Moreover, survival analysis showed a prognostic signature based on the MCM complex, which performed moderately well in terms of OS prognostic prediction. Additionally, protein structure, functional enrichment, and PPI network analyses indicated that the MCM complex synergistically promoted OC progression by accelerating DNA replication and the cell cycle. In conclusion, our study suggested that the MCM complex might be a potential target and prognostic marker for OC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.681261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220296PMC
June 2021

The Global Trends and Regional Differences in Incidence of Dengue Infection from 1990 to 2019: An Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Sep 26;10(3):1625-1643. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, No.38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Introduction: Dengue, as a neglected tropical disease, brings a heavy socioeconomic burden. To provide tailored global prevention strategies, we analyzed the global trends and regional differences in incidence of dengue infection from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: We obtained data on annual dengue episodes and incidence rates, which reflected the epidemic status of dengue infection from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. The changes in dengue episodes and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) of the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) were calculated to quantify the temporal trends of dengue infection.

Results: Globally, dengue ASR increased by 1.70% (95% CI 1.62%-1.78%) per year from 1990 to 2011; subsequently, it decreased by 0.41% (95% CI 0.20%-0.62%) per year from 2011 to 2019. However, the global number of dengue episodes increased steadily by 85.47% from 30.67 million in 1990 to 56.88 million in 2019. Against the global trend of decreasing ASR from 2011 to 2019, an increasing trend was reported in Oceania (EAPC 11.01, 95% CI 8.79-13.27), East Asia (EAPC 4.84, 95% CI 2.70-7.03) and Southeast Asia (EAPC 0.38, 95% CI 0.13-0.62). For socio-demographic index (SDI) regions, ASR continued to have an increasing trend in the middle (EAPC 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.45) and high-middle (EAPC 1.70, 95% CI 0.98-2.42) SDI regions from 2011 to 2019. In contrast to the global peak age of dengue incidence rate (10 to 25 years), the dengue incidence rate of older people (> 65 years) was higher than in other age groups in low and low-middle SDI regions. Additionally, the proportions of dengue episodes in the > 70-year-old age group increased in 2019 (using the baseline in 1990 or 2011) in most GBD regions.

Conclusions: Global dengue episodes have increased tremendously in 3 decades. Although global dengue ASR decreased in the last decade, it is still increasing in hyperendemic regions including Oceania, East Asia and Southeast Asia, and also in the middle and high-middle SDI regions. More attention should be paid to the elderly because of the higher dengue incidence rate among them in low and low-middle SDI regions and the increased proportions of dengue episodes among the elderly in most GBD regions. Therefore, more efforts should be undertaken to develop targeted prevention strategies for crucial regions and older populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00470-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234762PMC
September 2021

Age-dependence of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus type 4 pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 8;100(8):101238. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (hvFAdV-4) has emerged as a major pathogen of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) with increased mortality in chickens, resulting in economic losses to the Chinese poultry industry since June 2015. Here, we isolated a hypervirulent FAdV-4 (hvFAdV-4) strain (designated GD616) from 25-day-old meat-type chickens with severe HHS in Guangdong Province China in June 2017. The whole genome of the strain GD616 shares high homology with those in the recently-reported hvFAdV-4 isolates in China, with natural deletions of ORF19 and ORF27. A comparative analysis of Hexon and Fiber-2 proteins revealed that 2 unique amino acid residues at positions 378 and 453 of the Fiber-2 protein might be associated with virulence due to their occurrences in all the hvFAdV-4 isolates only. To systemically evaluate the effect of age on the susceptibility of chickens to hvFAdV-4, we used this hvFAdV-4 strain to intramuscularly inoculate 7- to 180-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens for the evaluation of pathogenicity. These results showed that the pathogenicity of the hvFAdV-4 strain GD616 to chickens exhibited age-relatedness, with younger than 59-day-old chickens showing 100% morbidity and mortality, while 180-day-old chickens still exhibited a hydropericardium syndrome-like clinicopathology with 60% morbidity and 20% mortality. These findings enrich the current available knowledge regarding the pathogenicity of the hypervirulent FAdV-4 virus in chickens with a wide range of ages, which assists with the selection of suitable-aged chickens for the evaluation of hvFAdV-4 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237352PMC
August 2021

