Publications by authors named "Juan Wu"

536 Publications

Trophic Transfer and Toxicity of (Mixtures of) Ag and TiO Nanoparticles in the Lettuce-Terrestrial Snail Food Chain.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

The increasing application of biosolids and agrochemicals containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiONPs) results in their inevitable accumulation in soil, with unknown implications along terrestrial food chains. Here, the trophic transfer of single NPs and a mixture of AgNPs and TiONPs from lettuce to snails and their associated impacts on snails were investigated. Both AgNPs and TiONPs were transferred from lettuce to snails with trophic transfer factors (defined as the ratio of the Ag/Ti concentration in snail tissues to the Ag/Ti concentration in lettuce leaves) of 0.2-1.1 for Ag and 3.8-47 for Ti. Moreover, the majority of Ag captured by snails in the AgNP-containing treatments was excreted via feces, whereas more than 70% of Ti was distributed in the digestive gland of snails in the TiONP-containing treatments. Additionally, AgNP-containing treatments significantly inhibited the activity of snails, while TiONP-containing treatments significantly reduced feces excretion of snails. Furthermore, the concurrent application of AgNPs and TiONPs did not affect the biomagnification and distribution patterns of Ag and Ti in snails, whereas their co-existence exhibited more severe inhibition of the growth and activity of snails than in the case of applying AgNPs or TiONPs alone. This highlights the possibility of nanoparticle transfer to organisms of higher trophic levels via food chains and the associated risks to ecosystem health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c05006DOI Listing
November 2021

gene polymorphisms regulate human retinal vascular endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis through ASF/SF2-associated alternative splicing.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 26:11206721211058000. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, 53025City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

This study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the (vascular endothelial growth factor) gene, which are associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), on the expression of VEGF proteins (VEGF and VEGF) and their role in cell proliferation and apoptosis in human retinal vascular endothelial cells (hRVECs). Cell viability and VEGF and VEGF expressions were evaluated in hRVECs transfected with genes containing different SNPs (rs3025039, rs3025033, and rs10434). The Cell Counting Kit 8 assay, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, TUNEL assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to examine the effects of gene SNPs on cell viability, VEGF and VEGF expressions, and cell apoptosis in hRVECs. The interaction and localization of the RNA-binding protein alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2) were assessed using RNA pull-down. Although VEGF expression decreased, VEGF levels increased significantly in hRVECs transfected with rs3025039, which decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. The SNPs rs3025033 and rs10434 had no significant effects on VEGF protein production and apoptosis; however, they promoted cell proliferation. SNPs affected the interaction between RNA and ASF/SF2, a splicing factor for intron retention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment induced the expression of VEGF, but not VEGF, whereas SRPIN340 treatment, an inhibitor of ASF/SF2, increased VEGF protein levels. gene sequence variations affected hRVEC proliferation and apoptosis via alternative gene splicing. Thus, the regulation of splicing via ASF/SF2 could be a potential strategy in treating pathological neovascularization in patients with AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11206721211058000DOI Listing
November 2021

Correction to: Sequence analysis of double-strand RNA6 and RNA9 from the fungus Sclerotium hydrophilum.

Arch Virol 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Institute of Bioresource Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, 210009, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05289-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Rv3628 isan effective adjuvant via activationof dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Dec 20;23:288-302. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of MOE/MOH, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

Tumor antigens (Ags) are weakly immunogenic and elicit inadequate immune responses, thus induction of antigen-specific immune activation via the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is a strategy used for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the effect of Rv3628 from () on activation of DCs and anti-tumor immunity . Intravenous injection of mice with Rv3628 promoted DC activation of spleen and lymph nodes. More importantly, Rv3628 also induced activation of DCs and enhanced Ag presentation in tumor-bearing mice. In mice bearing ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing tumors, combination treatment with Rv3628 and OVA peptide promoted OVA-specific T cell activation and accumulation of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-producing OT-I and OT-II cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. Moreover, three different tumor Ags in three different tumor models showed enhanced anti-tumor activity with Rv3628 as adjuvant, including inhibition of growth of OVA-expressing B16 melanoma, CT26 carcinoma, and B16 melanoma tumors, and a synergistic effect with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody treatment. Additionally, potential application against human tumors was indicated by similar activation of human peripheral blood DCs by Rv3628. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Rv3628 could be an effective adjuvant in tumor immunotherapy via enhanced capacity of DC activation and Ag presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2021.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571481PMC
December 2021

