Publications by authors named "Judy A Andrews"

58 Publications

Effect of a Responsiveness-Based Support Intervention on Smokeless Tobacco Cessation: The UCare-ChewFree Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 03;22(3):381-389

College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Introduction: Partner behaviors and attitudes can motivate or undermine a tobacco user's cessation efforts. We developed a multimedia intervention, UCare (Understanding-CAring-REspect) for women who wanted their male partner to quit smokeless tobacco (ST), based on perceived partner responsiveness-the empirically based theory that support is best received when the supporter conveys respect, understanding, and caring.

Methods: One thousand one hundred three women were randomized to receive either immediate access to the UCare website and printed booklet (Intervention; N = 552), or a Delayed Treatment control (N = 551). We assessed supportive behaviors and attitudes at baseline and 6-week follow-up, and the ST-using partner's abstinence at 6 weeks and 7.5 months (surrogate report).

Results: For partners of women assigned to Intervention, 7.0% had quit all tobacco at 7.5 months, compared with 6.6% for control (χ2 (1, n = 1088) = .058, p = .810). For partners of women completing the intervention, 12.4% had quit all tobacco at 7.5 months, compared with 6.6% for Delayed Treatment (χ2 (1, n = 753) = 6.775, p = .009). A previously reported change in responsiveness-based behaviors and instrumental behaviors at 6 weeks mediated 7.5-month cessation, and change in responsiveness-based attitudes mediated the change in responsiveness-based behaviors, indirectly increasing cessation.

Conclusions: A responsiveness-based intervention with female partners of male ST users improved supportive attitudes and behaviors, leading to higher cessation rates among tobacco users not actively seeking to quit. The study demonstrates the potential for responsiveness as a basis for effective intervention with supporters. This approach may reach tobacco users who would not directly seek help.

Implications: This study demonstrates the value of a responsiveness-based intervention (showing respect, understanding, and caring) in training partners to provide support for a loved one to quit ST. In a randomized clinical trial, 1,103 women married to or living with a ST user were randomized to receive the UCare-ChewFree intervention (website + booklet) or a Delayed Treatment control. Women completing the intervention were more likely to improve their behaviors and attitudes, and change in behaviors and attitudes mediated cessation outcomes for their partners, who had not enrolled in the study and may not have been seeking to quit.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01885221.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntz074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297097PMC
March 2020

A Multimedia Support Skills Intervention for Female Partners of Male Smokeless Tobacco Users: Use and Perceived Acceptability.

JMIR Form Res 2018 Jan-Jun;2(1)

College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States.

Background: UCare is a new multimedia (website+booklet) intervention for women who want their male partner to quit their use of smokeless tobacco. The intervention is based on research showing that perceived partner responsiveness to social support is highest when the supporter conveys respect, understanding, and caring in their actions. The website included both didactic and interactive features, with optional video components, and special activities to help women develop empathy for nicotine addiction. The booklet reinforced the website content, encouraged women to use the website, and served both as a physical reminder of the intervention and a convenient way to share the information with her partner.

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the utilization and acceptability of a multimedia intervention among women seeking to support their partner in quitting smokeless tobacco. Lessons learned with respect to design considerations for online interventions are also summarized.

Methods: We present the evaluation of the intervention components' use and usefulness in a randomized trial.

Results: In the randomized clinical trial, more than 250,000 visits were made to the website in a 2-year period, with the vast majority from mobile devices. Of the 552 women randomized to receive the intervention, 96.9% (535/552) visited the website at least once, and 30.8% (170/552) completed the core website component, "The Basics." About half of the women (287/552) used the interactive "Take Notes" feature, and 37% (204/552) used the checklists. Few women used the post-Basics features. At 6 weeks, 40.7% (116/285) reported reading the printed and mailed booklet. Website and booklet use were uncorrelated. User ratings for the website and booklet were positive overall.

Conclusions: Intervention website designers should consider that many users will access the program only once or twice, and many will not complete it. It is also important to distinguish between core and supplemental features and to consider whether the primary purpose is training or support. Furthermore, printed materials still have value.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01885221; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01885221 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zdIgGGtx).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/formative.9948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294132PMC
December 2018

Parent-Child Conflict during Elementary School as a Longitudinal Predictor of Sense of Purpose in Emerging Adulthood.

J Youth Adolesc 2019 Jan 21;48(1):145-153. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

Having a sense of purpose is viewed as a benchmark of adaptive development. Though adolescence and emerging adulthood are viewed as central periods for the development of a purpose, work still is needed to understand the childhood factors that influence this developmental process. The current study provides an initial investigation into whether parent-child conflict during elementary school predicts later sense of purpose, assessed during emerging adulthood (mean age: 21.01 years; range: 19.97-23.53). The sample included 1074 students (50% female), and their parents, who both reported on their levels of parent-child conflict during grades 1-5. Higher levels of parent-child conflict were associated with lower levels of purpose in emerging adulthood. Moreover, the study examined whether these effects remained when predicting the variance unique to purpose while accounting for other indicators of well-being in emerging adulthood. Bi-factor models demonstrated that the child's perception of mother-child conflict has a unique prospective effect on purpose in emerging adulthood, above and beyond its negative association with general well-being. The findings are discussed with respect to how positive parent-child relationships may prove important for starting youth on the path to purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0912-8DOI Listing
January 2019

Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Pediatr 2017 08;171(8):788-797

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Importance: The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking.

Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking.

Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017. The search included indexed terms and text words to capture concepts associated with e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes in articles published from database inception to the date of the search.

Study Selection: Longitudinal studies reporting odds ratios for cigarette smoking initiation associated with ever use of e-cigarettes or past 30-day cigarette smoking associated with past 30-day e-cigarette use. Searches yielded 6959 unique studies, of which 9 met inclusion criteria (comprising 17 389 adolescents and young adults).

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, respectively. Data and estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Among baseline never cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation between baseline and follow-up. Among baseline non-past 30-day cigarette smokers who were past 30-day e-cigarette users, past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up.

Results: Among 17 389 adolescents and young adults, the ages ranged between 14 and 30 years at baseline, and 56.0% were female. The pooled probabilities of cigarette smoking initiation were 30.4% for baseline ever e-cigarette users and 7.9% for baseline never e-cigarette users. The pooled probabilities of past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up were 21.5% for baseline past 30-day e-cigarette users and 4.6% for baseline non-past 30-day e-cigarette users. Adjusting for known demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cigarette smoking, the pooled odds ratio for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation was 3.62 (95% CI, 2.42-5.41) for ever vs never e-cigarette users, and the pooled odds ratio for past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up was 4.28 (95% CI, 2.52-7.27) for past 30-day e-cigarette vs non-past 30-day e-cigarette users at baseline. A moderate level of heterogeneity was observed among studies (I2 = 60.1%).

Conclusions And Relevance: e-Cigarette use was associated with greater risk for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and past 30-day cigarette smoking. Strong e-cigarette regulation could potentially curb use among youth and possibly limit the future population-level burden of cigarette smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5656237PMC
August 2017

Postintervention Effects of Click City : Alcohol on Changing Etiological Mechanisms Related to the Onset of Heavy Drinking.

Health Educ Behav 2017 08 6;44(4):626-637. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

3 InterVision Media, Eugene, OR, USA.

Introduction: Alcohol consumption, including heavy drinking, is the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Youth who engage in heavy drinking are likely to experience a number of problems associated with their use. In 2015, U.S. prevalence of heavy drinking was 17% among 12th graders. These data suggest a clear need for conducting alcohol prevention activities among youth.

Method: We designed the Click City: Alcohol program for 7th graders, with a booster in 8th grade. We conducted an efficacy trial in 25 schools in three counties in Oregon. Schools were randomized to either the Click City: Alcohol ( n = 12) or Usual Curriculum condition ( n = 13). We present the results of a short-term evaluation, assessing change in outcomes from baseline to 1 week following the intervention among students in Click City: Alcohol schools versus those in Usual Curriculum schools.

Results: Students who used the Click City: Alcohol program significantly decreased their intentions to drink heavily in the future, as compared with students in the Usual Curriculum control condition, although the effect size was small. Changes in the targeted mechanisms were in the expected direction and were significant for all but one mechanism, with moderate effect sizes.

Conclusion: Our short-term findings provide preliminary support for the efficacy of the Click City: Alcohol program to change adolescents' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. If the results are maintained over time, the program has the potential to prevent the onset of heavy drinking among teens and reduce the negative consequences associated with heavy drinking, including neurological and other health consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198116683678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5529045PMC
August 2017

Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood: Development and Validation of a New Brief Measure.

J Posit Psychol 2016 May 3;11(3):237-245. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Oregon Research Institute.

Accruing evidence points to the value of studying purpose in life across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Research though is needed to understand the unique role of purpose in life in predicting well-being and developmentally relevant outcomes during emerging adulthood. The current studies (total = 669) found support for the development of a new brief measure of purpose in life using data from American and Canadian samples, while demonstrating evidence for two important findings. First, purpose in life predicted well-being during emerging adulthood, even when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Second, purpose in life was positively associated with self-image and negatively associated with delinquency, again controlling for personality traits. Findings are discussed with respect to how studying purpose in life can help understand which individuals are more likely to experience positive transitions into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1048817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779362PMC
May 2016

Utility of Responsiveness Theory for Classifying Supportive Behaviors to Enhance Smokeless Tobacco Cessation.

Nicotine Tob Res 2016 May 30;18(5):1150-6. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR;

Introduction: Although social support is correlated with successful tobacco cessation, interventions designed to optimize social support have shown mixed results. Understanding the process of providing social support for tobacco cessation may suggest new approaches to intervention. Responsiveness theory provides a new framework for classifying supportive behaviors in the context of tobacco cessation. It proposes three main components to sustaining relationship quality when providing support to an intimate partner: showing respect, showing understanding, and showing caring.

Methods: Interviews were conducted with 35 women whose husbands or domestic partners had quit smokeless tobacco and were analyzed within a responsiveness theory framework: Positive and negative instances of the three supportive components were expressed in terms of beliefs and attitudes, interactions with the chewer, and behaviors outside of the interaction context.

