Publications by authors named "Judith Wienke"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Anti-cN-1A autoantibodies are absent in juvenile dermatomyositis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials and Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To assess anti-cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (cN-1A/NTC51A) autoantibodies in children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and healthy controls, using three different methods of antibody detection, as well as verification of the results in an independent cohort.

Methods: Anti-cN-1A reactivity was assessed in 34 Dutch JDM patients and 20 healthy juvenile controls by a commercially available full-length cN-1A ELISA, a synthetic peptide ELISA and by immunoblotting using a lysate from cN-1A expressing HEK-293 cells. Sera from JDM patients with active disease and in remission were analysed. An independent British cohort of 110 JDM patients and 43 healthy juvenile controls was assessed by an in-house full-length cN-1A ELISA.

Results: Anti-cN-1A reactivity was not present in JDM patients' sera or in healthy controls when tested with the commercially available full-length cN-1A ELISA or by immunoblotting, both in active disease and in remission. Also, in the British JDM cohort anti-cN-1A reactivity was not detected. Three Dutch JDM patients tested weakly positive for one of the three synthetic cN-1A peptides measured by ELISA.

Conclusion: JDM patients and young healthy individuals do not show anti-cN-1A reactivity as assessed by different antibody detection techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41660DOI Listing
January 2021

The immune landscape of neuroblastoma: Challenges and opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies in pediatric oncology.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Feb 18;144:123-150. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of pediatric cancers. In neuroblastoma, the recent implementation of anti-GD2 antibody Dinutuximab into the standard of care has improved patient outcomes substantially. However, 5-year survival rates are still below 50% in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, which has sparked investigations into novel immunotherapeutic approaches. T cell-engaging therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade, antibody-mediated therapy and adoptive T cell therapy have proven remarkably successful in a range of adult cancers but still meet challenges in pediatric oncology. In neuroblastoma, their limited success may be due to several factors. Neuroblastoma displays low immunogenicity due to its low mutational load and lack of MHC-I expression. Tumour infiltration by T and NK cells is especially low in high-risk neuroblastoma and is prognostic for survival. Only a small fraction of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shows tumour reactivity. Moreover, neuroblastoma tumours employ a variety of immune evasion strategies, including expression of immune checkpoint molecules, induction of immunosuppressive myeloid and stromal cells, as well as secretion of immunoregulatory mediators, which reduce infiltration and reactivity of immune cells. Overcoming these challenges will be key to the successful implementation of novel immunotherapeutic interventions. Combining different immunotherapies, as well as personalised strategies, may be promising approaches. We will discuss the composition, function and prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in neuroblastoma, reflect on challenges for immunotherapy, including a lack of TIL reactivity and tumour immune evasion strategies, and highlight opportunities for immunotherapy and future perspectives with regard to state-of-the-art developments in the tumour immunology space.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.11.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Biomarker profiles of endothelial activation and dysfunction in rare systemic autoimmune diseases: implications for cardiovascular risk.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 02;60(2):785-801

Centre for Translational Immunology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Vasculopathy is an important hallmark of systemic chronic inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CICTD) and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated disease-specific biomarker profiles associated with endothelial dysfunction, angiogenic homeostasis and (tissue) inflammation, and their relation to disease activity in rare CICTD.

Methods: A total of 38 serum proteins associated with endothelial (dys)function and inflammation were measured by multiplex-immunoassay in treatment-naive patients with localized scleroderma (LoS, 30), eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, 8) or (juvenile) dermatomyositis (34), 119 (follow-up) samples during treatment, and 65 controls. Data were analysed by unsupervised clustering, Spearman correlations, non-parametric t test and ANOVA.

Results: The systemic CICTD, EF and dermatomyositis, had distinct biomarker profiles, with 'signature' markers galectin-9 (dermatomyositis) and CCL4, CCL18, CXCL9, fetuin, fibronectin, galectin-1 and TSP-1 (EF). In LoS, CCL18, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were subtly increased. Furthermore, dermatomyositis and EF shared upregulation of markers related to interferon (CCL2, CXCL10), endothelial activation (VCAM-1), inhibition of angiogenesis (angiopoietin-2, sVEGFR-1) and inflammation/leucocyte chemo-attraction (CCL19, CXCL13, IL-18, YKL-40), as well as disturbance of the Angiopoietin-Tie receptor system and VEGF-VEGFR system. These profiles were related to disease activity, and largely normalized during treatment. However, a subgroup of CICTD patients showed continued elevation of CXCL10, CXCL13, galectin-9, IL-18, TNFR2, VCAM-1, and/or YKL-40 during clinically inactive disease, possibly indicating subclinical interferon-driven inflammation and/or endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusion: CICTD-specific biomarker profiles revealed an anti-angiogenic, interferon-driven environment during active disease, with incomplete normalization under treatment. This warrants further investigation into monitoring of vascular biomarkers during clinical follow-up, or targeted interventions to minimize cardiovascular risk in the long term.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa270DOI Listing
February 2021