Release kinetics of microplastics from disposable face masks into the aqueous environment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 13:151650. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

School of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

Disposable face masks are widely used as primary personal protective equipment to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Disposable face masks have been identified as a source of microplastics and a new threat to the environment when improperly handled. To understand the release of microplastics from discarded masks into water, the release quantities of microplastics from three types of disposable face masks (N95, medical surgical, and normal medical masks) were measured within 24 h and their release kinetics were analyzed over seven days. Results showed that polypropylene microplastics fibers and debris of various colors were released. N95 masks released 801 ± 71-2667 ± 97 microplastic particles/(piece·d), medical surgical masks released 1136 ± 87-2343 ± 168 microplastic particles/(piece·d), and normal medical masks released 1034 ± 119-2547 ± 185 microplastic particles/(piece·d), irrespective of the price, weight, or type of mask. The microplastics were first released fast and then slow. The Elovich equation described the release kinetics (R > 0.990), and the release rate did not differ with the type of mask. Microplastics of 100-500 μm and of <100 μm were released in large quantities and at rapid rates. Fiber and transparent microplastics accounted for a large proportion of those released, and their daily release proportion increased with time. Fiber microplastics <500 μm in length were predominant in the microplastics released from disposable face masks, indicating that disposable face masks could be a critical source of these in the aqueous environment. There is an urgent need to take action to implement a waste management system limiting the number of masks entering the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8590477PMC
November 2021

Effects of home medication review on drug-related problems and health-related quality of life among community-dwelling older adults in China.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Background: There is a lack of research on the nature of drug-related problems (DRPs) in older adult communities in China and the impact of home medication review on DRP reduction and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) improvement.

Objectives: To identify and categorize DRPs in older adults in China and to assess the impact of home medication review.

Methods: The prospective study was conducted in 2 community health service centers in Shanghai, China from December 2018 to December 2019. Eligible patients received a home medication review by a clinical pharmacist to assess for DRPs and adherence, propose pharmaceutical interventions, and measure outcomes of HRQoL. All enrolled patients were followed up for 3 months.

Results: Medication use in 412 patients was analyzed. A total of 362 DRPs were identified, an average of 0.88 per patient. Treatment effectiveness was the primary DRP type (249; 68.8%). The most common causes of DRPs were patient-related (35.1%) and drug selection (31.0%). Pharmacists made 733 interventions, an average of 2 per DRP. A total of 82.1% of these interventions were accepted. At a 3-month follow-up, home medication review led to a statistically significant reduction in the mean number of DRPs (0.4 vs. 0.88, P < 0.001) and an increase in medication adherence (1.42 vs. 0.85, P < 0.001). Both HRQoL indicators also improved, EuroQol 5 Dimension scale (0.75 vs. 0.78, P < 0.001) and EuroQol-visual analog scale (70 vs. 77.65, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Home medication review is a practical means to optimize drug therapy and improve patients' HRQoL in community settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.10.023DOI Listing
October 2021

A real-world study of ICS use in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma treated with mepolizumab.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

US Value Evidence & Outcomes, US Medical Affairs - Respiratory, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Mepolizumab is a humanized anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA). There is limited evidence that patients treated with mepolizumab can reduce inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use.

