Publications by authors named "Judith Kappesser"

15 Publications

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[Item Reduction to Improve Practicability of Neonatal Pain Assessment Tools - Comparison of NFCSshort and PIPP in Daily Clinical Practice].

Klin Padiatr 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Allgemeine Pädiatrie und Neonatologie, Justus Liebig Universität Giessen, Giessen, Deutschland.

Hintergrund: Trotz über 50 psychometrisch validierter Beobachtungsverfahren gibt es bisher keinen Konsens über das praktikabelste Schmerzassessment bei Neugeborenen. Die Items von NFCSshort und PIPP wurden mit der Schmerzeinschätzung der prozedurbeteiligten Behandler verglichen und es wurde evaluiert, ob eine Itemreduktion zu Gunsten der Alltagsanwendung möglich wäre.

Material Und Methoden: 52 Neugeborene wurden in unserer Beobachtungsstudie einer klinisch indizierten peripheren Venenpunktion unterzogen. Patient und Monitordaten wurden standardisiert auf Video aufgezeichnet. Die Schmerzintensität wurden durch sieben unabhängige Untersucher mittels NFCSshort und PIPP bewertet und hinsichtlich der Variabilität zwischen den Untersuchern verglichen.

Ergebnisse: Nur vier Items des PIPP (Herzfrequenz, Augenbrauenvorwölbung, zusammengekniffene Augen, betonte Nasolabialfalte) wiesen einen signifikanten Zusammenhang mit der geschätzten Schmerzhaftigkeit der Prozedur auf. Die Items 1 (Gestationsalter), 2 (Wachheitsgrad) und 4 (Sauerstoffsättigung) hatten bei keinem Untersucher Einfluss auf das Schmerzmessergebnis. Die Auswertung des NFCSshort zeigte bei zwei Untersuchern für das Item 1 (Vorwölbung der Augenbrauen) und bei einem Untersucher für das Item 2 (zusammengekniffene Augen) keine Einflüsse auf das Messergebnis.

Diskussion: Die Ergebnisse der Studie legen eine Kürzung des PIPP um drei Items nahe, da diese keinen Einfluss auf das Schmerzmessergebnis zeigten. Eine Reduktion des PIPP um das Item Gestationsalter erscheint fraglich, da es in weiteren Studien als bedeutsames Item bewertet wurde. Ein Verzicht auf das Item Sauerstoffsättigung geht mit einem geringeren Messaufwand einher. Eine weitere Kürzung der bereits gekürzten Version (NFCSshort) auf weniger als fünf Items ist auf Basis unserer Ergebnisse nicht zu empfehlen.

Background: Despite more than 50 laboratory-evaluated measurement systems, there is no consensus on the most practicable pain assessment in newborns in daily practice. For this purpose, the items of NFCSshort and PIPP were compared to the pain assesment of the involved medical practitioner. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether an item reduction of the assesments in favor of everyday use is feasible.

Methods: In 52 neonates of a paediatric ward venous blood collection was performed in this observational study. Cameras recorded patients and monitor in a standardized way. The pain intensity was assessed with NFCSshort and PIPP by seven independent observers. The ratings were compared for variability between observers.

Results: Of the seven PIPP items, only four were significantly associated with procedural pain assessment for all seven observers (heart rate, brow bulge, eye squeeze, nasolabial furrow). For the NFCSshort, no significant association with procedural pain assessment was found for two observers for the item "brow bulge" and for one observer for the item "eye squeeze".

Conclusion: The results of the study suggest a possible reduction of the PIPP by three items. Disregarding item 1 (gestational age) appears questionable, since its impact as context variable has been proven repeatedly. The waiver of item 4 (oxygen saturation) is associated with less measuring effort. A further reduction of the already shortened version of the NFCS with ten items (NFCSshort, five items) is not recommended by our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1550-2765DOI Listing
September 2021

Pain modulation by your partner: An experimental investigation from a social-affective perspective.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254069. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Social context such as the relationship between a person experiencing pain and a caregiver has been shown to affect the experience of pain, yet, results are not consistent. Possibly, differential effects of interpersonal relationships are modulated by affective states expressed by social partners. Viewing partner pictures in experimental designs is not only associated with lowered perceived pain intensity, but also affects neural responses. However, the role of affective modulation is not clear. The present study aimed to systematically examine the pain modulating effects of stimuli varying in affect and social content including personal relevance using subjective report and psychophysiological measures of facial and autonomic activity.

