Publications by authors named "Judith V M G Bovee"

187 Publications

Mismatch repair deficiency is rare in bone and soft tissue tumors.

Histopathology 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: There has been an increased demand for mismatch repair (MMR) status testing in sarcoma patients after the success of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) in MMR deficient tumors. However, data on MMR deficiency in bone and soft tissue tumors is sparse, rendering it unclear if routine screening should be applied. Hence, we aimed to study the frequency of MMR deficiency in bone and soft tissue tumors after we were prompted by two (potential) Lynch syndrome patients developing sarcomas.

Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 was assessed on tissue micro arrays (TMAs), and included 353 bone and 539 soft tissue tumors. Molecular data was either retrieved from reports or microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis was performed. In MLH1 negative cases, additional MLH1 promoter hypermethylation analysis followed. Furthermore, a systematic literature review on MMR deficiency in bone and soft tissue tumors was conducted.

Results: Eight MMR deficient tumors were identified (1%), which included four leiomyosarcoma, two rhabdomyosarcoma, one malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and one radiation-associated sarcoma. Three patients were suspected for Lynch syndrome. Literature review revealed 30 MMR deficient sarcomas, of which 33% were undifferentiated/unclassifiable sarcomas. 57% of the patients were genetically predisposed.

Conclusion: MMR deficiency is rare in bone and soft tissue tumors. Screening focusing on tumors with myogenic differentiation, undifferentiated/unclassifiable sarcomas and in patients with a genetic predisposition / co-occurrence of other malignancies can be helpful in identifying patients potentially eligible for ICI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14377DOI Listing
April 2021

Transformed Canine and Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Model for Sarcoma with Complex Genomics.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors with a broad histological spectrum, but they can be divided into two groups based on molecular pathology: sarcomas with simple or complex genomics. Tumors with complex genomics can have aneuploidy and copy number gains and losses, which hampers the detection of early, initiating events in tumorigenesis. Often, no benign precursors are known, which is why good models are essential. The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is the presumed cell of origin of sarcoma. In this study, MSCs of murine and canine origin are used as a model to identify driver events for sarcomas with complex genomic alterations as they transform spontaneously after long-term culture. All transformed murine but not canine MSCs formed sarcomas after subcutaneous injection in mice. Using whole genome sequencing, spontaneously transformed murine and canine MSCs displayed a complex karyotype with aneuploidy, point mutations, structural variants, inter-chromosomal translocations, and copy number gains and losses. Cross-species analysis revealed that point mutations in are common in transformed murine and canine MSCs. Murine MSCs with a cre-recombinase induced deletion of exon 2-10 of transformed earlier compared to wild-type murine MSCs, confirming the contribution of loss of p53 to spontaneous transformation. Our comparative approach using transformed murine and canine MSCs points to a crucial role for p53 loss in the formation of sarcomas with complex genomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961539PMC
March 2021

Non-IDH1-R132H IDH1/2 mutations are associated with increased DNA methylation and improved survival in astrocytomas, compared to IDH1-R132H mutations.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurology, Brain Tumor Center at Erasmus MC Cancer Institute Rotterdam, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 occur at high frequency in several tumour types. Even though these mutations are confined to distinct hotspots, we show that gliomas are the only tumour type with an exceptionally high percentage of IDH1 mutations. Patients harbouring IDH1 mutated tumours have lower levels of genome-wide DNA-methylation, and an associated increased gene expression, compared to tumours with other IDH1/2 mutations ("non-R132H IDH1/2 mutations"). This reduced methylation is seen in multiple tumour types and thus appears independent of the site of origin. For 1p/19q non-codeleted glioma (astrocytoma) patients, we show that this difference is clinically relevant: in samples of the randomised phase III CATNON trial, patients harbouring tumours with IDH mutations other than IDH1 have a better outcome (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% CI [0.24, 0.71], p = 0.0013). Such non-R132H IDH1/2-mutated tumours also had a significantly lower proportion of tumours assigned to prognostically poor DNA-methylation classes (p < 0.001). IDH mutation-type was independent in a multivariable model containing known clinical and molecular prognostic factors. To confirm these observations, we validated the prognostic effect of IDH mutation type on a large independent dataset. The observation that non-R132H IDH1/2-mutated astrocytomas have a more favourable prognosis than their IDH1 mutated counterpart indicates that not all IDH-mutations are identical. This difference is clinically relevant and should be taken into account for patient prognostication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02291-6DOI Listing
March 2021

FOS Rearrangement and Expression in Cementoblastoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 May;45(5):690-693

Bone Tumour Reference Centre, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Cementoblastomas are rare odontogenic tumors developing in close proximity to the roots of teeth. Due to their striking morphologic resemblance to osteoblastomas of the peripheral skeleton, we set out to determine whether cementoblastomas harbor the same FOS rearrangements with overexpression of c-FOS as has recently been described for osteoblastomas. In total, 16 cementoblastomas were analyzed for FOS expression by immunohistochemistry and for FOS rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We observed strong and diffuse staining of c-FOS in 71% of cementoblastomas and identified a FOS rearrangement in all cases (n=3) applicable for FISH. In the remaining cases, FISH failed due to decalcification. Cementoblastomas harbor similar FOS rearrangements and show overexpression of c-FOS like osteoblastomas, suggesting that both entities might represent parts of the spectrum of the same disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001695DOI Listing
May 2021

Candidate Biomarkers for Specific Intraoperative Near-Infrared Imaging of Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Systematic Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Isala Hospital, Dokter van Heesweg 2, 8025 AB Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for localized soft tissue sarcomas (STS). The curative treatment highly depends on complete tumor resection, as positive margins are associated with local recurrence (LR) and prognosis. However, determining the tumor margin during surgery is challenging. Real-time tumor-specific imaging can facilitate complete resection by visualizing tumor tissue during surgery. Unfortunately, STS specific tracers are presently not clinically available. In this review, STS-associated cell surface-expressed biomarkers, which are currently already clinically targeted with monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic purposes, are evaluated for their use in near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of STS. Clinically targeted biomarkers in STS were extracted from clinical trial registers and a PubMed search was performed. Data on biomarker characteristics, sample size, percentage of biomarker-positive STS samples, pattern of biomarker expression, biomarker internalization features, and previous applications of the biomarker in imaging were extracted. The biomarkers were ranked utilizing a previously described scoring system. Eleven cell surface-expressed biomarkers were identified from which 7 were selected as potential biomarkers for NIRF imaging: TEM1, VEGFR-1, EGFR, VEGFR-2, IGF-1R, PDGFRα, and CD40. Promising biomarkers in common and aggressive STS subtypes are TEM1 for myxofibrosarcoma, TEM1, and PDGFRα for undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma and EGFR for synovial sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867119PMC
February 2021