Objective: To investigate changes in ICS use and clinical outcomes in patients with SEA who initiated mepolizumab treatment.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study (GSK ID: 212695/HO-20-19951) used administrative claims data from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan Database (identification period: November 2015-March 2018). Eligible patients had SEA and were receiving high-dose ICS and mepolizumab. ICS, oral corticosteroid (OCS), short acting β2-agonist (SABA) use, and exacerbation frequency were analyzed quarterly during the 12-month follow-up period following mepolizumab initiation.

Results: In total, 351 patients were included. The proportion of patients using highdose ICS decreased in quarters 1-4 following mepolizumab initiation (79.8%, 74.6%, 68.9%, 65.5%, respectively); 49.0% of patients reduced or discontinued ICS for ≥1 quarter. Comparing patients who discontinued ICS versus those who remained on high-dose ICS, a lower proportion had chronic OCS use (3.4-9.2% vs 13.9-16.8%) and OCS burst use (15.4-20.8% vs 19.7-26.1%) in quarters 1-4; similarly in quarters 3 and 4, a lower proportion of patients had exacerbations (16.9% and 20.3% vs 27.2% and 27.7%) and SABA claims (35.4% and 39.2% vs 43.3% and 49.0%, respectively).

Conclusion: In patients with SEA on high-dose ICS, a reduction in both ICS and OCS use was observed after initiating mepolizumab. These findings have important implications for clinical outcomes and follow-up care in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2021.11.005DOI Listing
November 2021

Efficient preparation of high-quality graphene via anodic and cathodic simultaneous electrochemical exfoliation under the assistance of microwave.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 23;608(Pt 2):1422-1431. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. Electronic address:

Currently, the electrochemical exfoliation of graphene stands out as an efficient, scalable approach to access high-quality products, due to its simplicity, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Here we have proposed an electrochemical method for preparing graphene at both the anode and cathode simultaneously. Graphite was first subjected to ion intercalation sufficiently on the anode and cathode and then expanded ultrafast under the assistance of microwave irradiation. With plenty of ion intercalation and proper microwave irradiation, graphene would be successfully exfoliated. The as-prepared graphene flakes from anode and cathode behave few-layer feature (more than 80% ≤ 4 layers) and large sizes (about 94% are larger than 1 μm), possess low oxygen content and little defects (6.1% and 1.9% oxygen for anodic and cathodic graphene, respectively). In addition, the high yields in our method (the maximum yields for anode and cathode were 81% and 76%, respectively) and the recycling of electrolytes suggest that our method owns great potential for large-scale production and provide an important reference for the commercial preparation of green and low-cost graphene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.10.098DOI Listing
October 2021

Stress response of ABI5 to BR stress and its regulation on hypocotyls growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Yi Chuan 2021 Sep;43(9):901-909

College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Northeast Salinity and Vegetation Restoration and Reconstruction, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040, China.

Abscisic acid-insensitive 5 (ABI5) is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in seeds. It plays a central role in regulating the abscisic acid (ABA) signal of seed germination and early seedling growth. Brassinosteroid (BR) is a new type of plant endogenous hormone, which has many physiological functions such as regulating plant growth and development and response to adversity stress. It has recently been discovered that under brassinolide stress, BIN2 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2) and BES1 (BRI1-EMS-SUPPRESSOR 1) in the BR signaling pathway can inhibit the expression of ABI5 and promote Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination. In order to further explore the function of ABI5 under BR stress, this study analyzed the ABI5 expression characteristics during seed germination, identified Arabidopsis ABI5 gene deletion mutant abi5-1 and analyzed its function under BR stress, the results of which indicated that ABI5 was abundantly expressed in Arabidopsis dry seeds and responded to BR stress during germination. Under normal conditions, there was no significant difference between the hypocotyls of abi5-1 and wild-type seedlings; but under BR stress, the hypocotyls of abi5-1 seedlings were significantly longer than those of wild-type seedlings. These results reveal that ABI5 regulates the growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls under BR stress, thereby providing a basis for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of ABI5 regulation on plant development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.21-199DOI Listing
September 2021

ESR2 regulates PINK1-mediated mitophagy via transcriptional repression of microRNA-423 expression to promote asthma development.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Oct 23;174:105956. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical, University, Taiyuan 030002, Shanxi, PR China.