Results: Positive activities included respecting the chewer's decision on whether, when, and how to quit; perspective-taking and other efforts to understand his subjective experience; and expressing warmth and affection toward the chewer. Particularly problematic for the women were the challenges of respecting the chewer's autonomy (ie, negative behaviors such as nagging him to quit or monitoring his adherence to his cessation goal) and lack of understanding the nature of addiction.

Conclusions: The findings help to confirm the potential utility of responsiveness theory for elucidating the breadth of both positive and negative forms of partner support that may be useful to guide social support interventions for tobacco cessation.

Implications: The study provides a categorization system for positive and negative social support during smokeless tobacco cessation, based on responsiveness theory and interviews with 35 partners of smokeless users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896840PMC
May 2016

Harsh Environments, Life History Strategies, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study of Oregon Youth.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Jan;88:120-124

University of Connecticut.

We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Five cohorts of children in Grades 1-5 at recruitment were assessed through one-year post high school. Greater environmental harshness (neighborhood quality and family poverty) in Grades 1-6 predicted less parental investment at Grade 8. This parenting style was related to the development of fast LHS (favorable beliefs about substance users and willingness to use substances at Grade 9, and engagement in substance use and risky sexual behavior assessed across Grades 10-12). The indirect path from harsh environment through parenting and LHS to (less) psychological adjustment (indicated by lower life satisfaction, self-rated health, trait sociability, and higher depression) was significant (indirect effect -.024, = .011, 95% CI = -.043, -.006.). This chain of development was comparable to that found by Gibbons et al. (2012) for an African-American sample that, unlike the present study, included perceived racial discrimination in the assessment of harsh environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593070PMC
January 2016

Association of the OPRM1 Variant rs1799971 (A118G) with Non-Specific Liability to Substance Dependence in a Collaborative de novo Meta-Analysis of European-Ancestry Cohorts.

Authors:
Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An Juan Zhang Li-Shiun Chen Sarah M Hartz Robert C Culverhouse Xiangning Chen Hilary Coon Josef Frank Helen M Kamens Bettina Konte Leena Kovanen Antti Latvala Lisa N Legrand Brion S Maher Whitney E Melroy Elliot C Nelson Mark W Reid Jason D Robinson Pei-Hong Shen Bao-Zhu Yang Judy A Andrews Paul Aveyard Olga Beltcheva Sandra A Brown Dale S Cannon Sven Cichon Robin P Corley Norbert Dahmen Louisa Degenhardt Tatiana Foroud Wolfgang Gaebel Ina Giegling Stephen J Glatt Richard A Grucza Jill Hardin Annette M Hartmann Andrew C Heath Stefan Herms Colin A Hodgkinson Per Hoffmann Hyman Hops David Huizinga Marcus Ising Eric O Johnson Elaine Johnstone Radka P Kaneva Kenneth S Kendler Falk Kiefer Henry R Kranzler Ken S Krauter Orna Levran Susanne Lucae Michael T Lynskey Wolfgang Maier Karl Mann Nicholas G Martin Manuel Mattheisen Grant W Montgomery Bertram Müller-Myhsok Michael F Murphy Michael C Neale Momchil A Nikolov Denise Nishita Markus M Nöthen John Nurnberger Timo Partonen Michele L Pergadia Maureen Reynolds Monika Ridinger Richard J Rose Noora Rouvinen-Lagerström Norbert Scherbaum Christine Schmäl Michael Soyka Michael C Stallings Michael Steffens Jens Treutlein Ming Tsuang Tamara L Wall Norbert Wodarz Vadim Yuferov Peter Zill Andrew W Bergen Jingchun Chen Paul M Cinciripini Howard J Edenberg Marissa A Ehringer Robert E Ferrell Joel Gelernter David Goldman John K Hewitt Christian J Hopfer William G Iacono Jaakko Kaprio Mary Jeanne Kreek Ivo M Kremensky Pamela A F Madden Matt McGue Marcus R Munafò Robert A Philibert Marcella Rietschel Alec Roy Dan Rujescu Sirkku T Saarikoski Gary E Swan Alexandre A Todorov Michael M Vanyukov Robert B Weiss Laura J Bierut Nancy L Saccone

Behav Genet 2016 Mar 21;46(2):151-69. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 4523 Clayton Avenue, Campus Box 8232, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

The mu1 opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has long been a high-priority candidate for human genetic studies of addiction. Because of its potential functional significance, the non-synonymous variant rs1799971 (A118G, Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 has been extensively studied, yet its role in addiction has remained unclear, with conflicting association findings. To resolve the question of what effect, if any, rs1799971 has on substance dependence risk, we conducted collaborative meta-analyses of 25 datasets with over 28,000 European-ancestry subjects. We investigated non-specific risk for "general" substance dependence, comparing cases dependent on any substance to controls who were non-dependent on all assessed substances. We also examined five specific substance dependence diagnoses: DSM-IV alcohol, opioid, cannabis, and cocaine dependence, and nicotine dependence defined by the proxy of heavy/light smoking (cigarettes-per-day >20 vs. ≤ 10). The G allele showed a modest protective effect on general substance dependence (OR = 0.90, 95% C.I. [0.83-0.97], p value = 0.0095, N = 16,908). We observed similar effects for each individual substance, although these were not statistically significant, likely because of reduced sample sizes. We conclude that rs1799971 contributes to mechanisms of addiction liability that are shared across different addictive substances. This project highlights the benefits of examining addictive behaviors collectively and the power of collaborative data sharing and meta-analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-015-9737-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752855PMC
March 2016

Prospective Predictors of Novel Tobacco and Nicotine Product Use in Emerging Adulthood.