Selection of Effective Therapies Using Three-Dimensional Modeling of Chondrosarcoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 21;7:566291. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Chondrosarcomas are a group of cartilaginous malignant neoplasms characterized by the deposition of chondrogenic extracellular matrix. Surgical resection is currently the only curative treatment option, due to their high resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Novel therapeutic treatment options may improve outcome. Predominantly used cell line monolayer models lack complexity, such as the presence of extracellular matrix, and differing oxygen access. Hence, we aimed to improve pre-clinical chondrosarcoma research by developing an alginate-based 3D cell culture model. An alginate scaffold was applied to generate spheroids of three chondrosarcoma cell lines (CH2879, JJ012, SW1353). Morphological, histological and immunohistochemical assessment of the spheroids were used to characterize the chondrosarcoma model. Presto blue assay, morphological and immunohistochemical assessment were applied to assess spheroid response to a panel of chemotherapeutics and targeted therapies, which was compared to conventional 2D monolayer models. Synergistic effect of doxorubicin and ABT-737 (Bcl-2 inhibitor) was compared between monolayer and spheroid models using excess over Bliss. A 3D colony formation assay was developed for assessment of radiotherapy response. Chondrosarcoma spheroids produced chondrogenic matrix and remained proliferative after 2 weeks of culture. When treated with chemotherapeutics, the spheroids were more resistant than their monolayer counterparts, in line with animal models and clinical data. Moreover, for sapanisertib (mTOR inhibitor) treatment, a recovery in chondrosarcoma growth, previously observed in mice models, was also observed using long-term treatment. Morphological assessment was useful in the case of YM-155 (survivin inhibitor) treatment where a fraction of the spheroids underwent cell death, however a large fraction remained proliferative and unaffected. Synergy was less pronounced in 3D compared to 2D. A 3D clonogenic assay confirmed increased resistance to radiotherapy in 3D chondrosarcoma spheroids. We demonstrate that the chondrosarcoma alginate spheroid model is more representative of chondrosarcoma and should be used instead of the monolayer model for therapy testing. Improved selection at stage of therapeutic testing will increase the amount of information available for experimental design of animal testing and later, clinical stages. This can potentially lead to increased likelihood of approval and success at clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.566291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793672PMC
December 2020

Prognostic Significance of Immunohistochemical Markers and Genetic Alterations in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: A Systematic Review.

Front Oncol 2020 22;10:594069. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas with dismal prognosis. Pathological and genetic markers may predict more aggressive behavior in MPNSTs but have uncommonly been investigated, and few are used in daily practice. This study reviews the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers and genetic alterations in MPNST.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases according to the PRISMA guidelines. Search terms related to 'MPNST' and 'prognostic' were used. Studies investigating the association of immunohistochemical markers or genetic alterations with prognosis were included. Qualitative synthesis was performed on all studies. A distinction was made between univariable and multivariable associations.

Results: Forty-six studies were included after full-text screening. Sixty-seven different immunohistochemical markers were investigated. Absence of S100 and H3K27me3 and high Ki67 and p53 staining was most commonly independently associated with worse survival and disease-free survival. Several genetic alterations were investigated as well with varying association to survival. , alterations were independently associated with worse survival, as well as changes in chromosomal length in Xp, 10q, and 16p.

Conclusions: MPNSTs harbor complex and heterogeneous biology. Immunohistochemical markers and genetic alterations have variable prognostic value. Absence of S100 and H3K27me3 and increased Ki67 can be of prognostic value. Alterations in or increase in p53 staining may distinguish MPNSTs with worse outcomes. Genetic alterations and staining of other cell cycle regulatory and Ras pathway proteins may also help stratifying patients with worse outcomes. A combination of markers can increase the prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.594069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783392PMC
December 2020

Vascular Tumor Recapitulated in Endothelial Cells from hiPSCs Engineered to Express the Translocation.

Cell Rep Med 2020 Dec 22;1(9):100153. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands.

Chromosomal translocations are prevalent among soft tissue tumors, including those of the vasculature such as pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PHE). PHE shows endothelial cell (EC) features and has a tumor-specific t(7;19)(q22;q13) SERPINE1-FOSB translocation, but is difficult to study as no primary tumor cell lines have yet been derived. Here, we engineer the PHE chromosomal translocation into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 and differentiate these into ECs (hiPSC-ECs) to address this. Comparison of parental with PHE hiPSC-ECs shows (1) elevated expression of FOSB, (2) higher proliferation and more tube formation but lower endothelial barrier function, (3) invasive growth and abnormal vessel formation in mice after transplantation, and (4) specific transcriptome alterations reflecting PHE and indicating PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathways as possible therapeutic targets. The modified hiPSC-ECs thus recapitulate functional features of PHE and demonstrate how these translocation models can be used to understand tumorigenic mechanisms and identify therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762773PMC
December 2020

Therapy-Related Imaging Findings in Patients with Sarcoma.

Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2020 Dec 11;24(6):676-691. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Knowledge of imaging findings related to therapy administered to patients with sarcoma is pivotal in selecting appropriate care for these patients. Imaging studies are performed as surveillance in asymptomatic patients or because symptoms, including anxiety, develop. In addition to detection of recurrent disease and assessment of response to therapy, diagnosis of conditions related to therapy that may or may not need treatment has a marked positive impact on quality of life. The purpose of this review is to assist radiologists, nuclear physicians, and others clinicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients in recognizing imaging findings related to therapy and not to activity of the previously treated sarcoma. Imaging findings are time dependent and often specific in relation to therapy given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721097DOI Listing
December 2020

Beyond the Influence of Mutations: Exploring Epigenetic Vulnerabilities in Chondrosarcoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 30;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase ( or ) genes are common in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas, and lead to elevated levels of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate causing widespread changes in the epigenetic landscape of these tumors. With the use of a DNA methylation array, we explored whether the methylome is altered upon progression from mutant enchondroma towards high-grade chondrosarcoma. High-grade tumors show an overall increase in the number of highly methylated genes, indicating that remodeling of the methylome is associated with tumor progression. Therefore, an epigenetics compound screen was performed in five chondrosarcoma cell lines to therapeutically explore these underlying epigenetic vulnerabilities. Chondrosarcomas demonstrated high sensitivity to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in both 2D and 3D in vitro models, independent of the mutation status or the chondrosarcoma subtype. siRNA knockdown and RNA expression data showed that chondrosarcomas rely on the expression of multiple HDACs, especially class I subtypes. Furthermore, class I HDAC inhibition sensitized chondrosarcoma to glutaminolysis and Bcl-2 family member inhibitors, suggesting that HDACs define the metabolic state and apoptotic threshold in chondrosarcoma. Taken together, HDAC inhibition may represent a promising targeted therapeutic strategy for chondrosarcoma patients, either as monotherapy or as part of combination treatment regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760027PMC
November 2020

Germline DLST Variants Promote Epigenetic Modifications in Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan;106(2):459-471

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Context: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors in which altered central metabolism appears to be a major driver of tumorigenesis, and many PPGL genes encode proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.

Objective/design: While about 40% of PPGL cases carry a variant in a known gene, many cases remain unexplained. In patients with unexplained PPGL showing clear evidence of a familial burden or multiple tumors, we aimed to identify causative factors using genetic analysis of patient DNA and functional analyses of identified DNA variants in patient tumor material and engineered cell lines.

Patients And Setting: Patients with a likely familial cancer burden of pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas and under investigation in a clinical genetic and clinical research setting in university hospitals.

Results: While investigating unexplained PPGL cases, we identified a novel variant, c.1151C>T, p.(Pro384Leu), in exon 14 of the gene encoding dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST), a component of the multi-enzyme complex 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Targeted sequence analysis of further unexplained cases identified a patient carrying a tumor with compound heterozygous variants in DLST, consisting of a germline variant, c.1121G>A, p.(Gly374Glu), together with a somatic missense variant identified in tumor DNA, c.1147A>G, p.(Thr383Ala), both located in exon 14. Using a range of in silico and functional assays we show that these variants are predicted to be pathogenic, profoundly impact enzyme activity, and result in DNA hypermethylation.

Conclusions: The identification and functional analysis of these DLST variants further validates DLST as an additional PPGL gene involved in the TCA cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa819DOI Listing
January 2021

Dose Reduction of Preoperative Radiotherapy in Myxoid Liposarcoma: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jan 21;7(1):e205865. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Sarcoma Unit, Department of Radiotherapy, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Currently, preoperative radiotherapy for all soft-tissue sarcomas is identical at a 50-Gy dose level, which can be associated with morbidity, particularly wound complications. The observed clinical radiosensitivity of the myxoid liposarcoma subtype might offer the possibility to reduce morbidity.

Objective: To assess whether a dose reduction of preoperative radiotherapy for myxoid liposarcoma would result in comparable oncological outcome with less morbidity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Dose Reduction of Preoperative Radiotherapy in Myxoid Liposarcomas (DOREMY) trial is a prospective, single-group, phase 2 nonrandomized controlled trial being conducted in 9 tertiary sarcoma centers in Europe and the US. Participants include adults with nonmetastatic, biopsy-proven and translocation-confirmed myxoid liposarcoma of the extremity or trunk who were enrolled between November 24, 2010, and August 1, 2019. Data analyses, using both per-protocol and intention-to-treat approaches, were conducted from November 24, 2010, to January 31, 2020.

Interventions: The experimental preoperative radiotherapy regimen consisted of 36 Gy in once-daily 2-Gy fractions, with subsequent definitive surgical resection after an interval of 4 or more weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: As a short-term evaluable surrogate for local control, the primary end point was centrally reviewed pathologic treatment response. The experimental regimen was regarded as a success when 70% or more of the resection specimens showed extensive treatment response, defined as 50% or greater of the tumor volume containing treatment effects. Morbidity outcomes consisted of wound complications and late toxic effects.

Results: Among the 79 eligible patients, 44 (56%) were men and the median (interquartile range) age was 45 (39-56) years. Two patients did not undergo surgical resection because of intercurrent metastatic disease. Extensive pathological treatment response was observed in 70 of 77 patients (91%; posterior mean, 90.4%; 95% highest probability density interval, 83.8%-96.4%). The local control rate was 100%. The rate of wound complication requiring intervention was 17%, and the rate of grade 2 or higher toxic effects was 14%.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of the DOREMY nonrandomized clinical trial suggest that deintensification of preoperative radiotherapy dose is effective and oncologically safe and is associated with less morbidity than historical controls, although differences in radiotherapy techniques and follow-up should be considered. A 36-Gy dose delivered in once-daily 2-Gy fractions is proposed as a dose-fractionation approach for myxoid liposarcoma, given that phase 3 trials are logistically impossible to execute in rare cancers.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02106312.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662477PMC
January 2021

Translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane complex subunit 20 (TOMM20) facilitates cancer aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance in chondrosarcoma.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 12 10;1866(12):165962. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA. Electronic address:

Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone malignancy, representing one fourth of all primary bone sarcomas. It is typically resistant to radiation and chemotherapy treatments. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to cancer aggressiveness in chondrosarcomas remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the role of mitochondrial transporters in chondrosarcoma aggressiveness including chemotherapy resistance. Histological grade along with stage are the most important prognostic biomarkers in chondrosarcoma. We found that high-grade human chondrosarcoma tumors have higher expression of the mitochondrial protein, translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane complex subunit 20 (TOMM20), compared to low-grade tumors. TOMM20 overexpression in human chondrosarcoma cells induces chondrosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. TOMM20 drives proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy resistance. Also, TOMM20 induces markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metabolic reprogramming in these mesenchymal tumors. In conclusion, TOMM20 drives chondrosarcoma aggressiveness and resistance to chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2020.165962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680391PMC
December 2020

Molecular signatures of tumor progression in myxoid liposarcoma identified by N-glycan mass spectrometry imaging.