Comparison of Vaccine Acceptance Between COVID-19 and Seasonal Influenza Among Women in China: A National Online Survey Based on Health Belief Model.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 4;8:679520. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Influenza could circulate in parallel with COVID-19. Studies focusing on the comparison of vaccine acceptance between COVID-19 and seasonal influenza are lacking. The aim of the study was to assess and compare vaccine acceptance of COVID-19 and influenza among reproductive women in China, in order to better understand and address factors associated with vaccine acceptance and to provide guidance for targeted measures to promote vaccination. A national anonymous cross-sectional survey on COVID-19 and influenza vaccine acceptance among reproductive women aged 18-49 years in China was conducted online based on health belief model, a model widely used to evaluate health beliefs. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, knowledge, attitude, and health beliefs related to COVID-19 and influenza infection and vaccination were retrieved. Pearson's χ test was used to compare the vaccine acceptance by the factors mentioned above. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted associations of factors related to vaccine acceptance. Paired -test was used to compare scores of health beliefs between influenza and COVID-19 vaccinations. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate among reproductive women was 90.3% (95% CI 89.2-91.3%), which was significantly higher than influenza vaccine acceptance rate (85.5%, 95% CI: 84.2-86.7%). Influenza and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance both had the trends to decrease with age (all < 0.05). Living in the western region, young age, a high level of knowledge scores on disease and vaccines, a high level of perceived susceptibility, a high level of cues to action, and a low level of perceived barriers were positively associated with both COVID-19 and influenza vaccine acceptance (all < 0.05), while influenza vaccination history was additionally associated with influenza vaccine acceptance ( < 0.05). Our findings suggest that tailored public health measures are needed to improve reproductive women's knowledge of COVID-19, influenza, and vaccines to alleviate women's vaccine hesitancy and expand vaccine uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.679520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211886PMC
June 2021

Nucleolar Phosphoprotein NPM1 Interacts With Porcine Circovirus Type 3 Cap Protein and Facilitates Viral Replication.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:679341. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a recently discovered virus with potentially significant implications on the global swine industry. PCV3 replication involves the entry of the viral capsid (Cap) protein with nucleolar localization signals into the nucleus. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, nucleolar phosphoprotein NPM1 was identified as one of the cellular proteins bound to PCV3 Cap. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that PCV3 Cap interacts directly with NPM1, where the region binding with NPM1 is mapped to amino acid residues 1-38 of Cap. Upon co-transfection, the expression of Cap protein promoted the redistribution of NPM1, which translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and colocalized with Cap in cultured PK15 cells. NPM1 expression was upregulated and translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in PCV3-infected cells, upon siRNA-mediated depletion, or upon treatment with NPM1 inhibitor in PK15 cells with impaired PCV3 replication, as evidenced by decreased levels of viral DNA synthesis and protein expression. By contrast, the replication of PCV3 was enhanced in stably NPM1-expressing cells via a lentivirus-delivered system. Taken together, these findings indicate that NPM1 interacts with PCV3 Cap and plays a crucial role in PCV3 replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.679341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185148PMC
May 2021

A phase I study of the safety and activity of K-001 in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 7;21(1):672. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly disease that lack of effective therapeutic drugs. K-001 is an oral antitumor drug made from active ingredients of marine microorganisms. The current study aimed to evaluate safety and antitumor activity of K-001 in patients with advanced PDAC.

