Publications by authors named "Judith Hoffman-Bolton"

38 Publications

Breast cancer risk factors and circulating anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in healthy premenopausal women.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Context: In a previous study we reported that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, is positively associated with breast cancer risk, consistent with other studies.

Objective: Assess whether risk factors for breast cancer are correlates of AMH concentration.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Participants: 3831 healthy premenopausal women (aged 21-57, 87% aged 35-49).

Setting: Ten cohort studies, general population.

Results: Adjusting for age and cohort, we observed positive associations of AMH with age at menarche (p<0.0001) and parity (p=0.0008), and an inverse association with hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy (p=0.0008). Compared to women of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2, AMH was lower (relative geometric mean difference 27%, p<0.0001) among women who were obese (BMI>30). Current oral contraceptive use and current/former smoking were associated with lower AMH concentration than never use (40% and 12% lower, respectively, p<0.0001). We observed higher AMH concentrations among women who had had a benign breast biopsy (15% higher, p=0.03), a surrogate for benign breast disease, an association that has not been reported. In analyses stratified by age (<40/≥40), associations of AMH with BMI and oral contraceptives were similar in younger and older women, while associations with the other factors (menarche, parity, hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy, smoking, and benign breast biopsy) were limited to women ≥40 (p-interaction<0.05).

Conclusion: This is the largest study of AMH and breast cancer risk factors among women from the general population (not presenting with infertility), and suggests that most of the associations are limited to women over 40, who are approaching menopause and whose AMH concentration is declining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab461DOI Listing
June 2021

All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Breast Cancer Survivors in CLUE II, a Long-Standing Community-Based Cohort.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 02;113(2):137-145

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: There is growing evidence that breast cancer survivors have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality relative to the general population. Information on temporal patterns for all-cause and CVD mortality among breast cancer survivors relative to cancer-free women is limited.

Methods: All-cause and CVD-related mortality were compared in 628 women with breast cancer and 3140 age-matched cancer-free women within CLUE II, a prospective cohort. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression for all-cause mortality, and Fine and Gray models for CVD-related mortality to account for competing risks.

Results: Over 25 years of follow-up, 916 deaths occurred (249 CVD related). Breast cancer survivors had an overall higher risk of dying compared with cancer-free women (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.09) irrespective of time since diagnosis, tumor stage, estrogen receptor status, and older age at diagnosis (≥70 years). Risk of death was greatest among older survivors at more than 15 years after diagnosis (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.59 to 4.55). CVD (69.1% ischemic heart disease) was the leading cause of death among cancer-free women and the second among survivors. Survivors had an increase in CVD-related deaths compared with cancer-free women beginning at 8 years after diagnosis (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.00 to 2.73), with the highest risk among older survivors (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.88) and after estrogen receptor-positive disease (HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.06 to 3.20).

Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors continue to have an elevated mortality compared with the general population for many years after diagnosis. Preventing cardiac deaths, particularly among older breast cancer patients, could lead to reductions in mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850550PMC
February 2021

Survival advantage of cohort participation attenuates over time: results from three long-standing community-based studies.

Ann Epidemiol 2020 05 3;45:40-46.e4. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: Cohort participants usually have lower mortality rates than nonparticipants, but it is unclear if this survival advantage decreases or increases as cohort studies age.

Methods: We used a 1975 private census of Washington County, Maryland, to compare mortality among cohort participants to nonparticipants for three cohorts, Campaign Against Cancer and Stroke (CLUE I), Campaign Against Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE II), and Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) initiated in 1974, 1989, and 1986, respectively. We analyzed mortality risk using time-truncated Cox regression models.

Results: Participants had lower mortality risk in the first 10 years of follow-up compared with nonparticipants (fully adjusted average hazard ratio [95% confidence intervals] were 0.72 [0.68, 0.77] in CLUE I, 0.69 [0.65, 0.73] in CLUE II, and 0.74 [0.63, 0.86] in ARIC), which persisted over 20 years of follow-up (0.81 [0.78, 0.84] in CLUE I, 0.87 [0.84, 0.91] in CLUE II, and 0.90 [0.83, 0.97] in ARIC). This lower average hazard for mortality among participants compared with nonparticipants attenuated with longer follow-up (0.99 [0.96, 1.01] after 30+ years in CLUE I, 1.02 [0.99, 1.05] after 30 years in CLUE II, and 0.95 [0.89, 1.00] after 30+ years in ARIC). In ARIC, participants who did not attend visits had higher mortality, but those who did attend visits had similar mortality to the community.