Lab Invest 2020 09 27;100(9):1252-1261. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma, accounting for ~6% of all sarcomas. MLS is characterized by a pathognomonic FUS-DDIT3, or rarely EWSR1-DDIT3, gene fusion. The presence of ≥5% hypercellular round cell areas is associated with a worse prognosis for the patient and is considered high grade. The prognostic significance of areas with moderately increased cellularity (intermediate) is currently unknown. Here we have applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging to analyze the spatial distribution of N-linked glycans on an MLS microarray in order to identify molecular markers for tumor progression. Comparison of the N-glycan profiles revealed that increased relative abundances of high-mannose type glycans were associated with tumor progression. Concomitantly, an increase of the average number of mannoses on high-mannose glycans was observed. Although overall levels of complex-type glycans decreased, an increase of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans was observed with morphological tumor progression and increased tumor histological grade. The high abundance of tri-antennary N-glycan species was also associated with poor disease-specific survival. These findings mirror recent observations in colorectal cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma, and are in line with a general role of high-mannose glycans and higher-antennary complex-type glycans in cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-0435-2DOI Listing
September 2020

Single-Center Experience with Ifosfamide Monotherapy as Second-Line Treatment of Recurrent/Metastatic Osteosarcoma.

Oncologist 2020 04 19;25(4):e716-e721. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: The effectiveness of second-line palliative chemotherapy in patients with recurrent/metastatic osteosarcoma is not well defined. Several small studies (6-19 patients) have reported on ifosfamide as second-line treatment. In this study we report our single-center experience with second-line ifosfamide monotherapy in patients treated for recurrent/metastatic osteosarcoma.

Methods: A chart review was conducted of all patients with osteosarcoma treated with ifosfamide from 1978 until 2017. Until 1997 a 5 g/m regimen was used, and from 1997 onwards a 9 g/m regimen was used. Overall survival (OS) from start of ifosfamide was the primary endpoint. Progression-free survival (PFS) from start of treatment was also studied. To assess difference in survival between groups the log rank test was applied. To investigate the effect of ifosfamide dose and World Health Organization performance status (PS) a Cox proportional hazard regression model was estimated.

Results: Sixty-two patients were selected with recurrent/metastatic osteosarcoma treated with second-line ifosfamide monotherapy (dose of 5 g/m , n = 26; 9 g/m , n = 36). OS was significantly better in univariate analysis for 9 g/m compared with 5 g/m (10.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 9.3-12.6] vs. 6.7 months [95% CI, 5.9-7.6], respectively) and for PS (median OS PS 0, 13.0 months [95% CI, 2.3-23.8]; PS 1, 8.2 months [95% CI, 5.4-11.1]; PS ≥2, 6.2 months [95% CI, 2.2-10.3]; and unknown PS, 5.4 months [95% CI, 2.2-8.5]). In multivariate analysis only PS showed a significant difference. No difference in PFS was found between 5 and 9 g/m ifosfamide treatment or PS.

Conclusion: This study suggests that ifosfamide is an effective second-line treatment for patients with recurrent/metastatic osteosarcoma.

Implications For Practice: Ifosfamide monotherapy is commonly used as second-line treatment in osteosarcoma, although large series to support this are lacking. This retrospective study reports overall and progression-free survival for regimens with 5 g/m and with 9 g/m . This study was unable to show a significant difference in survival between 5 and 9 g/m but showed an important impact of World Health Organization performance status on overall survival. This study sets a standard and reference for comparison with the multiple phase II studies under development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160412PMC
April 2020

A screening-based approach identifies cell cycle regulators AURKA, CHK1 and PLK1 as targetable regulators of chondrosarcoma cell survival.

J Bone Oncol 2019 Dec 17;19:100268. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, L1-Q, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands.

Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumors that are relatively resistant towards conventional therapeutic approaches. Kinase inhibitors have been investigated and shown successful for several different cancer types. In this study we aimed at identifying kinase inhibitors that inhibit the survival of chondrosarcoma cells and thereby serve as new potential therapeutic strategies to treat chondrosarcoma patients. An siRNA screen targeting 779 different kinases was conducted in JJ012 chondrosarcoma cells in parallel with a compound screen consisting of 273 kinase inhibitors in JJ012, SW1353 and CH2879 chondrosarcoma cell lines. AURKA, CHK1 and PLK1 were identified as most promising targets and validated further in a more comprehensive panel of chondrosarcoma cell lines. Dose response curves were performed using tyrosine kinase inhibitors: MK-5108 (AURKA), LY2603618 (CHK1) and Volasertib (PLK1) using viability assays and cell cycle analysis. Apoptosis was measured at 24 h after treatment using a caspase 3/7 assay. Finally, chondrosarcoma patient samples ( = =34) were used to examine the correlation between and RNA expression and documented patient survival. Dose dependent decreases in viability were observed in chondrosarcoma cell lines after treatment with MK-5108, LY2603618 and volasertib, with cell lines showing highest sensitivity to PLK1 inhibition. In addition increased sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy was observed after CHK1 inhibition in a subset of the cell lines. Interestingly, whereas and were both expressed in chondrosarcoma patient samples, expression was found to be low compared to normal cartilage. Analysis of patient samples revealed that high RNA expression correlated with a worse overall survival. AURKA, CHK1 and PLK1 are identified as important survival genes in chondrosarcoma cell lines. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, inhibiting CHK1 seems to be the most promising potential therapeutic target for patients with chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbo.2019.100268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889735PMC
December 2019