Asthma represents an inflammatory airway disease related to the induction of airway eosinophilia, mucus overproduction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This study explored the effects of microRNA-423 (miR-423) on mitophagy and inflammation in asthmatic mice challenged with house dust mites (HDMs) and rhinovirus (RV). By searching for differentially expressed miRNAs in the GSE25230 microarray, miR-423 was identified as our target. Moreover, miR-423 was expressed at low levels in the lung tissues from patients with asthma, and agomiR-423 significantly inhibited RV-induced inflammatory injury and activation of inflammasome signaling in mouse lung tissues. Additionally, miR-423 downregulated the expression of IL-1β/NLRP3/Caspase-1 inflammasome signaling by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Furthermore, luciferase reporter experiments and ChIP-qPCR assays revealed that estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) transcriptionally repressed miR-423 expression by coordinating with H3K9me2 modification of the miR-423 promoter histone. Overall, ESR2 synergized with the H3K9me2 modification of the miR-423 promoter histone to transcriptionally repress miR-423 expression and increase PINK1 expression in lung tissues, resulting in asthma exacerbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105956DOI Listing
October 2021

Human epididymis protein 4: a novel predictor of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 10 21;21(1):511. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Cardiology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Clinical Medicine Research Center of Heart Failure of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410005, China.

Background: The prognostic value of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is unknown.

Methods: A total of 103 patients with ICM were prospectively enrolled in this study from Hunan Provincial People's Hospital between February 2019 and June 2019. All patients were tested for HE4 levels at baseline and follow-up. Endpoints of the study included cardiovascular death and heart failure-related hospitalization.

Results: A total of 96 patients with ICM were included for analysis. After a mean follow-up period of 263 (153-313) days, cardiovascular events were observed in 45 patients. Serum HE4 levels in patients with events were significantly higher than those in patients without events [188.70 (113.35-326.82) pmol/L versus 92.90 (61.50-123.20) pmol/L, P < 0.001]. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HE4 [χ: 9.602, hazard ratio (HR): 1.003, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.005, P = 0.002] and age [χ: 4.55, HR: 1.044, 95% CI: 1.003-1.085, P = 0.033] were independent predictors of events. After adjusting for age and sex, the risk of events in patients with HE4 > 100.2 pmol/L was higher than that in patients with HE4 ≤ 100.2 pmol/L [HR: 3.372, 95% CI: 1.409-8.065, P < 0.001].

Conclusion: HE4 is an independent predictor of cardiovascular death and heart failure-related rehospitalization in patients with ICM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02319-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532267PMC
October 2021

The Differences between the Effects of a Nanoformulation and a Conventional Form of Atrazine to Lettuce: Physiological Responses, Defense Mechanisms, and Nutrient Displacement.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Oct 18;69(42):12527-12540. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