Conclusions: Our results suggest the volunteer selection for mortality in long-standing epidemiologic cohort studies often diminishes as the cohort ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294871PMC
May 2020

The Risk of Ovarian Cancer Increases with an Increase in the Lifetime Number of Ovulatory Cycles: An Analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).

Cancer Res 2020 03 13;80(5):1210-1218. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, University Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056529PMC
March 2020

Breast cancer risk prediction in women aged 35-50 years: impact of including sex hormone concentrations in the Gail model.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 03 19;21(1):42. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 650 First Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background: Models that accurately predict risk of breast cancer are needed to help younger women make decisions about when to begin screening. Premenopausal concentrations of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and testosterone have been positively associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies. We assessed whether adding AMH and/or testosterone to the Gail model improves its prediction performance for women aged 35-50.

Methods: In a nested case-control study including ten prospective cohorts (1762 invasive cases/1890 matched controls) with pre-diagnostic serum/plasma samples, we estimated relative risks (RR) for the biomarkers and Gail risk factors using conditional logistic regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Absolute risk models were developed using these RR estimates, attributable risk fractions calculated using the distributions of the risk factors in the cases from the consortium, and population-based incidence and mortality rates. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminatory accuracy of the models with and without biomarkers.

Results: The AUC for invasive breast cancer including only the Gail risk factor variables was 55.3 (95% CI 53.4, 57.1). The AUC increased moderately with the addition of AMH (AUC 57.6, 95% CI 55.7, 59.5), testosterone (AUC 56.2, 95% CI 54.4, 58.1), or both (AUC 58.1, 95% CI 56.2, 59.9). The largest AUC improvement (4.0) was among women without a family history of breast cancer.

Conclusions: AMH and testosterone moderately increase the discriminatory accuracy of the Gail model among women aged 35-50. We observed the largest AUC increase for women without a family history of breast cancer, the group that would benefit most from improved risk prediction because early screening is already recommended for women with a family history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1126-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425605PMC
March 2019

Circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein concentrations and risk of lung cancer: nested case-control study within Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium.

BMJ 2019 01 3;364:k4981. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type.

Design: Nested case-control study.

Setting: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States.

Participants: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls.

Exposure: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident lung cancer diagnosis.

Results: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up.

Conclusions: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315896PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4981DOI Listing
January 2019

Ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor aggressiveness: An analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

Int J Cancer 2019 07 14;145(1):58-69. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

City of Hope, Duarte, CA.

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (p = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; p ≤ 0.04) and smoking (p < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6488363PMC
July 2019

Is high vitamin B12 status a cause of lung cancer?

Int J Cancer 2019 09 15;145(6):1499-1503. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer etiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [OR ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [OR ] = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642017PMC
September 2019

Circulating sCD27 and sCD30 in pre-diagnostic samples collected fifteen years apart and future non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk.

Int J Cancer 2019 04 19;144(8):1780-1785. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Elevated serum sCD27 and sCD30 from a single banked sample have been associated with future non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk (NHL); however, the etiologic relevance of this finding is unclear. To address this question, we conducted a case-control study (235 cases, 235 controls) nested within the CLUE-I and CLUE-II cohorts, which enrolled participants in 1974 and 1989 respectively in Washington County, Maryland. Our study features a subset of 102 cases and 102 controls with two banked pre-diagnostic samples each, collected 15 years apart. In analyses involving an individual sample per subject, both sCD27 and sCD30 were associated with NHL diagnosed up to 20 years later. In analyses involving repeated samples, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have higher analyte levels in the CLUE-II vs. CLUE-I sample for sCD27 (p = 0.006) but not sCD30 (p = 0.16). In joint analyses of dichotomized analyte levels in both samples, the strongest NHL association observed for sCD27 was for having below-median levels in CLUE-I and above-median levels in CLUE-II [odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-9.2 vs. below-median levels in both). In joint analyses for sCD30, the strongest NHL association was observed for having above-median levels in both samples (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.7), particularly for cases diagnosed >10 years after the CLUE-II sample (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.9-6.7). Our findings suggest that sCD27 is a disease marker for NHL and add to the weight of evidence that elevated circulating sCD30 is a marker of increased NHL susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377333PMC
April 2019

Circulating cotinine concentrations and lung cancer risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3).

Int J Epidemiol 2018 12;47(6):1760-1771

Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden.

Background: Self-reported smoking is the principal measure used to assess lung cancer risk in epidemiological studies. We evaluated if circulating cotinine-a nicotine metabolite and biomarker of recent tobacco exposure-provides additional information on lung cancer risk.