J Adolesc Health 2015 Aug;57(2):186-91

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether risk factors for cigarette smoking assessed in adolescence predict the use of novel tobacco and nicotine products (hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes) in early emerging adulthood.

Methods: In a longitudinal study (N = 862), risk factors were measured in middle and high school, and novel product use was measured in emerging adulthood (mean age 22.4 years). Structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting lifetime use of any of hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes in early emerging adulthood from distal predictors (gender, maternal smoking through Grade 8; already tried alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana by Grade 8; and sensation seeking at Grade 8) and potential mediators (intentions to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or smoke marijuana at Grade 9, and smoking trajectory across high school).

Results: The most prevalent novel tobacco product was hookah (21.7%), followed by little cigars (16.8%) and e-cigarettes (6.6%). Maternal smoking, having already tried substances, and sensation seeking each predicted the use of at least one of these products via an indirect path through intentions to use substances and membership in a high-school smoking trajectory.

Conclusions: Risk factors for cigarette smoking were found to predict novel tobacco use, suggesting that interventions to prevent cigarette smoking could be extended to include common novel tobacco products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514910PMC
August 2015

Randomized Controlled Trial of the Combined Effects of Web and Quitline Interventions for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation.

Internet Interv 2015 May;2(2):143-151

Oregon Research Institute, 1776 Millrace Drive, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Background: Use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) is a significant public health problem but smokeless tobacco users have few resources to help them quit. Web programs and telephone-based programs (Quitlines) have been shown to be effective for smoking cessation. We evaluate the effectiveness of a Web program, a Quitline, and the combination of the two for smokeless users recruited via the Web.

Objectives: To test whether offering both a Web and Quitline intervention for smokeless tobacco users results in significantly better long-term tobacco abstinence outcomes than offering either intervention alone; to test whether the offer of Web or Quitline results in better outcome than a self-help manual only Control condition; and to report the usage and satisfaction of the interventions when offered alone or combined.

Methods: Smokeless tobacco users (N= 1,683) wanting to quit were recruited online and randomly offered one of four treatment conditions in a 2×2 design: Web Only, Quitline Only, Web + Quitline, and Control (printed self-help guide). Point-prevalence all tobacco abstinence was assessed at 3- and 6-months post enrollment.

Results: 69% of participants completed both the 3- and 6-month assessments. There was no significant additive or synergistic effect of combining the two interventions for Complete Case or the more rigorous Intent To Treat (ITT) analyses. Significant simple effects were detected, individually the interventions were more efficacious than the control in achieving repeated 7-day point prevalence all tobacco abstinence: Web (ITT, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.94, = ) and Quitline (ITT: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.11, = ). Participants were more likely to complete a Quitline call when offered only the Quitline intervention (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = .054, .093, = .013), the number of website visits and duration did not differ when offered alone or in combination with Quitline. Rates of program helpfulness ( <.05) and satisfaction ( <.05) were higher for those offered both interventions versus offered only quitline.

Conclusion: Combining Web and Quitline interventions did not result in additive or synergistic effects, as have been found for smoking. Both interventions were more effective than a self-help control condition in helping motivated smokeless tobacco users quit tobacco. Intervention usage and satisfaction were related to the amount intervention content offered. Usage of the Quitline intervention decreased when offered in combination, though rates of helpfulness and recommendations were higher when offered in combination.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00820495; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00820495.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2015.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405799PMC
May 2015

Long-term efficacy of click city(r): tobacco: a school-based tobacco prevention program.

Nicotine Tob Res 2014 Jan 24;16(1):33-41. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR;

Introduction: Click City (®) : Tobacco is an innovative, computer-based tobacco prevention program designed to be implemented in 5th-grade classrooms with a booster in 6th grade. The program targets etiological mechanisms predictive of future willingness and intentions to use tobacco and initiation of tobacco use. Each component was empirically evaluated to assure that it changed its targeted mechanism. This paper describes long-term outcomes for students who participated in a randomized controlled efficacy trial of the program.

Methods: A total of 26 middle schools were stratified and randomly assigned to the Click City (®) : Tobacco program or Usual Curriculum. The 47 elementary schools that fed into each middle school were assigned to the same condition as their respective middle school. In Click City (®) : Tobacco schools, 1,168 students from 24 elementary schools and 13 middle schools participated. In Usual Curriculum schools, 1,154 students from 23 elementary schools and 13 middle schools participated. All participating students completed baseline, post-6th grade program, and 7th grade assessments.

Results: As compared to students in schools that continued with their usual curriculum, intentions and willingness to smoke increased less from baseline to 6th grade and from baseline to 7th grade, among students in schools that used the Click City (®) : Tobacco curriculum. Changes in mechanisms were also in the expected direction. The program was particularly efficacious for at-risk students.