The rapid development of nanotechnology influences the developments within the agro-sector. An example is provided by the production of nanoenabled pesticides with the intention to optimize the efficiency of the pesticides. At the same time, it is important to collect information on the unintended and unwanted adverse effects of emerging nanopesticides on nontarget plants. Currently, this information is limited. In the present study, we compared the effects of a nanoformulation of atrazine (NPATZ) and the nonencapsulated atrazine formulation (ATZ) on physiological responses, defense mechanisms, and nutrient displacement in lettuce over time with the applied concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3 mg atrazine per kg soil. Our results revealed that both NPATZ and ATZ induced significant decreases in plant biomass, chlorophyll content, and protein content. Additionally, exposure to NPATZ and ATZ caused oxidative stress to the lettuce plant and significantly elevated the activities of the tested ROS scavenger enzymes in plant tissues. These results indicate that NPATZ and ATZ cause distinct adverse impacts on lettuce plants. When comparing the adverse effects in plants after exposure to NPATZ and ATZ, no obvious differences in plant biomass and chlorophyll content were observed between NPATZ and ATZ treatments at the same exposure concentration regardless of exposure duration. An enhanced efficiency of the active ingredient of the nanopesticide as compared to the conventional formulation was observed after long-term exposure to the high concentration of NPATZ, as it induced higher impacts on plants in terms of the end points of the contents of protein, superoxide anion (Ȯ), and MDA, and the activities of stress-related enzymes as compared to the same concentration of ATZ. Furthermore, exposure to both NPATZ and ATZ disrupted the uptake of mineral nutrients in plants, and the differences in the displacement of nutrients between the NPATZ and ATZ treatments depended on the element type, plant organ, exposure concentration, and time. Overall, the application dose of a nanopesticide should balance their increased herbicidal efficiency with the long-term adverse effects in order to maximize the desired impact while minimizing adverse impacts; only then will we be able to understand the potential impact of nanopesticides on the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8554755PMC
October 2021

Give priority to abiotic factor of phosphate additives for pig manure composting to reduce heavy metal risk rather than bacterial contribution.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Dec 9;341:125894. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Organic Recycling Institute (Suzhou) of China Agricultural University, Wuzhong District, Suzhou 215128, China; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Phosphate additives especially superphosphate can reduce nitrogen loss, and increase phosphorus availability in composting. This study investigated the changes of different heavy metals fractions and their relationship with bacterial community and abiotic factors during pig manure composting with adding equimolar HPO, HSO and KHPO. Results showed that both acidic and alkaline labile phosphate increased the potential ecological risk of heavy metals compared to control, but KHPO decreased the accumulation of exchangeable Zn and Mn by 12% and 15% than that with HPO and HSO addition. Network analysis showed that KHPO enhanced the proportion of negative links in bacterial species with heavy metals, but HPO decreased the stability of bacterial network. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that pH was the key factor on metal speciation and risk with phosphate additives than bacterial role. The study presented theoretical basis for additive selection in controlling composting nitrogen fixation and environmental risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125894DOI Listing
December 2021

Experiences and Needs of Patients and Relatives During Hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit in China: A Qualitative Study.

J Transcult Nurs 2021 Sep 6:10436596211043277. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University.

Introduction: In comparison with Western cultures, the closed management system makes it difficult to implement family-centered nursing in many intensive care unit (ICU) in China. There are differences in cultural cognition and social environment between China and the West. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience and needs of critically ill patients and their relatives from a Chinese cultural perspective.

Method: This was a qualitative study using semistructured interviews conducted in a 26-bed integrated ICU at a Tertiary Grade A comprehensive hospital in Nantong, China. The participants included patients admitted in the ICU and their relatives. We used Colaizzi's seven-step procedure to analyze interview data.

Findings: A total of 15 participants were recruited. Main categories within the patient perspective were variety of feelings, staff assistance required, and expectations for relatives. Patient opinions differed about the feelings of hospitalization and whether they needed the help of staff and relatives. The main categories from the relatives' perspective were life is disrupted, information needs, and emotional needs. Relatives of patients in the ICU experienced a lot of physical and mental pressure. The lack of timely understanding of the patient's condition and needs made them feel anxious.

Conclusion: The closed management system currently used in China limits contact between ICU patients and their relatives, increasing their physical and emotional discomfort. Hospitals in China should consider updating to a more open visiting policy based on current guidelines for family-centered care. Such policies enable staff to continue providing quality care for their patients while addressing patient and family needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10436596211043277DOI Listing
September 2021

Free Triiodothyronine Is Associated With Hepatic Steatosis and Liver Stiffness in Euthyroid Chinese Adults With Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:711956. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Health Promotion Center, The First Affiliated Hospital With Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and thyroid hormones in euthyroid subjects is unclear. We investigated the relationship between thyroid function and the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis in a large cohort of euthyroid Chinese adults.