Methods: Twenty-nine women underwent a tonic heat pain paradigm with simultaneous picture viewing to investigate the influence of their partners' faces with a neutral facial expression compared to strangers' happy, angry and neutral facial expressions on pain intensity and accompanying psychophysiological parameters (facial activity: corrugator muscle activity, autonomic activity: skin conductance level, heart rate). In addition to perceived partner support and relationship characteristics, the contribution of the affective value (valence, arousal) of the partner faces to the observed pain modulation was examined.

Results: Partner and happy faces reduced self-reported pain intensity and corrugator activity, the latter being lowest when viewing partner faces as compared to all other picture categories. As corrugator activity is indexing stimulus unpleasantness and a core feature of the facial pain expression, this physiological pattern matches well with the subjective ratings. Neutral objects, neutral and angry faces had no effect on pain self-report, although angry faces were rated as highly negative. Partner faces also led to increased skin conductance, being an index of motivational activation, and heart rate deceleration, possibly reflecting increased sensory intake. Partner-related pain modulation was primarily related to perceived arousal of the partner's picture, i.e., the intensity of the activation of approach motivation, and pain-related catastrophizing.

Discussion: Our results are partially consistent with emotional pain control models, especially regarding the modulatory influence of valence. Within the context of socially adaptive behavior, they particularly underline the social signal value of emotion and attachment figures. Clinically, our results imply that just looking at pictures of one's partner when undergoing acute painful procedures can have a robust hypoalgesic effect.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254069PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297879PMC
July 2021

Pain assessment for cognitively impaired older adults: Do items of available observer tools reflect pain-specific responses?

Eur J Pain 2020 04 11;24(4):851-862. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Background: A number of observational tools are available to assess pain in cognitively impaired older adults, however, none of them can yet be regarded as a "gold standard". An international research initiative has created a meta-tool compiling the facial, vocalization and body movement items of the majority of available tools. Objective of this study was to investigate the pain specificity and the validity of these items.

Method: N = 34 older adults with or without cognitive impairment were videotaped in three different conditions (one reference, two painful conditions) in their nursing homes. They were further asked to self-report their pain in each condition. The occurrence of non-verbal behaviours was coded as present or absent using the items of the meta-tool.

Results: The majority of non-verbal behaviours was not pain sensitive as they occurred less than three times across participants and conditions. Of the remaining items, two facial items ("pained expression" and "raising upper lip"), one vocalization item ("using pain-related words") and one body movement item ("guarding") were found to be pain specific and valid. One additional item, the vocalization item "gasping", was pain specific, but not associated with pain self-report, and three additional items, the facial items "frowning" and "narrowing eyes" and the vocalization item "mumbling" were correlated with pain self-report but did not help to separate pain from non-pain conditions.

Conclusions: Systematic evaluation of items of existing observational pain assessment tools under naturalistic conditions seems a promising approach in the process of further investigating and improving tools.

Significance: Only few items stemming from observational pain assessment tools were found to be pain sensitive and specific as well as valid in this study. The investigation of existing tools not only on tool but additionally on item-level can provide helpful insights and thereby can help to improve the original tools and establish a gold standard for nonverbal pain assessment in older adults with cognitive impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1536DOI Listing
April 2020

Placebo effect in children: the role of expectation and learning.

Pain 2020 06;161(6):1191-1201

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Classical conditioning and expectations are well-known underlying mechanisms of placebo hypoalgesia. Only little is known about their differential effect in adults, however, and even less in children. Previous studies in children evoked placebo hypoalgesia either with expectations alone or in combination with classical conditioning and revealed conflicting results. Furthermore, these studies investigated children of different ages making it even more difficult to draw conclusions. This study tried to disentangle classical conditioning and expectations by investigating them separately. To examine age effects, n = 172 children (6-9, 10-13, and 14-17 years) as well as n = 32 adults (> = 18 years) were tested using a heat pain paradigm investigating the effectiveness of creams some of which were bogusly introduced as analgesic. In addition to subjective pain intensity ratings, peripheral physiological measures were recorded. Results showed a successful induction of placebo hypoalgesia by both mechanisms for pain ratings and heart rate acceleration. Placebo hypoalgesia was particularly pronounced in children younger than 14 years. Furthermore, placebo hypoalgesia was more marked in children whose mothers raised the expectations. It was also stronger in participants who noticed a strong pain reduction during learning trials. These results encourage the use of placebo effect in clinical practice, particularly for younger children. They underline the relevance of an initial pain reduction and encourage the inclusion of parents in treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001811DOI Listing
June 2020

The facial expression of pain in humans considered from a social perspective.