Methods: In this phase I, open-label trial, patients with advanced PDAC were recruited to a dose-escalation study in a standard 3 + 3 design. K-001 was administered twice daily in four-week cycles, and dose escalation from 1350 mg to 2160 mg was evaluated twice daily. Physical examination and laboratory tests were done at screening and then weekly. The safety, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of K-001 were assessed while tumor response was estimated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST).

Results: Eighteen patients with advanced PDAC were screened, and twelve eligible patients were analyzed in the study. No DLT was observed. Totally, 47 adverse events (AEs) presented, and 14 drug-related AEs were reported in 7 patients, including 8 grade 1 events (57.1%) and 6 grade 2 events (42.9%). There was no grade 3 or 4 drug-related AE. In these 14 drug-related AEs, the most frequent ones were dyspepsia (21.4%), followed by flatulence, constipation, and hemorrhoid bleeding (above 10% of each). Among all 12 patients, 10 patients (83.3%) maintained stable disease (SD), and 2 patients (16.7%) had progressive disease (PD). The objective response rate (ORR) was 0% and the disease control rate (DCR) was 83.3%.

Conclusions: K-001 manifests satisfactory safety and tolerability, as well as meaningful antitumor activity in advanced PDAC patients. Further evaluation of K-001 in phase II/III appears warranted.

Trial Registration: NCT02720666 . Registered 28 Match 2016 - Retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08375-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183060PMC
June 2021

The Association between Influenza Vaccination and COVID-19 and Its Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 20;9(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Influenza could circulate in parallel with COVID-19. In the context of COVID-19, some studies observed inverse associations between influenza vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical outcomes, while others did not. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between influenza vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical outcomes, aiming to provide evidence for COVID-19 prevention and vaccination promotion. We searched four databases from inception to 10 March, 2021. Random effects and fixed effects models were used to pool odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used funnel plots to evaluate the publication bias, I2 statistics to evaluate the heterogeneity, and conducted subgroup analyses. Sixteen observational studies involving 290,327 participants were included. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (pooled adjusted OR: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.81-0.91), while not significantly associated with adverse outcomes (intensive care: adjusted OR 0.63, 95%CI: 0.22-1.81; hospitalization: adjusted OR 0.74, 95%CI: 0.51-1.06; mortality: adjusted OR 0.89, 95%CI: 0.73-1.09). Our findings suggest that influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is crucial for policy makers to implement strategies on influenza vaccination, for it may also have benefits for COVID-19 prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161076PMC
May 2021

Tourism experiences and the lower risk of mortality in the Chinese elderly: a national cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 27;21(1):996. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, No.38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Cohort studies about the effects of tourism experiences on the risk of death among Chinese older adults are still lacking. We aimed to examine the association between tourism experiences and mortality in Chinese aged 65 or above.

Methods: We included 9520 participants aged 65 years or above from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey at baseline in 23 provinces in 2011. They were followed up in 2014 and 2018. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between tourism experiences and the risk of death.

Results: Among 9520 participants, 7.85% had at least one tourism experience outside of their local city/county during the past 2 years. During 35,994.26 person-years of follow-up, in total 4635 deaths were observed. The crude rate of death was greater in participants who had no tourism experience than in older travelers (incidence rate: 13.70 versus 5.24 per 100 person-years). Elderly travelers had a significantly lower risk for all-cause mortality (crude hazard ratio: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.33-0.44) compared with non-travelers. After adjustment for all covariates, the risk of all-cause mortality was 27% lower among those with at least one tourism experience than among non-travelers (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62-0.85). Subgroup analysis showed that the associations between tourism and the decreased risk of mortality were stable.