Inhibition of PARP Sensitizes Chondrosarcoma Cell Lines to Chemo- and Radiotherapy Irrespective of the or Mutation Status.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Dec 2;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Chondrosarcomas are chemo- and radiotherapy resistant and frequently harbor mutations in ( or ), causing increased levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). DNA repair defects and synthetic lethality with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition occur in mutant glioma and leukemia models. Here we evaluated DNA repair and PARP inhibition, alone or combined with chemo- or radiotherapy, in chondrosarcoma cell lines with or without endogenous mutations. Chondrosarcoma cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor talazoparib were examined for dose-response relationships, as well as underlying cell death mechanisms and DNA repair functionality. Talazoparib was combined with chemo- or radiotherapy to evaluate potential synergy. Cell lines treated long term with an inhibitor normalizing D-2-HG levels were investigated for synthetic lethality with talazoparib. We report that talazoparib sensitivity was variable and irrespective of mutation status. All cell lines expressed Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), but a subset was impaired in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) capacity, homologous recombination, and () expression. Talazoparib synergized with temozolomide or radiation, independent of IDH1 mutant inhibition. This study suggests that talazoparib combined with temozolomide or radiation are promising therapeutic strategies for chondrosarcoma, irrespective of mutation status. A subset of chondrosarcomas may be deficient in nonclassical DNA repair pathways, suggesting that PARP inhibitor sensitivity is multifactorial in chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966531PMC
December 2019

Utility of FOS as diagnostic marker for osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma.

Virchows Arch 2020 Mar 25;476(3):455-463. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333, ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are bone-forming tumors shown to harbor FOS (87%) and FOSB (3%) rearrangements. The aim was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of FOS and FOSB in these tumors in comparison to other bone tumors, to evaluate the influence of decalcification, and to correlate immunohistochemical findings with the underlying genetic alteration using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Immunohistochemistry using whole sections was performed on osteoid osteoma (n=23), osteoblastoma (n=22), osteoblastoma-like osteosarcoma (n=3), reactive (n=3), and proliferative (n=11) bone lesions. Immunoreactivity in giant cell tumor of bone (n=74), aneurysmal bone cyst (n=6), chondromyxoid fibroma (n=20), osteosarcoma (n=85), chondroblastoma (n=17), and clear cell chondrosarcoma (n=20) was assessed using tissue micro arrays. Strong nuclear expression of FOS in > 50% of the tumor cells was observed in all osteoid osteomas (22/22), in 57% of osteoblastomas (12/21) and in 3/197 control cases. FOS immunoreactivity disappeared after > 3 days decalcification. FOS rearrangements were present in 94% of osteoid osteomas and osteoblastomas, with a concordance of 86% between FISH and immunohistochemistry. Two osteoblastomas (5%) were positive for FOSB, as opposed to 8/177 control cases. Additional FISH revealed no FOSB rearrangements in these cases. To conclude, in short decalcified biopsies, FOS immunohistochemistry can be used to diagnose osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, as overexpression is seen in the majority, being rare in their mimics. FOS immunohistochemistry should not be used after long decalcification. Moreover, low level of focal expression found in other lesions and tissues might cause diagnostic problems, in which case FISH could be employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02684-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085481PMC
March 2020

What's new in bone forming tumours of the skeleton?

Virchows Arch 2020 Jan 18;476(1):147-157. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, L1-Q, 2300 RC, Leiden, Netherlands.

Bone tumours are difficult to diagnose and treat, as they are rare and over 60 different subtypes are recognised. The emergence of next-generation sequencing has partly elucidated the molecular mechanisms behind these tumours, including the group of bone forming tumours (osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma). Increased knowledge on the molecular mechanism could help to identify novel diagnostic markers and/or treatment options. Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are bone forming tumours without malignant potential that have overlapping morphology. They were recently shown to carry FOS and-to a lesser extent-FOSB rearrangements suggesting that these tumours are closely related. The presence of these rearrangements could help discriminate these entities from other lesions with woven bone deposition. Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone forming tumour for which different histological subtypes are recognised. High-grade osteosarcoma is the prototype of a complex karyotype tumour, and extensive research exploring its molecular background has identified phenomena like chromothripsis and kataegis and some recurrent alterations. Due to lack of specificity, this has not led to a valuable novel diagnostic marker so far. Nevertheless, these studies have also pointed towards potential targetable drivers of which the therapeutic merit remains to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02683-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969005PMC
January 2020

Mutation-driven epigenetic alterations as a defining hallmark of central cartilaginous tumours, giant cell tumour of bone and chondroblastoma.

Virchows Arch 2020 Jan 14;476(1):135-146. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Recently, specific driver mutations were identified in chondroblastoma, giant cell tumour of bone and central cartilaginous tumours (specifically enchondroma and central chondrosarcoma), sharing the ability to induce genome-wide epigenetic alterations. In chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bone, the neoplastic mononuclear stromal-like cells frequently harbour specific point mutations in the genes encoding for histone H3.3 (H3F3A and H3F3B). The identification of these driver mutations has led to development of novel diagnostic tools to distinguish between chondroblastoma, giant cell tumour of bone and other giant cell containing tumours. From a biological perspective, these mutations induce several global and local alterations of the histone modification marks. Similar observations are made for central cartilaginous tumours, which frequently harbour specific point mutations in the metabolic enzymes IDH1 or IDH2. Besides an altered methylation pattern on histones, IDH mutations also induce a global DNA hypermethylation phenotype. In all of these tumour types, the mutation-driven epigenetic alterations lead to a highly altered transcriptome, resulting for instance in alterations in differentiation. These genomic alterations have diagnostic impact. Further research is needed to identify the genes and signalling pathways that are affected by the epigenetic alterations, which will hopefully lead to a better understanding of the biological mechanism underlying tumourigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02699-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968983PMC
January 2020

A subset of epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas is associated with TFCP2 fusions and common ALK upregulation.

Mod Pathol 2020 03 5;33(3):404-419. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS 5286, INSERM U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon, Lyon, France.