Methods: The study was conducted in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3) involving 20 prospective cohort studies. Pre-diagnostic serum cotinine concentrations were measured in one laboratory on 5364 lung cancer cases and 5364 individually matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between circulating cotinine and lung cancer, and assessed if cotinine provided additional risk-discriminative information compared with self-reported smoking (smoking status, smoking intensity, smoking duration), using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: We observed a strong positive association between cotinine and lung cancer risk for current smokers [odds ratio (OR ) per 500 nmol/L increase in cotinine (OR500): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.47]. Cotinine concentrations consistent with active smoking (≥115 nmol/L) were common in former smokers (cases: 14.6%; controls: 9.2%) and rare in never smokers (cases: 2.7%; controls: 0.8%). Former and never smokers with cotinine concentrations indicative of active smoking (≥115 nmol/L) also showed increased lung cancer risk. For current smokers, the risk-discriminative performance of cotinine combined with self-reported smoking (AUCintegrated: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68-0.71) yielded a small improvement over self-reported smoking alone (AUCsmoke: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.64-0.68) (P = 1.5x10-9).

Conclusions: Circulating cotinine concentrations are consistently associated with lung cancer risk for current smokers and provide additional risk-discriminative information compared with self-report smoking alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280953PMC
December 2018

Analgesic Use and Ovarian Cancer Risk: An Analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 02;111(2):137-145

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several cancers. A pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies showed a 10% decrease in ovarian cancer risk with regular aspirin use, which was stronger for daily and low-dose users. To prospectively investigate associations of analgesic use with ovarian cancer, we analyzed data from 13 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).

Methods: The current study included 758 829 women who at study enrollment self-reported analgesic use, among whom 3514 developed ovarian cancer. Using Cox regression, we assessed associations between frequent medication use and risk of ovarian cancer. Dose and duration were also evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Women who used aspirin almost daily (≥6 days/wk) vs infrequent/nonuse experienced a 10% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (rate ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82 to 1.00, P = .05). Frequent use (≥4 days/wk) of aspirin (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.03), nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.11), or acetaminophen (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.24) was not associated with risk. Daily acetaminophen use (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.65, P = .05) was associated with elevated ovarian cancer risk. Risk estimates for frequent, long-term (10+ years) use of aspirin (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.34) or nonaspirin NSAIDs (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.68) were modestly elevated, although not statistically significantly so.

Conclusions: This large, prospective analysis suggests that women who use aspirin daily have a slightly lower risk of developing ovarian cancer (∼10% lower than infrequent/nonuse)-similar to the risk reduction observed in case-control analyses. The observed potential elevated risks for 10+ years of frequent aspirin and NSAID use require further study but could be due to confounding by medical indications for use or variation in drug dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376910PMC
February 2019

Polymorphisms in genes related to inflammation and obesity and colorectal adenoma risk.

Mol Carcinog 2018 10 5;57(10):1278-1288. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

We previously investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to obesity and inflammation and colorectal cancer in the CLUE II cohort. However, the relationships between these SNPs and colorectal adenomas have not been well evaluated. In a nested case-control study of 135 incident adenoma cases and 269 matched controls in the CLUE II cohort (1989-2000), we genotyped 17 candidate SNPs in 12 genes (PPARG, TCF7L2, ADIPOQ, LEP, IL10, CRP, TLR4, IL6, IL1B, IL8, TNF, RNASEL) and 19 tagSNPs in three genes (IL10, CRP, and TLR4). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for adenomas (overall and by size, histology, location, number). Polymorphisms in the inflammatory-related genes CRP, ADIPOQ, IL6, and TLR4 were observed to be associated with adenoma risk. At rs1205 in CRP, T (minor allele) carriers had a higher risk (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.07-2.60; reference: CC) of adenomas overall and adenomas with aggressive characteristics. At rs1201299 in ADIPOQ, the AC genotype had a higher risk (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.00-2.49) of adenomas, while the minor AA genotype had a borderline inverse association (OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.18-1.08; reference: CC). At rs1800797 in IL6, the AA genotype had a borderline inverse association (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0.27-1.05; reference: GG). Three TLR4 tagSNPs (rs10116253, rs1927911, rs7873784) were associated with adenomas among obese participants. None of these SNPs were associated with colorectal cancer in our prior study in CLUE II, possibly suggesting a different genetic etiology for early colorectal neoplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697114PMC
October 2018

Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone and breast cancer risk: A study in ten prospective cohorts.

Int J Cancer 2018 06 8;142(11):2215-2226. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY.