Authors:
Judith Kappesser

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 11 23;374(1785):20190284. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Psychology, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Giessen, Hessen, Germany.

The social modulation of pain in humans has been neglected so far with respect to verbal as well as non-verbal communication of pain. The facial pain expression is a powerful way to communicate pain, and there are some theoretical accounts available on how social modulation may affect the encoding of the facial expression of pain. Some accounts, particularly in the pain field, are proximate explanations on the mechanisms involved, whereas an evolutionary psychology account takes a more comprehensive approach. A review of nine experimental studies revealed that in the majority of studies (6/9), social context had an effect on the facial pain expression, but results were inconsistent. Several conceptual and methodological issues are discussed which may explain these inconsistencies and could help in design of future experimental studies. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of mechanisms and behaviour important for pain'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790380PMC
November 2019

[Applicability of Neonatal Pain Scores depending on Level of Education and Work Experience in Child Care].

Klin Padiatr 2019 Mar 21;231(2):87-92. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Dept. of Psychology, University of Giessen, Giessen.

Introduction: In management of pain the nursing staff plays a major role in measuring, preventing and treating pain. The influence of general work experience and experience with newborns was investigated by comparing PIPP and NRS measurements in groups with work experience and student nurses.

Methods: 44 students of the nursing school and 35 members of the staff of 2 university hospitals scored the Premature Infant Pain Profile PIPP - a 7 dimensional measurement tool - for 10 videos of painful procedures on preterm and newborn. The subjective impression of the patients' pain was obtained by a NRS.

Results: In contrast to the application of one dimensional measurement tools there were no differences between the groups with different experience levels. Also the work experience with newborn did not seem to influence the total PIPP score. Certainly both groups showed a moderate dispersion of the total values (e. g. Video 1: 10,5 [9-12] vs. 10 [3-11]). In NRS students rated the pain lower than experienced nurses. These results were not significant.

Conclusion: The application of PIPP by students was equal to the application by experienced nurses. The work experience with newborn did not seem to influence the rating. Certainly both groups showed a moderate dispersion of total values (e. g. Video 1: 10,5 [9-12] vs. 10 [3-11]).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0856-7296DOI Listing
March 2019

Comparison of two neonatal pain assessment tools (Children and Infant's Postoperative Pain Scale and the Neonatal Facial Coding System-Revised) and their relations to clinicians' intuitive pain estimates.

Eur J Pain 2019 Apr 12;23(4):708-718. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Many neonatal observational pain assessment tools are available. Their application in clinical settings, however, has been limited. A further difficulty for decision makers may be to choose among the variety of available tools the appropriate one(s) for their patients. Aims of the present study were (1) to compare two commonly cited neonatal pain assessment tools, the Neonatal Facial Coding System-Revised (NFCS-R) and the Children and Infant's Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS), with regard to their psychometric qualities and (2) to explore intuitive clinicians' ratings by relating them to the tools' items.

Methods: Three coders applied both pain assessment tools to videos of 44 neonates who were videotaped while undergoing a painful and a stressful procedure. Clinicians rated the pain neonates experienced on a numerical rating scale. Analyses of variances and regression analyses were used to investigate whether tools could discriminate between the procedures and whether tools' items were predictors of intuitive clinicians' ratings.

Results: Interrater reliability, internal consistency and relative convergent validity were high for both assessment tools. Both tools discriminated between painful and stressful situations equally well. Roughly one third of variance in clinicians' intuitive ratings could be explained by items of each tool, however, no single item was found to be a significant predictor.

Conclusions: Both pain assessment tools performed equally well regarding psychometric comparisons. Therefore, clinical utility needs to be considered when having to choose. Possibilities of improvement for both tools were identified. Cues clinicians base their intuitive pain judgements need to be further investigated.

Significance: Psychometric comparisons of neonatal assessment tools provide useful information that can help health care professionals to choose among tools and researchers to improve them. Both tools compared here performed psychometrically equally well. Their clinical utility, however, can be improved, for example by providing a manual (CHIPPS) and training opportunities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1338DOI Listing
April 2019

Pain-specific Reactions or Indicators of a General Stress Response?: Investigating the Discriminant Validity of 5 Well-established Neonatal Pain Assessment Tools.