Conclusions: Tourism decreases the risk of mortality in the Chinese elderly. Tourism should be considered as a modifiable lifestyle factor and an effective way to reduce mortality and promote longevity and healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11099-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157616PMC
May 2021

Association between meteorological factors and daily new cases of COVID-19 in 188 countries: A time series analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 23;780:146538. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, School of Public Health, Peking University, No. 38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

By 31 December 2020, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had been prevalent worldwide for one year, and most countries had experienced a complete seasonal cycle. The role of the climate and environment are essential factors to consider in transmission. We explored the association between global meteorological conditions (including mean temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and diurnal temperature range) and new cases of COVID-19 in the whole past year. We assessed the relative risk of meteorological factors to the onset of COVID-19 by using generalized additive models (GAM) and further analyzed the hysteresis effects of meteorological factors using the Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM). Our findings revealed that the mean temperature, wind speed and relative humidity were negatively correlated with daily new cases of COVID-19, and the diurnal temperature range was positively correlated with daily new cases of COVID-19. These relationships were more apparent when the temperature and relative humidity were lower than their average value (21.07°Cand 66.83%). The wind speed and diurnal temperature range were higher than the average value(3.07 m/s and 9.53 °C). The maximum RR of mean temperature was 1.30 under -23°C at lag ten days, the minimum RR of wind speed was 0.29 under 12m/s at lag 24 days, the maximum RR of range of temperature was 2.21 under 28 °C at lag 24 days, the maximum RR of relative humidity was 1.35 under 4% at lag 0 days. After a subgroup analysis of the countries included in the study, the results were still robust. As the Northern Hemisphere enters winter, the risk of global covid-19 remains high. Some countries have ushered in a new round of COVID-19 epidemic. Thus, active measures must be taken to control the source of infection, block transmission and prevent further spread of COVID-19 in winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986348PMC
August 2021

Exploring the mediating role of serum retinol-binding protein 4 in the relationship between sleep quality and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jun 21;176:108866. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Aims: We aimed to explore the mediating role of plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in the relationship between sleep quality and insulin resistance (IR) among pregnant women.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 263 pregnant women in the first trimester. Sleep quality was evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The ELISA and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to analyze plasma RBP4 and estimate IR. The mediating model was used to analyze the mediating role of RBP4 in the relationship between PSQI score and IR.

Results: In the multivariable linear regression model, the three terms were positively related with each other, PSQI score was positively associated with IR levels (β = 0.55, p < 0.05). In the mediating model, RBP4 levels mediated completely the relationship between PSQI scores and IR levels (β = 0.29, p < 0.0001). The indirect effect of RBP4 in the relation between sleep quality and IR explained 89.10% of total effect.

Conclusions: RPB4 may play a complete mediating role in the relation between sleep quality and insulin resistance in early pregnancy. Improvements in sleep quality in the first trimester may provide a pathway to reduce plasma RBP4, which is beneficial for less IR and GDM prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108866DOI Listing
June 2021

Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and associated factors among pregnant women in China: a multi-center cross-sectional study based on health belief model.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Aug 14;17(8):2378-2388. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

: Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as an urgent public health issue. We aimed to explore the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and related factors among pregnant women, a vulnerable population for vaccine-preventable diseases. A multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women was conducted in five provinces of mainland China from November 13 to 27, 2020. We collected sociodemographic characteristics, attitude, knowledge, and health beliefs on COVID-19 vaccination. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression analysis was used to assess the trends of vaccination acceptance. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors related to vaccination acceptance. Among the 1392 pregnant women, the acceptance rate of a COVID-19 vaccine were 77.4% (95%CI 75.1-79.5%). In the multivariable regression model, the acceptance rate was associated with young age (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), western region (aOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.72-4.32), low level of education (aOR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.13-5.51), late pregnancy (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03-2.16), high knowledge score on COVID-19 (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.10), high level of perceived susceptibility (aOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.36-3.49), low level of perceived barriers (aOR = 4.76, 95% CI: 2.23-10.18), high level of perceived benefit (aOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.36-3.49), and high level of perceived cues to action (aOR = 15.70, 95% CI: 8.28-29.80). About one quarters of pregnant women have vaccine hesitancy. Our findings highlight that targeted and multipronged efforts are needed to build vaccine literacy and confidence to increase the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for vulnerable populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1892432DOI Listing
August 2021