Rhabdomyosarcomas with TFCP2 fusions represent an emerging subtype of tumors, initially discovered by RNA-sequencing. We report herein the clinicopathological, transcriptional, and genomic features of a series of 14 cases. Cases were retrospectively and prospectively recruited and studied by immunohistochemistry (MYF4, MYOD1, S100, AE1/E3, ALK), fluorescence in situ hybridization with TFCP2 break-apart probe (n = 10/14), array-comparative genomic hybridization (Agilent), whole RNA-sequencing (Truseq Exome, Illumina), or anchored multiplex PCR-based targeted next-generation sequencing (Archer® FusionPlex® Sarcoma kit). Patient's age ranged between 11 and 86 years, including 5 pediatric cases. Tumors were located in the bone (n = 12/14) and soft tissue (n = 2/14). Most bone tumors invaded surrounding soft tissue. Craniofacial bones were over-represented (n = 8/12). Median survival was 8 months and five patients are currently alive with a median follow-up of 20 months. Most tumors displayed a mixed spindle cell and epithelioid pattern with frequent vesicular nuclei. All tumors expressed keratins and showed a rhabdomyogenic phenotype (defined as expression of MYF4 and/or MYOD1). ALK was overexpressed in all but three cases without underlying ALK fusion on break-apart FISH (n = 5) nor next-generation sequencing (n = 14). ALK upregulation was frequently associated with an internal deletion at genomic level. TFCP2 was fused in 5' either to EWSR1 (n = 6) or FUS (n = 8). EWSR1 was involved in both soft tissue cases. FISH with TFCP2 break-apart probe was positive in all tested cases (n = 8), including one case with unbalanced signal. On array-CGH, all tested tumors displayed complex genetic profiles with genomic indexes ranging from 13 to 107.55 and recurrent CDKN2A deletions. FET-TFCP2 rhabdomyosarcomas clustered together and distinctly from other rhabdomyosarcomas subgroups. Altogether, our data confirm and expand the spectrum of the new family of FET-TFCP2 rhabdomyosarcomas, which are associated with a predilection for the craniofacial bones, an aggressive course, and recurrent pathological features. Their association with ALK overexpression might represent a therapeutic vulnerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0323-8DOI Listing
March 2020

Conventional chondrosarcoma with focal clear cell change: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis.

Histopathology 2019 Dec 13;75(6):843-852. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aims: Clear cell chondrosarcomas are known to occasionally contain areas of low-grade conventional chondrosarcoma; however, the opposite phenomenon has not yet been described. We identified five cases of conventional chondrosarcoma alongside clear cell chondrosarcoma. Here, we report on their clinicopathological and molecular characteristics, and investigate whether these hybrid lesions should be considered to be a collision tumour, conventional chondrosarcoma with clear cell change, or clear cell chondrosarcoma with extensive areas of conventional chondrosarcoma, as this has clinical implications.

Methods And Results: Clinicohistopathological features were characterised, immunohistochemistry was performed for H3 histone family member 3B (H3F3B), histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27me3), and p53, and genetic alterations of IDH1 (encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1), IDH2 (encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 2), TP53 and H3F3B were evaluated. All five chondrosarcomas consisted predominantly of areas with conventional chondrosarcoma. Different grades were found [grade I (n = 1), grade II (n = 2), and grade III (n = 2)]. Up to 20% of the tumour consisted of classic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma. Gradual merging between both components was observed. Molecular analysis of conventional chondrosarcoma components revealed an IDH1 c.395G>T, p.(Arg132Leu) mutation in two cases, and an IDH1 c.394C>T, p.(Arg132Cys) mutation in one case, with identical IDH mutations in the clear cell chondrosarcoma counterpart (100%). Two cases were IDH wild-type. In all cases, none of the components harboured H3F3B mutations. High-grade tumours had an aggressive course, as three patients died of the disease.

Conclusion: On the basis of clinicopathological characterisation and genetic alterations, it is suggested that these lesions should be considered to be conventional chondrosarcoma, with clear cell change. Pathologists should be aware of their existence to avoid confusion with clear cell chondrosarcoma, dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma, or chondroblastic osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899637PMC
December 2019

NBTXR3, a first-in-class radioenhancer hafnium oxide nanoparticle, plus radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (Act.In.Sarc): a multicentre, phase 2-3, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 08 8;20(8):1148-1159. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Medical Centre, Hungarian Defence Forces, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Pathological complete response to preoperative treatment in adults with soft-tissue sarcoma can be achieved in only a few patients receiving radiotherapy. This phase 2-3 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of the hafnium oxide (HfO) nanoparticle NBTXR3 activated by radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone as a pre-operative treatment in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma.

Methods: Act.In.Sarc is a phase 2-3 randomised, multicentre, international trial. Adults (aged ≥18 years) with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity or trunk wall, of any histological grade, and requiring preoperative radiotherapy were included. Patients had to have a WHO performance status of 0-2 and a life expectancy of at least 6 months. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web response system to receive either NBTXR3 (volume corresponding to 10% of baseline tumour volume at a fixed concentration of 53·3 g/L) as a single intratumoural administration before preoperative external-beam radiotherapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions) or radiotherapy alone, followed by surgery. Randomisation was stratified by histological subtype (myxoid liposarcoma vs others). This was an open-label study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a pathological complete response, assessed by a central pathology review board following European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines in the intention-to-treat population full analysis set. Safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one puncture and injection of NBTXR3 or at least one dose of radiotherapy. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02379845, and is ongoing for long-term follow-up, but recruitment is complete.

Findings: Between March 3, 2015, and Nov 21, 2017, 180 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned and 179 started treatment: 89 in the NBTXR3 plus radiotherapy group and 90 in the radiotherapy alone group. Two patients in the NBTXR3 group and one patient in the radiotherapy group were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they were subsequently discovered to be ineligible; thus, a total of 176 patients were analysed for the primary endpoint in the intention-to-treat full analysis set (87 in the NBTXR3 group and 89 in the radiotherapy alone group). A pathological complete response was noted in 14 (16%) of 87 patients in the NBTXR3 group and seven (8%) of 89 in the radiotherapy alone group (p=0·044). In both treatment groups, the most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse event was postoperative wound complication (eight [9%] of 89 patients in the NBTXR3 group and eight [9%] of 90 in the radiotherapy alone group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events related to NBTXR3 administration were injection site pain (four [4%] of 89) and hypotension (four [4%]) and the most common grade 3-4 radiotherapy-related adverse event was radiation skin injury in both groups (five [6%] of 89 in the NBTXR3 group and four [4%] of 90 in the radiotherapy alone group). The most common treatment-emergent grade 3-4 adverse event related to NBTXR3 was hypotension (six [7%] of 89 patients). Serious adverse events were observed in 35 (39%) of 89 patients in the NBTXR3 group and 27 (30%) of 90 patients in the radiotherapy alone group. No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: This trial validates the mode of action of this new class of radioenhancer, which potentially opens a large field of clinical applications in soft-tissue sarcoma and possibly other cancers.