A strong positive association has been observed between circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and breast cancer risk in three prospective studies. Confirming this association is important because of the paucity of biomarkers of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. We conducted a consortium study including ten prospective cohorts that had collected blood from premenopausal women. A nested case-control design was implemented within each cohort. A total of 2,835 invasive (80%) and in situ (20%) breast cancer cases were individually matched to controls (n = 3,122) on age at blood donation. AMH was measured using a high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Conditional logistic regression was applied to the aggregated dataset. There was a statistically significant trend of increasing breast cancer risk with increasing AMH concentration (p across quartiles <0.0001) after adjusting for breast cancer risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer in the top vs. bottom quartile of AMH was 1.60 (95% CI = 1.31-1.94). Though the test for interaction was not statistically significant (p  = 0.15), the trend was statistically significant only for tumors positive for both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR): ER+/PR+: OR  = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.46-2.64, p <0.0001; ER+/PR-: OR  = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.40-1.68, p  = 0.51; ER-/PR+: OR  = 3.23, 95% CI = 0.48-21.9, p  = 0.26; ER-/PR-: OR  = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.63-2.09, p  = 0.60. The association was observed for both pre- (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.05-1.73) and post-menopausal (OR  = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.03-2.53) breast cancer (p  = 0.34). In this large consortium study, we confirmed that AMH is associated with breast cancer risk, with a 60% increase in risk for women in the top vs. bottom quartile of AMH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5922424PMC
June 2018

Circulating Folate, Vitamin B6, and Methionine in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3).

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 01;110(1)

Genetic Epidemiology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK; Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Inc., Atlanta, GA; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD; Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Population Health and Environmental Medicine and Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY; Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, and Division of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Epidemiology and Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Molecular end Epidemiology Unit, HuGeF, Human Genetics Foundation, Torino, Italy; Inserm (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale), Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France; Umeå, University, Umeå, Sweden; HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway; Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Singapore; Department of Epidemiology, George W Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention Health Monitoring Unit, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Bevital AS, Bergen, Norway; Boston VA Medical Center, Boston, MA; Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Circulating concentrations of B vitamins and factors related to one-carbon metabolism have been found to be strongly inversely associated with lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The extent to which these associations are present in other study populations is unknown.

Methods: Within 20 prospective cohorts from the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, a nested case-control study was designed including 5364 incident lung cancer case patients and 5364 control subjects who were individually matched to case patients by age, sex, cohort, and smoking status. Centralized biochemical analyses were performed to measure circulating concentrations of vitamin B6, folate, and methionine, as well as cotinine as an indicator of recent tobacco exposure. The association between these biomarkers and lung cancer risk was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models.

Results: Participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 and folate had a modestly decreased risk of lung cancer risk overall, the odds ratios when comparing the top and bottom fourths (OR 4vs1 ) being 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00) and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.99), respectively. We found stronger associations among men (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.93) and ever smokers (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). We further noted that the association of folate was restricted to Europe/Australia and Asia, whereas no clear association was observed for the United States. Circulating concentrations of methionine were not associated with lung cancer risk overall or in important subgroups.

Conclusions: Although confounding by tobacco exposure or reverse causation cannot be ruled out, these study results are compatible with a small decrease in lung cancer risk in ever smokers who avoid low concentrations of circulating folate and vitamin B6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989622PMC
January 2018

Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

J Clin Oncol 2016 08 20;34(24):2888-98. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Nicolas Wentzensen, Britton Trabert, Amanda Black, Louise A. Brinton, Patricia Hartge, Catherine Schairer, and Hannah P. Yang, National Cancer Institute; Dale P. Sandler, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Bethesda, MD; Elizabeth M. Poole, Julie Buring, I-Min Lee, and Shelley S. Tworoger, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Elizabeth M. Poole, Hans-Olov Adami, Julie Buring, I-Min Lee, and Shelley S. Tworoger, Harvard University, Boston, MA; Emily White and Ulrike Peters, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Alan A. Arslan, Tess V. Clendenen, and Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, New York University School of Medicine; Thomas Rohan, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY; Alpa V. Patel, Susan M. Gapstur, and Mia M. Gaudet, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA; V. Wendy Setiawan, University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Leslie Bernstein and James V. Lacey Jr, City of Hope, Duarte, CA; Kala Visvanathan and Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Elisabete Weiderpass and Inger T. Gram, University of Tromsø-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø; Elisabete Weiderpass, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; Elisabete Weiderpass, Hans-Olov Adami, Louise K. Sjöholm, and Alicja Wolk, Karolinska Institute; Stockholm; Annika Idahl and Eva Lundin, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Elisabete Weiderpass, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Lesley M. Butler, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Saioa Chamosa, BioDonostia Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain; Laure Dossus, French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Paris; Sabina Rinaldi, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Renee Fortner and Rudolf Kaaks, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany; Michael Jones and Anthony Swerdlow, The Institute of Cancer Research; Melissa A. Merritt, Imperial College of London, London; Ruth Travis, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Victoria

Purpose: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).