Conclusions: Results provide evidence to support the long-term efficacy of Click City (®) : Tobacco. Program development, based on an empirical evaluation of each component, most likely played a role in the success of the program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntt106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864488PMC
January 2014

Randomized controlled trial of MyLastDip: a Web-based smokeless tobacco cessation program for chewers ages 14-25.

Nicotine Tob Res 2013 Sep 14;15(9):1502-10. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Introduction: Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is a significant public health problem for young adults, many of whom want to quit. We describe the outcome of a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of two web-based ST cessation interventions targeting young chewers.

Methods: One thousand seven hundred and sixteen ST users wanting to quit were recruited online to the MyLastDip program and randomly assigned to one of two fully automated web-based ST cessation interventions: (a) an Enhanced Condition (N = 857) with tailored treatment recommendations and interactive features, or (b) a Basic Condition (N = 859) that provided an online ST cessation guide in static text.

Results: Assessment completion rates at 3 months, 6 months, and for both 3 and 6 months were 73%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. No significant differences were found between conditions. Using complete case analysis for repeated point prevalence (3- and 6-month assessments), all tobacco abstinence was 28.9% for participants in the Enhanced Condition and 25.6% in the Basic Condition. Using intent-to-treat analysis, abstinence rates were 35.2% versus 32.3%. Similar results were obtained for ST abstinence. Participants reported being satisfied with their programs and the Enhanced Condition participants were relatively more engaged. Differences in program engagement were not related to tobacco abstinence at 6 months.

Conclusions: Both web-based ST cessation programs encouraged robust levels of absolute tobacco and ST abstinence at follow-up. The absence of between-group differences was discussed in terms of composition of the control condition and implications for next steps in treatment development and testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntt006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3741058PMC
September 2013

Smoking trajectories across high school: sensation seeking and Hookah use.

Nicotine Tob Res 2013 Aug 15;15(8):1400-8. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97403-2536, USA.

Introduction: This study investigated the associations of trajectories of cigarette smoking over the high school years with the prior development of childhood sensation seeking and the subsequent use of cigarettes and hookah at age 20/21.

Methods: Participants (N = 963) were members of a cohort-sequential longitudinal study, the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. Sensation seeking was assessed across 4th-8th grades and cigarette smoking was assessed across 9th-12th grades. Cigarette and hookah use was assessed at age 20/21 for 684 of the 963 participants.

Results: Four trajectory classes were identified: Stable High Smokers (6%), Rapid Escalators (8%), Experimenters (15%), and Stable Nonsmokers or very occasional smokers (71%). Membership in any smoker class versus nonsmokers was predicted by initial level and growth of sensation seeking. At age 20/21, there was a positive association between smoking and hookah use for Nonsmokers and Experimenters in high school, whereas this association was not significant for Stable High Smokers or Rapid Escalators.

Conclusions: Level and rate of growth of sensation seeking are risk factors for adolescent smoking during high school (Stable High Smokers, Rapid Escalators, and Experimenters), suggesting the need for interventions to reduce the rate of increase in childhood sensation seeking. For those who were not already established smokers by the end of high school, hookah use may have served as a gateway to smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3715388PMC
August 2013

A randomized clinical trial of a web-based tobacco cessation education program.

Pediatrics 2013 Feb 14;131(2):e455-62. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, 1450 E. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.

Objectives: We report the results of a randomized clinical trial of a 3-hour, web-based, tobacco cessation education program, the Web-Based Respiratory Education About Tobacco and Health (WeBREATHe) program, for practicing pediatric respiratory therapists (RTs), registered nurses (RNs), and nurse practitioners (NPs).

Methods: Two hundred fifteen RTs (n = 40), RNs (n = 163), and NPs (n = 12) employed at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Children's Hospital, University of Colorado at Denver, participated in this study. All study activities were completed online. After consenting, participants were randomly assigned to either the training (intervention) or delayed training (control) condition. The training condition consisted of a 3-hour continuing education unit course plus ongoing online resources. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1 week, and 3 months after enrollment.

Results: Participants in the training condition were more likely to increase their tobacco cessation intervention behaviors than their delayed training counterparts (F[1, 213] = 32.03, P < .001). Training participants showed significantly greater levels of advise (F[1, 213] = 7.22, P < .001); assess (F[1, 213] = 19.56, P < .001); and particularly assist/arrange (F[1213] = 35.52, P < .001). In addition, training condition participants rated the program highly on measures of consumer satisfaction.

Conclusions: The WeBREATHe program is the first evidence-based education program in tobacco cessation designed specifically for pediatric RTs, RNs, and NPs. Engagement in WeBREATHe increased participants' tobacco cessation-related behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3557402PMC
February 2013

Gender differences in pubertal timing, social competence, and cigarette use: a test of the early maturation hypothesis.

J Adolesc Health 2012 Aug 13;51(2):150-5. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA.

Purpose: The timing of pubertal maturation has been associated with cigarette use, but the exact mechanisms by which maturation influences cigarette use are unclear. One hypothesis posited to explain this association is the early maturation hypothesis, that boys and girls who mature earlier than their peers have developed physically before their social resources have fully developed, leaving them ill-equipped to deal with challenges that may arise when entering physical maturity. This prospective study examines the relations between pubertal timing, social competence, and cigarette use in a sample of 1,013 boys and girls, followed from 5th through 12th grade.