Funding: Nanobiotix SA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30326-2DOI Listing
August 2019

Radiotherapy resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; a possible correlation with alterations in cell cycle related genes.

Clin Sarcoma Res 2019 28;9. Epub 2019 May 28.

1Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Conventional chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumors considered radioresistant. Nevertheless, retrospective series show a small but significant survival benefit for patients with locally advanced disease treated with radiotherapy. And, in daily practice when considered inoperable their irradiation is an accepted indication for proton beam radiotherapy. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity of chondrosarcoma cell lines and -tissue samples towards radiotherapy and screened for biomarkers to identify predictors of radiosensitivity.

Methods: Proliferation and clonogenic assays were performed in chondrosarcoma cell lines after γ-radiation in combination with mutant IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198. In addition, glutathione levels were measured using mass spectrometry. Chondrosarcoma tumor explants were irradiated after which γ-H2AX foci were counted. Mutation analysis was performed using the Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel and immunohistochemical staining's were performed for P-S6, LC-3B, P53, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Survivin. Results were correlated with the number of γ-H2AX foci.

Results: Chondrosarcoma cell lines were variably γ-radiation resistant. No difference in radiosensitivity, nor glutathione levels was observed after treatment with AGI-5198. Irradiated chondrosarcoma patient tissue presented a variable increase in γ-H2AX foci compared to non-radiated tissue. Samples were divided into two groups, high and low radioresistant, based on the amount of γ-H2AX foci. All four highly resistant tumors exhibited mutations in the pRb pathway, while none of the less radioresistant tumors showed mutations in these genes.

Conclusions: Chondrosarcoma cell lines as well as primary tumors are variably radioresistant, particularly in case of a defective Rb pathway. Whether selection for radiotherapy can be based upon an intact Rb pathway should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13569-019-0119-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6540537PMC
May 2019

Machine learning analysis of gene expression data reveals novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and identifies therapeutic targets for soft tissue sarcomas.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 02 20;15(2):e1006826. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Based on morphology it is often challenging to distinguish between the many different soft tissue sarcoma subtypes. Moreover, outcome of disease is highly variable even between patients with the same disease. Machine learning on transcriptome sequencing data could be a valuable new tool to understand differences between and within entities. Here we used machine learning analysis to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for soft tissue sarcomas. Gene expression data was used from the Cancer Genome Atlas, the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and the French Sarcoma Group. We identified three groups of tumors that overlap in their molecular profiles as seen with unsupervised t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding clustering and a deep neural network. The three groups corresponded to subtypes that are morphologically overlapping. Using a random forest algorithm, we identified novel diagnostic markers for soft tissue sarcoma that distinguished between synovial sarcoma and MPNST, and that we validated using qRT-PCR in an independent series. Next, we identified prognostic genes that are strong predictors of disease outcome when used in a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The prognostic genes were further validated in expression data from the French Sarcoma Group. One of these, HMMR, was validated in an independent series of leiomyosarcomas using immunohistochemistry on tissue micro array as a prognostic gene for disease-free interval. Furthermore, reconstruction of regulatory networks combined with data from the Connectivity Map showed, amongst others, that HDAC inhibitors could be a potential effective therapy for multiple soft tissue sarcoma subtypes. A viability assay with two HDAC inhibitors confirmed that both leiomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma are sensitive to HDAC inhibition. In this study we identified novel diagnostic markers, prognostic markers and therapeutic leads from multiple soft tissue sarcoma gene expression datasets. Thus, machine learning algorithms are powerful new tools to improve our understanding of rare tumor entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398862PMC
February 2019

Exploration of the chondrosarcoma metabolome; the mTOR pathway as an important pro-survival pathway.

J Bone Oncol 2019 Apr 29;15:100222. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-producing tumors showing mutations and changes in gene expression in metabolism related genes. In this study, we aimed to explore the metabolome and identify targetable metabolic vulnerabilities in chondrosarcoma.

Methods: A custom-designed metabolic compound screen containing 39 compounds targeting different metabolic pathways was performed in chondrosarcoma cell lines JJ012, SW1353 and CH2879. Based on the anti-proliferative activity, six compounds were selected for validation using real-time metabolic profiling. Two selected compounds (rapamycin and sapanisertib) were further explored for their effect on viability, apoptosis and metabolic dependency, in normoxia and hypoxia. efficacy of sapanisertib was tested in a chondrosarcoma orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

Results: Inhibitors of glutamine, glutathione, NAD synthesis and mTOR were effective in chondrosarcoma cells. Of the six compounds that were validated on the metabolic level, mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and sapanisertib showed the most consistent decrease in oxidative and glycolytic parameters. Chondrosarcoma cells were sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition using rapamycin. Inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 using sapanisertib resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in viability in all chondrosarcoma cell lines. In addition, induction of apoptosis was observed in CH2879 after 24 h. Treatment of chondrosarcoma xenografts with sapanisertib slowed down tumor growth compared to control mice.

Conclusions: mTOR inhibition leads to a reduction of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism and decreased proliferation in chondrosarcoma cell lines. Although further research is needed, these findings suggest that mTOR inhibition might be a potential therapeutic option for patients with chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbo.2019.100222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360255PMC
April 2019

Prevalence and Clinical Features of Mazabraud Syndrome: A Multicenter European Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Jan;101(2):160-168

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (B.C.J.M., M.A.J.v.d.S., and S.P.D.D.), Endocrinology Division, Department of Medicine (N.M.A.-D. and N.A.T.H.), and Department of Pathology (J.V.M.G.B.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Mazabraud syndrome is a rare disorder, characterized by the presence of fibrous dysplasia (FD) with associated intramuscular myxomas. Data are scarce on the prevalence, clinical features, and natural history of this disorder and outcomes. In this multicenter study, we evaluated a series of patients from 6 European centers.