Patients And Methods: Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test.

Results: Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas.

Conclusion: The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.66.8178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5012665PMC
August 2016

Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for Thirteen Cancer Types.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Dec 12;107(12):djv279. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (JNS, OP, SIB, QL, CCA, LTA, JDF, MTL, LM, SAS, PRT, KAM, PR, DA, DB, BAB, AB, LBr, WHC, CCC, JSC, JFFJr, NDF, LEBF, MGC, AMG, RNH, NH, WH, PDI, BTJ, CK, CMK, LML, MSL, LEM, LPO, RSSS, WeiT, MT, CWa, SW, NW, KY, PH, LMM, NEC, NR, DTS, SJC, NC); Information Management Services, Silver Spring, MD (WAW, CG); Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Gaithersburg, MD (MY, ZW, LBu, AH, CLi); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (IDV, KAB, BMB, CoC, MCB, CF, EG, SL, JP, MSt, DJH); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (IDV, OA, KAB, CoC, MCB, EG, RSK, SL, JP, HDS, MSt, DTr, DJH, PK); Ontario Health Study, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (MPP); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (HOA, EWe); Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (AA, MF); UCL Cancer Institute, London, UK (MFA, AMF, DH); Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex, UK (MFA, AMF, DH, RT); Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine in Lung Cancer, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China (SJA, JS, YLW, XCZ); Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden (UA, RH, BSM); Division of Urologic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (GAJr, RGIII); Litwin Centre for Cancer Genetics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (ILA, NG, JSW); Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (ILA, SG, NG, JSW); Hematology Unit, Ospedale Oncologico di Riferimento Regionale A. Businco, Cagliari, Italy (EA); Department of Medicin

Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.

Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.

Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl (2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.

Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4806328PMC
December 2015

Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status: in a pooled analysis of 20 studies.

Int J Epidemiol 2016 06 28;45(3):916-28. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Breast cancer aetiology may differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Associations of alcohol and folate intakes with risk of breast cancer defined by ER status were examined in pooled analyses of the primary data from 20 cohorts.

Methods: During a maximum of 6-18 years of follow-up of 1 089 273 women, 21 624 ER+ and 5113 ER- breast cancers were identified. Study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and then combined using a random-effects model.

Results: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of ER+ and ER- breast cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing ≥ 30 g/d with 0 g/day of alcohol consumption were 1.35 (1.23-1.48) for ER+ and 1.28 (1.10-1.49) for ER- breast cancer (Ptrend ≤ 0.001; Pcommon-effects by ER status: 0.57). Associations were similar for alcohol intake from beer, wine and liquor. The associations with alcohol intake did not vary significantly by total (from foods and supplements) folate intake (Pinteraction ≥ 0.26). Dietary (from foods only) and total folate intakes were not associated with risk of overall, ER+ and ER- breast cancer; pooled multivariable RRs ranged from 0.98 to 1.02 comparing extreme quintiles. Following-up US studies through only the period before mandatory folic acid fortification did not change the results. The alcohol and folate associations did not vary by tumour subtypes defined by progesterone receptor status.

Conclusions: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of both ER+ and ER- breast cancer, even among women with high folate intake. Folate intake was not associated with breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyv156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5005939PMC
June 2016

Interleukin-6 and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the CLUE II cohort and a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Cancer Causes Control 2015 Oct 29;26(10):1449-60. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Stavros Niarchos Av., University Campus, Ioannina, Greece.

Purpose: The association between prediagnostic interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer was evaluated in a nested case-control study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Methods: Colorectal cancer cases (n = 173) and matched controls (n = 345) were identified between 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington Country, Maryland. Matched odds ratios and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models.

Results: Participants in the highest third of plasma IL-6 concentration had a 2.48 times higher risk of colon cancer compared to participants in the bottom third (95 % CI 1.26-4.87; p-trend 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. This association did not differ according to the stage of disease, age, sex, or other potential modifying variables and remained statistically significant after adjustment for C-reactive protein concentrations. No statistically significant association was observed for rectal cancer risk. The meta-analysis of six prospective studies yielded an increased but borderline statistically significant risk of colon cancer per 1 U increase in naturally logarithm-transformed IL-6 (summary RR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.00-1.49; I (2) 46 %). An inverse association was noted for rectal cancer (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88; I (2) 0 %), but there was evidence for small-study effects (p 0.02).