Fast Ion-Conducting Thioboracite with a Perovskite Topology and Argyrodite-like Lithium Substructure.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 30;143(18):6952-6961. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, and the Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

We report a new fast ion-conducting lithium thioborate halide, LiBSI, that crystallizes in either a cubic or tetragonal thioboracite structure, which is unprecedented in boron-sulfur chemistry. The cubic phase exhibits a perovskite topology and an argyrodite-like lithium substructure that leads to superionic conduction with a theoretical Li-ion conductivity of 5.2 mS cm calculated from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). Combined single-crystal X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, and AIMD simulations elucidate the Li-ion conduction pathways through 3D intra- and intercage connections and Li-ion site disorder, which are all essential for high lithium mobility. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Li ordering in the tetragonal polymorph impedes lithium-ion conduction, thus highlighting the importance of the lithium substructure and lattice symmetry in dictating transport properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00941DOI Listing
May 2021

The association between sleep duration and the risk of mortality in the Chinese older adults: a national cohort study.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Study Objectives: Cohort studies about the sleep duration on the risk of deaths among Chinese older adults are still lacking. The aim of this study was to examine whether extremely sleep duration was associated with mortality in Chinese adults aged 65 years or older.

Methods: We included participants aged 65 years or older in 2011 at baseline in 23 provinces from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) who were followed up at 2014/2018 in China. The sleep duration was categorized as short sleep duration (<7h) and long sleep duration (>8h). We used the cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic spline analysis to explore the association between sleep duration and mortality.

Results: Among 9578 participants, short sleep duration was associated with 11% higher risk of deaths (aHR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20) and long sleep duration was associated with 24% higher risk of deaths (aHR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.34), after adjustment of all the covariates. There was a U-shaped association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality (non-linear: P<0.0001). Stratified analyses showed that the risk was higher among older people who smoked and had higher level of education both for short and long sleepers than those who never smoked and were illiterate (P value for interaction < 0.05).

Conclusions: There was a U-shaped association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in the Chinese older adults, especially for educated population and smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.9278DOI Listing
April 2021

A high-efficiency mediator-free Z-scheme BiMoO/AgI heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;784:147227. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

A high-efficiency Z-scheme BiMoO/AgI heterojunction was designed and fabricated via in situ growth of AgI on BiMoO. Its photocatalytic activity was investigated with the degradation of malachite green (MG). After 40 min of visible light irradiation, near complete degradation of MG (20 mg/L) occurred when BA11 (BiMoO:AgI = 1:1, 2.0 g/L) was present, while only 29.0% and 49.7% of the MG could be degraded in the presence of BiMoO and AgI, respectively. The excellent photocatalytic activity of BA11 results from strong visible light absorption and the low recombination efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the formation of heterojunction. Density function theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the formation of built-in electric field at the interface between BiMoO and AgI facilitates the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. Results of reuse experiments indicated that the heterostructured photocatalyst has excellent stability. Radical scavenging experiments and electron spin resonance spectra showed that superoxide radicals (O) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were the major reactive oxygen species in the photocatalytic system. The photocatalytic degradation pathway of MG was proposed based on the organic degradation intermediates detected. These findings demonstrate that the mediator-free Z-scheme BiMoO/AgI heterojunction could serve as a promising photocatalyst in photocatalytic treatment of organic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147227DOI Listing
August 2021

Cytocompatibility of Ti-xZr alloys as dental implant materials.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Apr 23;32(5):50. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, PR China.