Methods: Latent growth modeling was used to predict cigarette use across high school years (grades 9-12) from pubertal timing assessed in 5th grade (for girls) and 6th grade (for boys) as mediated by social competence across grades 6-8.

Results: Earlier pubertal maturation predicted cigarette use in 9th grade and increased cigarette use across high school. Earlier maturation also predicted lower social competence in 6th grade. For girls, social competence partially mediated the relation between pubertal timing and cigarette use.

Conclusions: The data supported the early maturation hypothesis for both boys and girls, as earlier maturers were more likely to smoke in 9th grade and had lower social competence in 6th grade. However, social competence partially mediated cigarette use for girls only. The mechanisms by which negative outcomes are associated with pubertal maturation appear to differ by gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405903PMC
August 2012

Feasibility of ecological momentary assessment of hearing difficulties encountered by hearing aid users.

Ear Hear 2012 Jul-Aug;33(4):497-507

VA RR&D National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research, VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Objectives: Measurement of outcomes has become increasingly important to assess the benefit of audiologic rehabilitation, including hearing aids, in adults. Data from questionnaires, however, are based on retrospective recall of events and experiences, and often can be inaccurate. Questionnaires also do not capture the daily variation that typically occurs in relevant events and experiences. Clinical researchers in a variety of fields have turned to a methodology known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess quotidian experiences associated with health problems. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using EMA to obtain real-time responses from hearing aid users describing their experiences with challenging hearing situations.

Design: This study required three phases: (1) develop EMA methodology to assess hearing difficulties experienced by hearing aid users; (2) make use of focus groups to refine the methodology; and (3) test the methodology with 24 hearing aid users. Phase 3 participants carried a personal digital assistant 12 hr per day for 2 weeks. The personal digital assistant alerted participants to respond to questions four times a day. Each assessment started with a question to determine whether a hearing problem was experienced since the last alert. If "yes," then up to 23 questions (depending on contingent response branching) obtained details about the situation. If "no," then up to 11 questions obtained information that would help to explain why hearing was not a problem. Each participant completed the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) both before and after the 2-week EMA testing period to evaluate for "reactivity" (exacerbation of self-perceived hearing problems that could result from the repeated assessments).

Results: Participants responded to the alerts with a 77% compliance rate, providing a total of 991 completed momentary assessments (mean = 43.1 per participant). A substantial amount of data were obtained with the methodology. It is important to note that participants reported a "hearing problem situation since the last alert" 37.6% of the time (372 responses). The most common problem situation involved "face-to-face conversation" (53.8% of the time). The next most common problem situation was "telephone conversation" (17.2%) followed by "TV, radio, iPod, etc." (15.3%), "environmental sounds" (9.7%), and "movies, lecture, etc." (4.0%). Comparison of pre- and post-EMA mean HHIE scores revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05), indicating that reactivity did not occur for this group. It should be noted, however, that 37.5% of participants reported a greater sense of awareness regarding their hearing loss and use of hearing aids.

Conclusions: Results showed participants were compliant, gave positive feedback, and did not demonstrate reactivity based on pre- and post-HHIE scores. We conclude that EMA methodology is feasible with patients who use hearing aids and could potentially inform hearing healthcare (HHC) services. The next step is to develop and evaluate EMA protocols that provide detailed daily patient information to audiologists at each stage of HHC. The advantages of such an approach would be to obtain real-life outcome measures, and to determine within- and between-day variability in outcomes and associated factors. Such information at present is not available from patients who seek and use HHC services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182498c41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383355PMC
November 2012

Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012 Aug 14;37(8):1158-70. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, United States.

We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps<0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3774595PMC
August 2012

Using the Implicit Association Test to Assess Children's Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking.

J Appl Soc Psychol 2010 Sep;40(9):2387-2406

Oregon Research Institute.

The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with "sweets" as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with "healthy foods" as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable implicit attitude toward smoking. Further, implicit attitudes became less favorable after engaging in tobacco prevention activities targeting risk perceptions of addiction. Results support the reliability and validity of this version of the IAT and illustrate its usefulness in assessing young children's implicit attitude toward smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00663.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090631PMC
September 2010

Parenting and trajectories of children's maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2011 ;40(3):468-78

Department of Psychology, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.563470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3086657PMC
August 2011

Short-term efficacy of Click City®: Tobacco: changing etiological mechanisms related to the onset of tobacco use.

Prev Sci 2011 Mar;12(1):89-102

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Blvd., Eugene, OR 97403-1983, USA.