Clin J Pain 2019 02;35(2):101-110

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen.

Objectives: There are many neonatal pain assessment tools available. However, systematic psychometric comparisons between tools are lacking, particularly those comparing tools regarding their ability to differentiate between pain and stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to compare 5 widely used neonatal pain assessment tools: Neonatal Facial Coding System-Revised, Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised, Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale, Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, and Bernese Pain Scale Neonates.

Materials And Methods: Two coders applied all pain assessment tools to videos of 42 neonates who were videotaped during a pain and a stressful procedure.

Results: Interrater reliability and relative convergent validity were high and internal consistency good to excellent for all 5 assessment tools. All tools discriminated between painful and stressful events. Tools differed regarding their overall effect sizes as well as their items' effect sizes. Behavioral items tended to have larger effect sizes than physiological ones. Yet, effect sizes of items from one behavioral category differed greatly, which may be due to different operationalization of coding schemes.

Discussion: Given that the tools investigated in the present study appear to be fairly comparable psychometrically. Aspects of their clinical utility are discussed and ways of improvement identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000660DOI Listing
February 2019

An international road map to improve pain assessment in people with impaired cognition: the development of the Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC) meta-tool.

BMC Neurol 2014 Dec 10;14:229. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.

Background: Pain is common in people with dementia, yet identification is challenging. A number of pain assessment tools exist, utilizing observation of pain-related behaviours, vocalizations and facial expressions. Whilst they have been developed robustly, these often lack sufficient evidence of psychometric properties, like reliability, face and construct validity, responsiveness and usability, and are not internationally implemented. The EU-COST initiative "Pain in impaired cognition, especially dementia" aims to combine the expertise of clinicians and researchers to address this important issue by building on previous research in the area, identifying existing pain assessment tools for dementia, and developing consensus for items for a new universal meta-tool for use in research and clinical settings. This paper reports on the initial phase of this collaboration task.

Methods: All existing observational pain behaviour tools were identified and elements categorised using a three-step reduction process. Selection and refinement of items for the draft Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC) meta-tool was achieved through scrutiny of the evidence, consensus of expert opinion, frequency of use and alignment with the American Geriatric Society guidelines. The main aim of this process was to identify key items with potential empirical, rather than theoretical value to take forward for testing.

Results: 12 eligible assessment tools were identified, and pain items categorised according to behaviour, facial expression and vocalisation according to the AGS guidelines (Domains 1 - 3). This has been refined to create the PAIC meta-tool for validation and further refinement. A decision was made to create a supporting comprehensive toolkit to support the core assessment tool to provide additional resources for the assessment of overlapping symptoms in dementia, including AGS domains four to six, identification of specific types of pain and assessment of duration and location of pain.

Conclusions: This multidisciplinary, cross-cultural initiative has created a draft meta-tool for capturing pain behaviour to be used across languages and culture, based on the most promising items used in existing tools. The draft PAIC meta-tool will now be taken forward for evaluation according to COSMIN guidelines and the EU-COST protocol in order to exclude invalid items, refine included items and optimise the meta-tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-014-0229-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279897PMC
December 2014

Does vigilance to pain make individuals experts in facial recognition of pain?

Pain Res Manag 2013 Jul-Aug;18(4):191-6. Epub 2013 May 28.

Department of Physiological Psychology, University of Bamberg, Germany.

Background: It is well known that individual factors are important in the facial recognition of pain. However, it is unclear whether vigilance to pain as a pain-related attentional mechanism is among these relevant factors.

Objectives: Vigilance to pain may have two different effects on the recognition of facial pain expressions: pain-vigilant individuals may detect pain faces better but overinclude other facial displays, misinterpreting them as expressing pain; or they may be true experts in discriminating between pain and other facial expressions. The present study aimed to test these two hypotheses. Furthermore, pain vigilance was assumed to be a distinct predictor, the impact of which on recognition cannot be completely replaced by related concepts such as pain catastrophizing and fear of pain.

Methods: Photographs of neutral, happy, angry and pain facial expressions were presented to 40 healthy participants, who were asked to classify them into the appropriate emotion categories and provide a confidence rating for each classification. Additionally, potential predictors of the discrimination performance for pain and anger faces - pain vigilance, pain-related catastrophizing, fear of pain--were assessed using self-report questionnaires.