Ti-xZr (x = 5, 15, 25, 35, 45% wt%) alloys with low elastic modulus and high mechanical strength were fabricated as a novel implant material. The biocompatibility of the Ti-xZr alloys was evaluated by osteoblast-like cell line (MG63) in terms of cytotoxicity, proliferation, adhesion, and osteogenic induction using CCK-8 and live/dead cell assays, electron microscopy, and real-time PCR. The Ti-xZr alloys were non-toxic and showed superior biomechanics compared to commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Ti-45Zr had the optimum strength/elastic modulus ratio and osteogenic activity, thus is a promising to used as dental implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06522-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064977PMC
April 2021

Prevalence of toothache in Chinese adults aged 65 years and above.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of toothache and its risk indicators in the older Chinese population.

Methods: National cross-sectional survey data on 25 048 Chinese people ≥65 years in 2011, 2014 and 2018 survey year were analysed and then pooled. Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in prevalence among specific subgroups. Multivariate modified Poisson regression analyses with robust error variances were used to detect related factors and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated.

Results: The prevalence of toothache was 16.3% (95% CI: 15.5%-17.1%), 12.8% (95% CI: 12.0%-13.7%) and 16.0% (95% CI: 15.3%-16.7%) in years 2011, 2014 and 2018. In the pooled multivariate Poisson regression model, factors associated with toothache were female (PR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.18-1.37), younger age (PR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.63-2.09), currently married and living with spouse (PR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15), current living in urban area (PR:1.12, 95% CI: 1.06-1.20), enough financial support (PR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.65-0.74), having chronic disease (PR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.57), higher sugar intake (PR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17), salty flavour (PR:1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.23), smoking (PR: 1.14, 95% CI:1.06-1.23) or drinking (PR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09-1.25), with denture (PR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.08-1.22) and higher toothbrushing frequency (PR: 1.25-1.50).

Conclusions: More than one in ten older Chinese population had toothache, and it was related to age, gender, socioeconomic status, behaviour and oral health status. Lifestyle interventions should be taken to avoid the occurrence of the toothache.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12640DOI Listing
April 2021

CircFAT1 facilitates cervical cancer malignant progression by regulating ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway through miR-409-3p/CDK8 axis.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Ultrasonography, The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan, China.

Circular RNA FAT atypical cadherin 1 (circFAT1) has been reported to play vital roles in the progression of some cancers. However, the regulatory role and underlying mechanisms of circFAT1 in cervical cancer (CC) remain largely unknown. The expression of circFAT1, microRNA (miR)-409-3p and cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) was detected using qRT-PCR and Western blot assays. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in vitro were investigated using cell counting kit-8, colony formation, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. Western blot assay was used to determine the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway. The interaction miR-409-3p and circFAT1 or CDK8 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter, pull-down or RIP assays. The effects of circFAT1 in vivo were determined using xenograft models. CircFAT1 was highly expressed in CC, and closely associated with poor prognosis. CircFAT1 knockdown resulted in the suppression of proliferation, migration and invasion, and promotion of apoptosis in CC cells via the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway; also, circFAT1 silencing could inactivate this pathway and repressed CC tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic analysis showed that circFAT1 directly sponged miR-409-3p and then relieved the repressive effect of miR-409-3p on its target CDK8. Furthermore, miR-409-3p inhibition reversed the effects of circFAT1 silencing on CC cells. Whereas, miR-409-3p overexpression impeded CC cell growth and motility, which was attenuated by CDK8. CircFAT1 promoted CC progression via activating ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway through the miR-409-3p/CDK8 axis, suggesting a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21816DOI Listing
April 2021

Trends of the global, regional and national incidence of malaria in 204 countries from 1990 to 2019 and implications for malaria prevention.

J Travel Med 2021 Jul;28(5)

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Malaria is a life-threatening disease worldwide, but lacks studies on its incidence at the global level. We aimed to describe global trends and regional diversities in incidence of malaria infection, to make global tailored implications for malaria prevention.

Methods: We used the data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) and absolute number of malaria episodes showed the epidemic status of malaria infection. The estimated annual percentage change of ASR and changes in malaria episodes quantified the malaria incidence trends. The connection between ASRs and traveller number indicated infection risk for travellers.