Conclusion: Our findings provide support for a modest positive association between IL-6 concentrations and colon cancer risk. More work is needed to determine whether IL-6 is a valid marker of colorectal inflammation and whether such inflammation contributes to colon and rectal cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-015-0641-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763881PMC
October 2015

Further Confirmation of Germline Glioma Risk Variant rs78378222 in TP53 and Its Implication in Tumor Tissues via Integrative Analysis of TCGA Data.

Hum Mutat 2015 Jul 18;36(7):684-8. Epub 2015 May 18.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

We confirmed strong association of rs78378222:A>C (per allele odds ratio [OR] = 3.14; P = 6.48 × 10(-11) ), a germline rare single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TP53, via imputation of a genome-wide association study of glioma (1,856 cases and 4,955 controls). We subsequently performed integrative analyses on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) and LUAD (lung adenocarcinoma). Based on SNP data, we imputed genotypes for rs78378222 and selected individuals carrying rare risk allele (C). Using RNA sequencing data, we observed aberrant transcripts with ∼3 kb longer than normal for those individuals. Using exome sequencing data, we further showed that loss of haplotype carrying common protective allele (A) occurred somatically in GBM but not in LUAD. Our bioinformatic analysis suggests rare risk allele (C) disrupts mRNA termination, and an allelic loss of a genomic region harboring common protective allele (A) occurs during tumor initiation or progression for glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4750473PMC
July 2015

Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Dec 15;23(24):6616-33. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics Division, Keck School of Medicine and.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240198PMC
December 2014

Adipocytokines, inflammation, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a prospective study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013 Jul 7;22(7):1319-24. Epub 2013 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Obesity is a known risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer; it has been postulated that adipocytokines may mediate this association. We explored the relationship between three markers altered by obesity: leptin, adiponectin, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2), an inflammatory marker, with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. A nested case-control study of postmenopausal women was conducted within CLUE II, a prospective population-based cohort. Baseline plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and sTNF-R2 were assayed in 272 female breast cancer cases and 272 controls matched on age, date, and hour of blood draw. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). sTNF-R2 and leptin were independently positively associated with breast cancer risk in adjusted models. The OR for breast cancer comparing the highest to lowest tertile was 2.44 (95% CI: 1.30-4.58) for sTNF-R2 and 1.98 (95% CI: 1.20-3.29) for leptin. While higher levels of adiponectin were protective (OR for the lowest tertile = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), there was no dose response. A 20% reduction in the breast cancer risk associated with overweight/obesity was observed when sTNF-R2 alone was included in multivariable models. Including both sTNF-R2 and adiponectin in the models resulted in a 29% reduction in the OR. Adipocytokines and sTNF-R2 are important factors in the etiology of postmenopausal breast cancer due to adiposity. This study informs our understanding of the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer and identifies potential biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417498PMC
July 2013

Polymorphisms in genes related to one-carbon metabolism are not related to pancreatic cancer in PanScan and PanC4.

Cancer Causes Control 2013 Mar 19;24(3):595-602. Epub 2013 Jan 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.

Purpose: The evidence of a relation between folate intake and one-carbon metabolism (OCM) with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is inconsistent. In this study, the association between genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to OCM and PanCa was assessed.

Methods: Using biochemical knowledge of the OCM pathway, we identified thirty-seven genes and 834 SNPs to examine in association with PanCa. Our study included 1,408 cases and 1,463 controls nested within twelve cohorts (PanScan). The ten SNPs and five genes with lowest p values (<0.02) were followed up in 2,323 cases and 2,340 controls from eight case-control studies (PanC4) that participated in PanScan2. The correlation of SNPs with metabolite levels was assessed for 649 controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Results: When both stages were combined, we observed suggestive associations with PanCa for rs10887710 (MAT1A) (OR 1.13, 95 %CI 1.04-1.23), rs1552462 (SYT9) (OR 1.27, 95 %CI 1.02-1.59), and rs7074891 (CUBN) (OR 1.91, 95 %CI 1.12-3.26). After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant associations were observed in either the first or second stage. The three suggested SNPs showed no correlations with one-carbon biomarkers.

Conclusions: This is the largest genetic study to date to examine the relation between germline variations in OCM-related genes polymorphisms and the risk of PanCa. Suggestive evidence for an association between polymorphisms and PanCa was observed among the cohort-nested studies, but this did not replicate in the case-control studies. Our results do not strongly support the hypothesis that genes related to OCM play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-012-0138-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4127987PMC
March 2013

DNA repair gene variants in relation to overall cancer risk: a population-based study.