This paper described the short-term results from an ongoing randomized controlled efficacy study of Click City®: Tobacco, a tobacco prevention program designed for 5th graders, with a booster in sixth grade. Click City®: Tobacco is an innovative school-based prevention program delivered via an intranet, a series of linked computers with a single server. The components of the program target theoretically based and empirically supported etiological mechanisms predictive of future willingness and intentions to use tobacco and initiation of tobacco use. Each component was designed to change one or more etiological mechanisms and was empirically evaluated in the laboratory prior to inclusion in the program. Short-term results from 47 elementary schools (24 schools who used Click City®: Tobacco, and 23 who continued with their usual curriculum) showed change in intentions and willingness to use tobacco from baseline to 1-week following the completion of the 5th grade sessions. The results demonstrate the short-term efficacy of this program and suggest that experimentally evaluating components prior to including them in the program contributed to the efficacy of the program. The program was most efficacious for students who were most at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-010-0192-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042027PMC
March 2011

Early adolescent cognitions as predictors of heavy alcohol use in high school.

Addict Behav 2011 May 10;36(5):448-55. Epub 2010 Dec 10.

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Blvd., Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

The present study predicts heavy alcohol use across the high school years (aged 14 through 18) from cognitions regarding the use of alcohol assessed in middle school. Using Latent Growth Modeling, we examined a structural model using data from 1011 participants in the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. In this model, social images and descriptive norms regarding alcohol use in grade 7 were related to willingness and intention to drink alcohol in grade 8 and these variables were subsequently related to the intercept and slope of extent of heavy drinking across the high school years (grades 9 through 12). Across the sample, both descriptive norms and social images influenced the intercept of heavy drinking (in the 9th grade) through willingness to drink alcohol. Multiple sample analyses showed that social images also were directly related to the intercept of heavy drinking, for girls only. Results suggest that cognitions regarding alcohol use in middle school predict subsequent heavy drinking in high school. These findings emphasize the need for prevention programs targeting changing students' social images and encouraging a more accurate perception of peers' use when students are in middle school.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102557PMC
May 2011

Do faxed quitline referrals add value to dental office-based tobacco-use cessation interventions?

J Am Dent Assoc 2010 Aug;141(8):1000-7

Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1450 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.

Background: The Ask, Advise, Refer (AAR) model of intervening with patients who use tobacco promotes a brief office-based intervention plus referral to a tobacco quitline. However, there is little evidence that this model is effective. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on patients' tobacco use of two levels of a dental office-based intervention compared with usual care.

Methods: The authors randomly assigned 68 private dental clinics to one of three conditions: 5 As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange); 3 As (AAR model); or usual care, and they enrolled 2,160 participants.

Results: At the 12-month assessment, compared with those in usual care, participants in the two intervention conditions combined were more likely to report cessation of tobacco use, as measured by nine-month prolonged abstinence (3 percent versus 2 percent; F(1,66) = 3.97, P < .10) and 12-month point prevalence (12 percent versus 8 percent; F(1,66) = 7.32, P < .01). There were no significant differences between participants in the clinics using the 5 As and 3 As strategies.

Conclusions: The results of this study are inconclusive as to whether referrals to a quitline add value to brief dental office-based interventions. Patients receiving telephone counseling quit tobacco use at higher rates, but only a small percentage of those proactively referred actually received counseling.

Clinical Implications: The results confirm those of previous research: that training dental practitioners to provide brief tobacco-use cessation advice and assistance results in a change in their behavior, and that these practitioners are effective in helping their patients to quit using tobacco.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3780769PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2010.0314DOI Listing
August 2010

Do trajectories of household risk in childhood moderate pubertal timing effects on substance initiation in middle school?

Dev Psychol 2010 Jul;46(4):853-68

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Previous research on pubertal timing has either evaluated contextual predictors of early puberty or negative adjustment outcomes associated with off-time development, especially early maturation. In this study, we integrated these 2 lines of research by evaluating the moderating influence of early childhood household risk on associations between early puberty and 8th-grade substance use in a longitudinal sample of 1,070 participants. We determined trajectories of early childhood household risk using group-based trajectory analysis. Rates of early maturation were higher but not significantly so in groups with high household risk. Early timing was associated with higher rates of substance initiation only among individuals with a history of high household risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2956585PMC
July 2010

Tobacco cessation via public dental clinics: results of a randomized trial.

Am J Public Health 2010 Jul 13;100(7):1307-12. Epub 2010 May 13.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

Objectives: We sought to compare the effectiveness of a dental practitioner advice and brief counseling intervention to quit tobacco use versus usual care for patients in community health centers on tobacco cessation, reduction in tobacco use, number of quit attempts, and change in readiness to quit.

Methods: We randomized 14 federally funded community health center dental clinics that serve diverse racial/ethnic groups in 3 states (Mississippi, New York, and Oregon) to the intervention (brief advice and assistance, including nicotine replacement therapy) or usual care group.

Results: We enrolled 2549 smokers. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly higher abstinence rates at the 7.5-month follow-up, for both point prevalence (F(1,12) = 6.84; P < .05) and prolonged abstinence (F(1,12) = 14.62; P < .01) than did those in the usual care group.

Conclusions: The results of our study suggest the viability and effectiveness of tobacco cessation services delivered to low-income smokers via their dental health care practitioner in community health centers. Tobacco cessation services delivered in public dental clinics have the potential to improve the health and well-being of millions of Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.181214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882418PMC
July 2010

The Relation of Change in Hostility and Sociability During Childhood to Substance Use in Mid Adolescence.

J Res Pers 2010 Feb;44(1):103-114

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon.