Methods: All centers affiliated with the European Musculo-Skeletal Oncology Society (EMSOS) were invited to include data on all patients with Mazabraud syndrome who were seen between 1980 and 2015. The study investigated the prevalence of Mazabraud syndrome, the type, severity, and localization of FD lesions in relation to myxomas, the histopathology of myxomas, and results of GNAS-mutation analysis, when available.

Results: Thirty-two patients (22 female) from 6 centers were included. The prevalence of Mazabraud syndrome was 2.2% in the combined cohort of 1,446 patients with FD, and the syndrome was diagnosed at a mean of 10.1 years after diagnosis of FD. The myxomas were predominantly localized in the upper leg. Excision was performed in 20 patients, recurrence occurred in 6 of these patients (30%) at a median of 8.5 years (range, 1.9 to 16.0 years), and revision surgery was necessary in 5 (25%). High cellularity of myxomas was associated with recurrence (p < 0.05). A GNAS mutation was identified in the myxoma tissue of 5 (83%) of 6 patients with GNAS-mutation analysis.

Conclusions: This study is the first, to our knowledge, to provide data on the prevalence of Mazabraud syndrome in a relatively large cohort. Although the outcomes of surgical resection were good, a quarter of the patients required revision surgery despite clear resection margins. High cellularity of myxomas was associated with recurrence. GNAS mutations were identified in 83% (5 of 6), emphasizing the shared origin of FD and myxomas. Our data show that patients with FD who have disproportionate complaints, irrespective of FD type, extent, or severity, should be investigated for the possible presence of myxomas.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.00062DOI Listing
January 2019

Increased WISP1 expression in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage is epigenetically regulated and decreases cartilage matrix production.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019 06;58(6):1065-1074

Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Previously, we have shown the involvement of Wnt-activated protein Wnt-1-induced signaling protein 1 (WISP1) in the development of OA in mice. Here, we aimed to characterize the relation between WISP1 expression and human OA and its regulatory epigenetic determinants.

Methods: Preserved and lesioned articular cartilage from end-stage OA patients and non-OA-diagnosed individuals was collected. WISP1 expression was determined using immunohistochemistry and damage was classified using Mankin scoring. RNA expression and DNA methylation were assessed in silico from genome-wide datasets (microarray analysis and RNA sequencing, and 450 k-methylationarrays, respectively). Effects of WISP1 were tested in pellet cultures of primary human chondrocytes.

Results: WISP1 expression in cartilage of OA patients was increased compared with non-OA-diagnosed controls and, within OA patients, WISP1 was even higher in lesioned compared with preserved regions, with expression strongly correlating with Mankin score. In early symptomatic OA patients with disease progression, higher synovial WISP1 expression was observed as compared with non-progressors. Notably, increased WISP1 expression was inversely correlated with methylation levels of a positional CpG-dinucleotide (cg10191240), with lesioned areas showing strong hypomethylation for this CpG as compared with preserved cartilage. Additionally, we observed that methylation levels were allele-dependent for an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism nearby cg10191240. Finally, addition of recombinant WISP1 to pellets of primary chondrocytes strongly inhibited deposition of extracellular matrix as reflected by decreased pellet circumference, proteoglycan content and decreased expression of matrix components.

Conclusion: Increased WISP1 expression is found in lesioned human articular cartilage, and appears epigenetically regulated via DNA methylation. In vitro assays suggest that increased WISP1 is detrimental for cartilage integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/key426DOI Listing
June 2019

Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst: six new cases with imaging details, molecular pathology, and review of the literature.

Skeletal Radiol 2019 Jul 2;48(7):1059-1067. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Radiology, C-2-S, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) rarely present in soft tissue locations (STABC). The 30 cases of STABC reported in the English literature were reviewed. Six new cases retrieved from the files of the Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumors were compared to the six cases described in the radiological literature.

Materials And Methods: Imaging studies and histopathology of six new STABC cases were reviewed. Follow-up was recorded with respect to local recurrence. FISH for USP6 rearrangement and/or anchored multiplex PCR-based targeted NGS using Archer FusionPlex Sarcoma Panel were attempted.

Results: On imaging, the six STABC cases presented as a solid or multicystic intramuscular soft tissue mass, usually with thin peripheral mineralized bone shell. On MRI, perilesional edema was visualized in nearly all cases. Fluid-fluid levels were observed in one case. All lesions had the distinct histologic features of STABC. In three cases suitable for NGS, the diagnosis of STABC was confirmed by a COL1A1-USP6 fusion gene. In one additional case, USP6 gene rearrangement was detected by FISH. After marginal excision, none of the six STABC recurred after a mean follow-up period of 50 months (range, 39-187 months).

Conclusions: On imaging, it can be difficult to discriminate between STABC and myositis ossificans. The presence of a thin bony shell and fluid-fluid levels can be helpful in discriminating these two entities. STABC is readily diagnosed after histopathologic examination of the resection specimen. STABC belongs to the spectrum of tumors with USP6 rearrangements, which includes ABC, myositis ossificans, and nodular fasciitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-018-3135-xDOI Listing
July 2019

Molecular Pathology of Bone Tumors.

J Mol Diagn 2019 03 18;21(2):171-182. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Although classic histomorphology is the cornerstone of bone tumor diagnostics, this field has rapidly evolved since the advancement of new molecular techniques. The identification of novel genetic alterations in bone tumors has led to more insight into the genetic background of these tumors, which has resulted in a more prominent role of molecular pathology in daily practice. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past few decades and illustrated that based on molecular alterations, bone tumors can be roughly classified as tumors with simple karyotypes and those with complex karyotypes. The first group can be subclassified as tumors that carry specific translocations, somatic gene mutations, or more or less specific amplifications. On the other hand, sarcomas with complex karyotypes usually lack specific alterations. Many techniques are available for the detection of recurrent genetic alterations, now also including IHC analysis, and this review focuses on assays routinely performed in molecular diagnostics. Subsequently, tumor classes with distinct genetic abnormalities are discussed and illustrated by more specific examples, and the usefulness of molecular pathology in routine diagnostics is highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2018.11.002DOI Listing
March 2019