Results: Pain-vigilant participants classified pain faces more accurately and did not misclassify anger as pain faces more frequently. However, vigilance to pain was not related to the confidence of recognition ratings. Pain catastrophizing and fear of pain did not account for the recognition performance.

Conclusions: Moderate pain vigilance, as assessed in the present study, appears to be associated with appropriate detection of pain-related cues and not necessarily with the overinclusion of other negative cues.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812190PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/371428DOI Listing
March 2014

Impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain.

Pain 2013 Feb 12;154(2):221-226. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Institute of Psychology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

This study examined whether priming with social deception affects responses (pain estimates, self-reported sympathy, inclination to help) towards others' pain. We further explored whether the priming effect is mediated by the valence of the patients (positive/negative), as indicated by the participants. First, participants (N=55) took part in an 'independent' delayed memory study in which they read either a neutral text about the use of the health care system (neutral condition) or a text about its misuse (social deception condition). Second, participants watched videos of pain patients performing pain-inducing activities. Participants rated the patients' pain, the sympathy felt for the patients, and the inclination to help the patients. Third, the participants re-estimated patients' pain when patients' self-report of pain was provided. Fourth, pictures of the patients were shown and participants indicated the valence of the patients (positive/negative). Results revealed no direct effect of priming with social deception. However, priming with social deception was related to less positive rating of the valence of the patients, that were related to lower ratings on pain and sympathy, and to larger discrepancies between the ratings of the patients and the observers. The results indicate that observers attribute less pain, feel less sympathy, and take patients' self-reported pain intensity less into account when the patients are evaluated less positively, which is likely to occur when a cognitive scheme of social deception is primed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2012.10.002DOI Listing
February 2013

Pain estimation: asking the right questions.

Pain 2010 Feb 31;148(2):184-187. Epub 2009 Oct 31.

Department of Psychology, University of Mainz, Wallstr. 3, 55122 Mainz, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2009.10.007DOI Listing
February 2010

Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

J Behav Med 2008 Aug 16;31(4):309-17. Epub 2008 May 16.

Institute of Psychology, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 9, Mainz, Germany.

Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9157-4DOI Listing
August 2008

Testing two accounts of pain underestimation.

Pain 2006 Sep 23;124(1-2):109-16. Epub 2006 May 23.

Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Two important influences on pain underestimation by health care professionals were investigated by varying specific cues with reference to underestimation of patients' pain: when observers are not allowed to talk to patients and when observers expect social cheating. One hundred and twenty health care professionals watched videotaped facial expressions of pain patients and estimated their pain. The first group only saw the faces, the second group was given patients' self-reports in addition and the last group was given a context cue priming them to expect cheating in addition to faces and patients' ratings. Health care professionals generally underestimated patients' pain, but this varied depending on the cues given. Those viewing the face without patients' ratings underestimated pain to a greater extent than health care professionals provided with patients' ratings. Health care professionals primed to expect cheating underestimated pain as much as those seeing only patients' faces. Therefore, both accounts, verbal report as important but missing cue as well as an alerted cheating detection device, could account for underestimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2006.04.003DOI Listing
September 2006

Pain and negative emotions in the face: judgements by health care professionals.

Pain 2002 Sep;99(1-2):197-206

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.

Facial expression of pain has rarely been researched in the context of facial expression of negative emotions with which it may occur. The main aim of the study was to investigate how pain expression resembled or differed from that of other negative emotions (fear, anger, sadness, surprise, disgust and embarrassment), using multidimensional scaling, a dimensional approach to understanding relationships among emotions. As possible misidentification of facial expressions by participants could distort those results, a judgement study as a categorical approach was conducted to examine the accuracy of identification of pain and negative emotion facial expressions. The sample was health care professionals. Identification of pain was good (unbiased hit rate 58.8%), but less than all other negative emotions. Confidence in ratings approximated accuracy of identification. Multidimensional scaling revealed two dimensions: the first distinguished embarrassment from all other emotion expressions; the second separated pain, sadness and anger from fear, surprise and disgust. Possible explanations for these findings were sought in patterns of facial action units, and in the messages conveyed by the expressions according to Fridlund's Behavioural Ecology View.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3959(02)00101-xDOI Listing
September 2002
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