Human Tregs at the materno-fetal interface show site-specific adaptation reminiscent of tumor Tregs.

JCI Insight 2020 09 17;5(18). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Center for Translational Immunology.

Tregs are crucial for maintaining maternal immunotolerance against the semiallogeneic fetus. We investigated the elusive transcriptional profile and functional adaptation of human uterine Tregs (uTregs) during pregnancy. Uterine biopsies, from placental bed (materno-fetal interface) and incision site (control) and blood were obtained from women with uncomplicated pregnancies undergoing cesarean section. Tregs and CD4+ non-Tregs were isolated for transcriptomic profiling by Cel-Seq2. Results were validated on protein and single cell levels by flow cytometry. Placental bed uTregs showed elevated expression of Treg signature markers, including FOXP3, CTLA-4, and TIGIT. Their transcriptional profile was indicative of late-stage effector Treg differentiation and chronic activation, with increased expression of immune checkpoints GITR, TNFR2, OX-40, and 4-1BB; genes associated with suppressive capacity (HAVCR2, IL10, LAYN, and PDCD1); and transcription factors MAF, PRDM1, BATF, and VDR. uTregs mirrored non-Treg Th1 polarization and tissue residency. The particular transcriptional signature of placental bed uTregs overlapped strongly with that of tumor-infiltrating Tregs and was remarkably pronounced at the placental bed compared with uterine control site. In conclusion, human uTregs acquire a differentiated effector Treg profile similar to tumor-infiltrating Tregs, specifically at the materno-fetal interface. This introduces the concept of site-specific transcriptional adaptation of Tregs within 1 organ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526557PMC
September 2020

Endothelial and Inflammation Biomarker Profiles at Diagnosis Reflecting Clinical Heterogeneity and Serving as a Prognostic Tool for Treatment Response in Two Independent Cohorts of Patients With Juvenile Dermatomyositis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2020 07 29;72(7):1214-1226. Epub 2020 May 29.

University Medical Center Utrecht and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) is a heterogeneous systemic immune-mediated vasculopathy. This study was undertaken to 1) identify inflammation/endothelial dysfunction-related biomarker profiles reflecting disease severity at diagnosis, and 2) establish whether such biomarker profiles could be used for predicting the response to treatment in patients with juvenile DM.

Methods: In total, 39 biomarkers related to activation of endothelial cells, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were measured using multiplex technology in serum samples from treatment-naive patients with juvenile DM from 2 independent cohorts (n = 30 and n = 29). Data were analyzed by unsupervised hierarchical clustering, nonparametric tests with correction for multiple comparisons, and Kaplan-Meier tests with Cox proportional hazards models for analysis of treatment duration. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) were measured in the patients' serum using line blot assays.

Results: Severe vasculopathy in patients with juvenile DM was associated with low serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Spearman's rho [r ] = 0.465, P = 0.0111) and high serum levels of endoglin (r = -0.67, P < 0.0001). In the discovery cohort, unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the biomarker profiles yielded 2 distinct patient clusters, of which the smaller cluster (cluster 1; n = 8) exhibited high serum levels of CXCL13, CCL19, galectin-9, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (TNFRII), and galectin-1 (false discovery rate <0.0001), and this cluster had greater severity of muscle disease and global disease activity (each P < 0.05 versus cluster 2). In the validation cohort, correlations between the serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL10, TNFRII, and galectin-1 and the severity of global disease activity were confirmed (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.05). Stratification of patients according to the 4 confirmed biomarkers identified a cluster of patients with severe symptoms (comprising 64.7% of patients) who were considered at high risk of requiring more intensive treatment in the first 3 months after diagnosis (P = 0.0437 versus other cluster). Moreover, high serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL10, and TNFRII were predictive of a longer total treatment duration (P < 0.05). The biomarker-based clusters were not evidently correlated with patients' MSA serotypes.