Carcinogenesis 2013 Jan 1;34(1):86-92. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Hollings Cancer Center and Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

The hypothesis that germ-line polymorphisms in DNA repair genes influence cancer risk has previously been tested primarily on a cancer site-specific basis. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNA repair gene allelic variants contribute to globally elevated cancer risk by measuring associations with risk of all cancers that occurred within a population-based cohort. In the CLUE II cohort study established in 1989 in Washington County, MD, this study was comprised of all 3619 cancer cases ascertained through 2007 compared with a sample of 2296 with no cancer. Associations were measured between 759 DNA repair gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of all cancers. A SNP in O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMT, (rs2296675) was significantly associated with overall cancer risk [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.43 and P-value: 4.1 × 10(-8)]. The association between rs2296675 and cancer risk was stronger among those aged ≤54 years old than those who were ≥55 years at baseline (P-for-(interaction) = 0.021). OR were in the direction of increased risk for all 15 categories of malignancies studied (P < 0.0001), ranging from 1.22 (P = 0.42) for ovarian cancer to 2.01 (P = 0.008) for urinary tract cancers; the smallest P-value was for breast cancer (OR 1.45, P = 0.0002). The results indicate that the minor allele of MGMT SNP rs2296675, a common genetic marker with 37% carriers, was significantly associated with increased risk of cancer across multiple tissues. Replication is needed to more definitively determine the scientific and public health significance of this observed association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3534189PMC
January 2013

Genome-wide association study of glioma and meta-analysis.

Hum Genet 2012 Dec 11;131(12):1877-88. Epub 2012 Aug 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Gliomas account for approximately 80 % of all primary malignant brain tumors and, despite improvements in clinical care over the last 20 years, remain among the most lethal tumors, underscoring the need for gaining new insights that could translate into clinical advances. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven new susceptibility regions. We conducted a new independent GWAS of glioma using 1,856 cases and 4,955 controls (from 14 cohort studies, 3 case-control studies, and 1 population-based case-only study) and found evidence of strong replication for three of the seven previously reported associations at 20q13.33 (RTEL), 5p15.33 (TERT), and 9p21.3 (CDKN2BAS), and consistent association signals for the remaining four at 7p11.2 (EGFR both loci), 8q24.21 (CCDC26) and 11q23.3 (PHLDB1). The direction and magnitude of the signal were consistent for samples from cohort and case-control studies, but the strength of the association was more pronounced for loci rs6010620 (20q,13.33; RTEL) and rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT) in cohort studies despite the smaller number of cases in this group, likely due to relatively more higher grade tumors being captured in the cohort studies. We further examined the 85 most promising single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified in our study in three replication sets (5,015 cases and 11,601 controls), but no new markers reached genome-wide significance. Our findings suggest that larger studies focusing on novel approaches as well as specific tumor subtypes or subgroups will be required to identify additional common susceptibility loci for glioma risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-012-1212-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3761216PMC
December 2012

A population-based study of hedgehog pathway gene variants in relation to the dual risk of basal cell carcinoma plus another cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol 2012 Oct 5;36(5):e288-93. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Introduction: A personal history of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is associated with increased risk of other malignancies, but the reason is unknown. The hedgehog pathway is critical to the etiology of BCC, and is also believed to contribute to susceptibility to other cancers. This study tested the hypothesis that hedgehog pathway and pathway-related gene variants contribute to the increased risk of subsequent cancers among those with a history of BCC.

Methods: The study was nested within the ongoing CLUE II cohort study, established in 1989 in Washington County, Maryland, USA. The study consisted of a cancer-free control group (n=2296) compared to three different groups of cancer cases ascertained through 2007, those diagnosed with: (1) Other (non-BCC) cancer only (n=2349); (2) BCC only (n=534); and (3) BCC plus other cancer (n=446). The frequencies of variant alleles were compared among these four groups for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 hedgehog pathway genes (SHH, IHH, PTCH2, SMO, GLI1, SUFU), and also 22 SNPs in VDR and 8 SNPs in FAS, which have cross-talk with the hedgehog pathway.

Results: Comparing those with both BCC and other cancer versus those with no cancer, no significant associations were observed for any of the hedgehog pathway SNPs, or for the FAS SNPs. One VDR SNP was nominally significantly associated with the BCC cancer-prone phenotype, rs11574085 [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.82; p-value=0.02].

Conclusion: The hedgehog pathway gene SNPs studied, along with the VDR and FAS SNPs studied, are not strongly associated with the BCC cancer-prone phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2012.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438291PMC
October 2012

A population-based study of DNA repair gene variants in relation to non-melanoma skin cancer as a marker of a cancer-prone phenotype.