In a cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1,075), we related change in children's hostility and sociability assessed from 1(st)-8(th) grade to their use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana assessed from 9(th)-12(th) grade. Children who were more hostile at 1(st) grade, and had higher rates of growth of hostility, used more of all three substances at 9(th) grade, and those with higher initial levels of hostility increased their use of cigarettes and marijuana from 9(th) to 12(th) grade. Children who were more sociable at 1(st) grade used more alcohol at 9(th) grade. These findings demonstrate the significance of individual differences in the development of personality traits for the prediction of later substance use and have implications for prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854561PMC
February 2010

Smokeless tobacco cessation in military personnel: a randomized controlled trial.

Nicotine Tob Res 2009 Jun 24;11(6):730-8. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Boulevard, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Introduction: Military personnel are twice as likely as civilians to use smokeless tobacco (ST). This study evaluated the efficacy of a minimal-contact ST cessation program in military personnel.

Methods: Participants were recruited from 24 military dental clinics across the United States during annual dental examinations. Participants were 785 active-duty military personnel who were randomly assigned to receive a minimal-contact behavioral treatment (n = 392) or usual care (n = 393). The behavioral treatment included an ST cessation manual, a videotape cessation guide tailored for military personnel, and three 15-min telephone counseling sessions using motivational interviewing methods. Usual care consisted of standard procedures that are part of the annual dental examination, including recommendations to quit using ST and referral to extant local tobacco cessation programs. Participants were assessed at 3 and 6 months after enrollment.

Results: Participants in the ST cessation program were significantly more likely to be abstinent from all tobacco, as assessed by repeated point prevalence at both 3 and 6 months (25.0%), and were significantly more likely to be abstinent from ST use for 6 months, as assessed by prolonged abstinence (16.8%), compared with participants in usual care (7.6% and 6.4%, respectively).

Discussion: These results indicate that a minimal-contact behavioral treatment can significantly reduce ST use in military personnel and has the potential for widespread dissemination. If ST users were identified in dental visits and routinely referred to telephone counseling, this could have a substantial benefit for the health and well-being of military personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntp057DOI Listing
June 2009

Women helping chewers: Effects of partner support on 12-month tobacco abstinence in a smokeless tobacco cessation trial.

Nicotine Tob Res 2009 Mar 5;11(3):332-5. Epub 2009 Mar 5.

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Boulevard, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Introduction: Social support has been relatively unstudied in smokeless tobacco cessation research; partner support could encourage quitting, buffer the stress of quitting and withdrawal, and counteract tobacco cues.

Methods: Using 12-month follow-up data, we examined the impact of social support provided by female partners (n = 328) of male participants in a smokeless tobacco cessation program.

Results: The ratio of positive support to negative support that participants reported receiving from their partners was significantly related to point prevalence 12-month tobacco abstinence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.11-1.84, p < .01)-a finding consistent with the 6-month follow-up-and it was related to repeated point prevalence tobacco abstinence at both 6 and 12 months (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09-1.88, p < .05).

Discussion: These 12-month follow-up results provide additional evidence that partner support can help encourage long-term tobacco abstinence among participants in smokeless tobacco cessation programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntn022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666371PMC
March 2009

Genome-wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2009 Jun;150B(4):554-9

Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.

Characterizing cotinine pharmacokinetics is a useful way to study nicotine metabolism because the same liver enzyme is primarily responsible for the metabolism of both, and the clearances of nicotine and cotinine are highly correlated. We conducted a whole-genome linkage analysis to search for candidate regions influencing quantitative variation in cotinine pharmacokinetics in a large-scale pharmacokinetic study with 61 families containing 224 healthy adult participants. The strongest linkage signal was identified at 135 cM of chromosome 9 with LOD = 2.81 and P = 0.0002; two other suggestive linkage peaks appear at 31.4 and 73.5 cM of chromosome 11 with LOD = 1.96 (P = 0.0013) and 1.94 (P = 0.0014). The confidence level of the linkage between the three genome regions and cotinine pharmacokinetics is statistically significant with a genome-wide empirical probability of P = 0.029.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2693302PMC
June 2009

The development of children's intentions to use alcohol: direct and indirect effects of parent alcohol use and parenting behaviors.

Psychol Addict Behav 2008 Sep;22(3):326-339

Oregon Research Institute.

The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of parent alcohol use and parenting behavior on the development of children's intentions to use alcohol in Grades 1 through 8. The authors hypothesized that the effect of parent alcohol use on children's intention to use alcohol would be mediated through parenting behavior, specifically monitoring/supervision, positive parenting, and inconsistent discipline. Using cohort-sequential latent growth modeling (LGM), the authors tested 3 models examining the effect of the development of parent alcohol use on the development of children's intentions to use alcohol, as mediated by the development of each of the 3 parenting behaviors. Multiple group analyses were used to explore gender differences. The effect of growth in parent alcohol use on growth in children's intentions was mediated only by parent monitoring/supervision and was significant only for girls. The effect of inconsistent discipline was directly related to growth in intentions for both boys and girls. Although parent alcohol use was related to less positive parenting, positive parenting was unrelated to children's intentions to use alcohol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.3.326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2596584PMC
September 2008