Conclusion: Results of this study confirm the heterogeneity of new-onset juvenile DM based on serum biomarker profiles. Patients with high serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL10, TNFRII, and galectin-1 may respond suboptimally to conventional treatment, and may therefore benefit from more intensive monitoring and/or treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329617PMC
July 2020

Galectin-9 and CXCL10 as Biomarkers for Disease Activity in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: A Longitudinal Cohort Study and Multicohort Validation.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 08 12;71(8):1377-1390. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Objective evaluation of disease activity is challenging in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) due to a lack of reliable biomarkers, but it is crucial to avoid both under- and overtreatment of patients. Recently, we identified 2 proteins, galectin-9 and CXCL10, whose levels are highly correlated with the extent of juvenile DM disease activity. This study was undertaken to validate galectin-9 and CXCL10 as biomarkers for disease activity in juvenile DM, and to assess their disease specificity and potency in predicting the occurrence of flares.

Methods: Levels of galectin-9 and CXCL10 were measured by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples from 125 unique patients with juvenile DM in 3 international cross-sectional cohorts and a local longitudinal cohort. The disease specificity of both proteins was examined in 50 adult patients with DM or nonspecific myositis (NSM) and 61 patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases.

Results: Both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, galectin-9 and CXCL10 outperformed the currently used laboratory marker, creatine kinase (CK), in distinguishing between juvenile DM patients with active disease and those in remission (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.86-0.90 for galectin-9 and CXCL10; AUC 0.66-0.68 for CK). The sensitivity and specificity for active disease in juvenile DM was 0.84 and 0.92, respectively, for galectin-9 and 0.87 and 1.00, respectively, for CXCL10. In 10 patients with juvenile DM who experienced a flare and were prospectively followed up, continuously elevated or rising biomarker levels suggested an imminent flare up to several months before the onset of symptoms, even in the absence of elevated CK levels. Galectin-9 and CXCL10 distinguished between active disease and remission in adult patients with DM or NSM (P = 0.0126 for galectin-9 and P < 0.0001 for CXCL10) and were suited for measurement in minimally invasive dried blood spots (healthy controls versus juvenile DM, P = 0.0040 for galectin-9 and P < 0.0001 for CXCL10).

Conclusion: In this study, galectin-9 and CXCL10 were validated as sensitive and reliable biomarkers for disease activity in juvenile DM. Implementation of these biomarkers into clinical practice as tools to monitor disease activity and guide treatment might facilitate personalized treatment strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973145PMC
August 2019

Systemic and Tissue Inflammation in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: From Pathogenesis to the Quest for Monitoring Tools.

Front Immunol 2018 18;9:2951. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM) is a systemic immune-mediated disease of childhood, characterized by muscle weakness, and a typical skin rash. Other organ systems and tissues such as the lungs, heart, and intestines can be involved, but may be under-evaluated. The inflammatory process in JDM is characterized by an interferon signature and infiltration of immune cells such as T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells into the affected tissues. Vasculopathy due to loss and dysfunction of endothelial cells as a result of the inflammation is thought to underlie the symptoms in most organs and tissues. JDM is a heterogeneous disease, and several disease phenotypes, each with a varying combination of affected tissues and organs, are linked to the presence of myositis autoantibodies. These autoantibodies have therefore been extensively studied as biomarkers for the disease phenotype and its associated prognosis. Next to identifying the JDM phenotype, monitoring of disease activity and disease-inflicted damage not only in muscle and skin, but also in other organs and tissues, is an important part of clinical follow-up, as these are key determinants for the long-term outcomes of patients. Various monitoring tools are currently available, among which clinical assessment, histopathological investigation of muscle and skin biopsies, and laboratory testing of blood for specific biomarkers. These investigations also give novel insights into the underlying immunological processes that drive inflammation in JDM and suggest a strong link between the interferon signature and vasculopathy. New tools are being developed in the quest for minimally invasive, but sensitive and specific diagnostic methods that correlate well with clinical symptoms or reflect local, low-grade inflammation. In this review we will discuss the types of (extra)muscular tissue inflammation in JDM and their relation to vasculopathic changes, critically assess the available diagnostic methods including myositis autoantibodies and newly identified biomarkers, and reflect on the immunopathogenic implications of identified markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305419PMC
November 2019

Galectin-9 is an easy to measure biomarker for the interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome.