Carcinogenesis 2012 Sep 11;33(9):1692-8. Epub 2012 May 11.

Department of Biostatistics, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

For unknown reasons, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is associated with increased risk of other malignancies. Focusing solely on DNA repair or DNA repair-related genes, this study tested the hypothesis that DNA repair gene variants contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with a personal history of NMSC. From the parent CLUE II cohort study, established in 1989 in Washington County, MD, the study consisted of a cancer-free control group (n 5 2296) compared with three mutually exclusive groups of cancer cases ascertained through 2007: (i) Other (non-NMSC) cancer only (n 5 2349); (ii) NMSC only (n 5 694) and (iii) NMSC plus other cancer (n 5 577). The frequency of minor alleles in 759 DNA repair gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was compared in these four groups. Comparing those with both NMSC and other cancer versus those with no cancer, 10 SNPs had allelic trend P-values <0.01. The two top-ranked SNPs were both within the thymine DNA glycosylase gene (TDG). One was a non-synonymous coding SNP (rs2888805) [per allele odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.70; P-value 5 0.0006] and the other was an intronic SNP in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2888805 (rs4135150). None of the associations had a P-value <6.6310(-5), the threshold for statistical significance after correcting for multiple comparisons. The results pinpoint DNA repair genes most likely to contribute to the NMSC cancer-prone phenotype. A promising lead is genetic variants in TDG, important not only in base excision repair but also in regulating the epigenome and gene expression, which may contribute to the NMSC-associated increase in overall cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514896PMC
September 2012

Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.

Nat Genet 2012 May 6;44(6):651-8. Epub 2012 May 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Rockville, Maryland, USA.

In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% under 50 years to 1.91% between 75 and 79 years (P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals; odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; P = 0.016), with stronger association with cases who had DNA collected before diagnosis or treatment (OR = 1.45; P = 0.0005). Detectable mosaicism was also more common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least 1 year before diagnosis with leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR = 35.4; P = 3.8 × 10(-11)). These findings underscore the time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and potentially other late-onset diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372921PMC
May 2012

Pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data highlights pancreatic development genes as susceptibility factors for pancreatic cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2012 Jul 20;33(7):1384-90. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies (PanScan). We compiled 23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10(-6), 1.6 × 10(-5), 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways (NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10(-5)), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H.pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic risk variants in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405651PMC
July 2012

A community-based study of nucleotide excision repair polymorphisms in relation to the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer.

J Invest Dermatol 2012 May 16;132(5):1354-62. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Department of Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is responsible for protecting DNA in skin cells against UVR-induced damage. Using a candidate pathway approach, a matched case-control study nested within a prospective, community-based cohort was carried out to test the hypothesis that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NER genes are associated with susceptibility to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Histologically confirmed cases of NMSC (n=900) were matched to controls (n=900) on the basis of age, gender, and skin type. Associations were measured between NMSC and 221 SNPs in 26 NER genes. Using the additive model, two tightly linked functional SNPs in ERCC6 were significantly associated with increased risk of NMSC: rs2228527 (odds ratio (OR) 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.05) and rs2228529 (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.20-2.05). These associations were confined to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin (rs2228529, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.30-2.44; rs2228527, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.31-2.43). These hypothesis-generating findings suggest that functional variants in ERCC6 may be associated with an increased risk of NMSC that may be specific to BCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2012.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326207PMC
May 2012

Sun-seeking behavior to increase cutaneous vitamin D synthesis: when prevention messages conflict.

Public Health Rep 2011 Jul-Aug;126(4):533-9

Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention, Washington County, MD, USA.

Objectives: The public has long been encouraged to engage in sun-safe practices to minimize exposure to sunlight, the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer. More recently, some have advocated unprotected sun exposure to increase cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D as a way to promote health. We assessed the net result of these conflicting messages.

Methods: In a cross-sectional survey in 2007, questionnaires were mailed to participants of an ongoing cohort study in Washington County, Maryland. The study population consisted of 8,027 adults (55% response rate).

Results: Thirty percent of respondents were aware that unprotected sun exposure increased endogenous vitamin D levels. Among those who were aware of this benefit, 42% reported going out into the sun to increase vitamin D levels. Sun-seeking to increase vitamin D production did not significantly differ according to self-reported personal history of skin cancer, but was significantly higher among women, older age groups, those with less education, and vitamin D supplement users.

Conclusion: A substantial proportion of respondents reported sun-seeking behavior expressly to increase endogenous vitamin D levels. The message about sun exposure and vitamin D is reaching the general public; however, this finding poses challenges to skin cancer prevention efforts.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115212PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003335491112600409DOI Listing
August 2011
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