Results: Globally, the malaria ASR decreased by an average 0.80% (95% confidence interval 0.58-1.02%) per year from 1990 to 2019; however, it slightly increased from 3195.32 per 100 000 in 2015 to 3247.02 per 100 000 in 2019. The incidence rate of children under 5 was higher than other age groups. A total of 40 countries had higher ASRs in 2019 than in 2015, with the largest expansion in Cabo Verde (from 2.02 per 100 000 to 597.00 per 100 000). After 2015, the ASRs in high-middle, middle and low-middle Socio-demographic Index regions began to rise and the uptrends remained in 2019. Central, Western and Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest ASRs since 1990, and traveller number in Eastern and Western Sub-Saharan Africa increased by 31.24 and 7.58%, respectively, from 2017 to 2018. Especially, most countries with ASR over 10 000 per 100 000 had increase in traveller number from 2017 to 2018, with the highest change by 89.56% in Mozambique.

Conclusions: Malaria is still a public health threat for locals and travellers in Sub-Saharan Africa and other malaria-endemic areas, especially for children under 5. There were unexpected global uptrends of malaria ASRs from 2015 to 2019. More studies are needed to achieve the goal of malaria elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taab046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271200PMC
July 2021

Effects of physical activity on cognitive function among patients with diabetes in China: a nationally longitudinal study.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 11;21(1):481. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: We aimed to examine the effect of physical activity on different cognitive domains among patients with diabetes.

Methods: We used two waves of data from the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013-2015), a nationally representative dataset of Chinese population aged over 45. Total physical activity scores were calculated based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Executive function and episodic memory were used as measures of cognitive function. We conducted lagged dependent variable models to explore the association between physical activity and cognitive function in full sample as well as two different age groups (45-65, ≥65).

Results: 862 diabetic patients were included. We found that diabetic participants who had greater level of physical activity at baseline were associated with better episodic memory function in 2 years (p < 0.05). Moreover, physical activity was significantly associated with less decline in episodic memory in fully adjusted models, and the associations were stronger among patients aged 45-65 years (p < 0.05). No statistically significant association was found between physical activity and executive function in all age groups.

Conclusions: Physical activity may prevent some of the potential decline in episodic memory in diabetic patients. Clinicians and public health departments should strengthen the promotion of physical activity and develop early screening tools among diabetic participants to prevent the progression of cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10537-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948339PMC
March 2021

Porcine Circovirus Type 3 Enters Into PK15 Cells Through Clathrin- and Dynamin-2-Mediated Endocytosis in a Rab5/Rab7 and pH-Dependent Fashion.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:636307. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Poultry, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, China.

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) invades multiple tissues and organs of pigs of different ages and are widely spread throughout pig farms, emerging as an important viral pathogen that can potentially damage the pig industry worldwide. Since PCV3 is a newly discovered virus, many aspects of its life cycle remain unknown. Porcine kidney epithelial cells are important host targets for PCV3. Here, we used systematic approaches to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the cell entry and intracellular trafficking of PCV3 in PK15 cells, a cell line of porcine kidney epithelial origin. A large number of PCV3 viral particles were found to colocalize with clathrin but not caveolin-1 after entry, and PCV3 infection was significantly decreased when treated with chlorpromazine, dynasore, knockdown of clathrin heavy chain expression via RNA interference, or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of EPS15 in PCV3-infected cells. After internalization, the viral particles were further observed to colocalize with Rab5 and Rab7, and knockdown of both expression by RNA interference significantly inhibited PCV3 replication. We also found that PCV3 infection was impeded by ammonium chloride treatment, which indicated the requirement of an acidic environment for viral entry. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PCV3 enters PK15 cells through a clathrin- and dynamin-2-mediated endocytic pathway, which requires early and late endosomal trafficking, as well as an acidic environment, providing an insightful theoretical basis for further understanding the PCV3 life cycle and its pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.636307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928314PMC
February 2021
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