Ann Rheum Dis 2018 12 5;77(12):1810-1814. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: The interferon (IFN) signature is related to disease activity and vascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and represents a promising therapeutic target. Quantification of the IFN signature is currently performed by gene expression analysis, limiting its current applicability in clinical practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish an easy to measure biomarker for the IFN signature.

Methods: Serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL-10 (IP-10) and tumour necrosis factor receptor type II (TNF-RII) were measured in patients with SLE, SLE+APS and primary APS (PAPS) and healthy controls (n=148) after an initial screening of serum analytes in a smaller cohort (n=43). Analytes were correlated to measures of disease activity and the IFN signature. The performance of galectin-9, CXCL-10 and TNF-RII as biomarkers to detect the IFN signature was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: Galectin-9, CXCL-10 and TNF-RII were elevated in patients with SLE, SLE+APS and PAPS (p<0.05) and correlated with disease activity and tissue factor expression. Galectin-9 correlated stronger than CXCL-10 or TNF-RII with the IFN score (r=0.70, p<0.001) and was superior to CXCL-10 or TNF-RII in detecting the IFN signature (area under the curve (AUC) 0.86). Importantly, in patients with SLE(±APS), galectin-9 was also superior to anti-dsDNA antibody (AUC 0.70), or complement C3 (AUC 0.70) and C4 (AUC 0.78) levels in detecting the IFN signature.

Conclusion: Galectin-9 is a novel, easy to measure hence clinically applicable biomarker to detect the IFN signature in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as SLE and APS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213497DOI Listing
December 2018

Trajectories of cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 12;56(12):2204-2211

Child Development and Exercise Centre, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht.

Objectives: Previous research demonstrated decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients with JDM during active disease and remission. However, longitudinal data regarding trajectories of CRF are currently lacking. The objective of this study was to determine trajectories of CRF in patients with both monocyclic and chronic JDM, and to identify potential predictors of these trajectories.

Methods: Thirty-six patients with JDM [median age (interquartile range) at diagnosis: 8.3 (6.3-15.4) years] treated in our paediatric rheumatology outpatient clinic were included. All patients performed multiple cardiopulmonary exercise tests between 2003 and 2016. Relevant CRF parameters were analysed, including peak oxygen uptake, maximal workload, mechanical efficacy and oxygen uptake at ventilatory anaerobic threshold. We analysed trajectories up to 10 years after diagnosis and determined predictors of CRF outcome parameters by multilevel analyses.

Results: Trajectories demonstrated significant declines in CRF during the active phase of the disease with subsequent improvement in CRF during the initial years after diagnosis. However, hereafter no further improvements, and even a decrease, in CRF were observed over time in both monocyclic and chronic subtypes of JDM. We found that a longer disease duration, younger age of onset and higher prednisone dose negatively influence CRF.

Conclusion: Patients with both monocyclic and chronic JDM show decreases in long-term CRF trajectories. Longer disease duration, younger age of onset and higher prednisone dose negatively influence CRF. This study stresses the need for regular evaluation of CRF and implementation of (exercise) interventions to improve CRF in patients with JDM, even in monocyclic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kex366DOI Listing
December 2017

A novel human STAT3 mutation presents with autoimmunity involving Th17 hyperactivation.

Oncotarget 2015 Aug;6(24):20037-42

Paediatric Immunology, Laboratory of Translational Immunology LTI, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Mutations in STAT3 have recently been shown to cause autoimmune diseases through increased lymphoproliferation. We describe a novel Pro471Arg STAT3 mutation in a patient with multiple autoimmune diseases, causing hyperactivation of the Th17 pathway. We show that IL-17 production by primary T cells was enhanced and could not be further increased by IL-6, while IL-10 reduced Th17 cell numbers. Moreover, specific inhibition of STAT3 activation resulted in diminished IL-17 production. We show that the Pro471Arg STAT3 mutation yields both increased levels of IgA and IgG, probably due to high IL-21 levels. When remission was reached through medical intervention, IL-17 levels normalized and the clinical symptoms improved, supporting the idea that STAT3 gain-of-function mutations can cause hyperactivation of the Th17 pathway and thereby contribute to autoimmunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652985PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5042DOI Listing
August 2015