Methods: A total of 3496 participants were enrolled. Liver ultrasonography was used to define the presence of NAFLD (n=2172) or the absence of NAFLD (n=1324). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made and thyroid function parameters including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. The severity of hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness was assessed by transient elastography.

Results: Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in the severe NAFLD group and moderate NAFLD group than in the mild NAFLD group (5.18 ± 0.58 5.11 ± 0.57 4.98 ± 0.60 pmol/L, <0.001). Participants with F4 and F3 liver fibrosis had higher FT3 levels than those with F2 fibrosis (6.33 ± 0.39 5.29 ± 0.48 5.20 ± 0.50 pmol/L, <0.001). However, FT4 and TSH levels did not correlate with hepatic steatosis or liver fibrosis severity. In addition, the proportions of participants with NAFLD (46.0% 63.1% 73.3%, <0.001) and liver fibrosis (11.5% 18.6% 20.8%, <0.001) increased as FT3 levels increased. Logistic regression analysis showed that FT3 levels were positively associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis presence, even after adjustment for metabolic risk factors including BMI. In non-obese participants, the FT3 level was an independently risk factor for the severity of hepatic steatosis.

Conclusions: There are positive associations of FT3 levels with the severity of hepatic steatosis and the presence of liver fibrosis in NAFLD with euthyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.711956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387962PMC
August 2021

Relationship between the Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Study in China.

Int J Med Sci 2021 22;18(14):3082-3089. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Endocrine and Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

To determine the relationship between the endometrial thickness (ET) and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in the postmenopausal women who have a comprehensive health examination. This was a population-based, retrospective observational study of the prevalence of MAFLD in 8594 postmenopausal women with different ET in the Quality Control Center of Health Examination in Chongqing, China. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for patients of different ET with MAFLD after adjusting for age. The incidences of MAFLD were 28.6% (1352), 30.3% (1058), 34.9% (133) in postmenopausal women with ET of < 3 mm, 3 mm ≤ & < 5 mm, and ≥ 5 mm, respectively. Compared with a baseline ET of less than 5.0 mm, the risk of MAFLD in patients with ET of ≥5.0 mm is higher (OR=1.291, 95% CI: 1.041-1.603, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, a statistically significant positive correlation was still observed. The increased prevalence of MAFLD in patients with ET of 3 mm ≤ &<5 mm (OR=1.110, 95% CI: 1.008-1.223) and ≥5 mm (OR=1.383, 95% CI: 1.109-1.724) achieved statistical significance, respectively. In addition, multiple logistic analyses controlling for age also confirmed the finding of positive correlation among body mass index (BMI) and ET. Our results suggest that there is a positive correlation between MAFLD and ET in postmenopausal women. In addition, increased BMI is also associated with an increased risk of thickened endometrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.60780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364468PMC
June 2021

Enhancing denitrification in constructed wetland with algae addition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

China Construction Eighth Engineering Division Co., Ltd., Shanghai, 200135, People's Republic of China.

Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater; however, carbon source shortages limit denitrification. We studied the effect of algae addition as an external carbon source in CWs and found that the nitrogen removal efficiency of CWs is highly dependent on the algae dosage. Optimal nitrogen removal percentage (80.5%) can be achieved by adding 81.1 mg·L dry weight algae to the influent when the chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio reaches 5.3. Longitudinal changes in the nitrogen concentrations, organic matter concentrations, and nitrogen functional genes were also analyzed. The algae addition strengthened the anoxic environment, boosted the volatile fatty acid concentrations, and improved the ratio of nitrite reductase gene (nirS) and copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK)/16S rRNA, as well as the ratio of nitrate reductase gene (narG)/16S rRNA, thereby expanding the active space for denitrification. The addition of algae could potentially provide enough carbon to enhance denitrification during treatment of wastewater with a low COD/N ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15755-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Phthalate esters in surface sediments from fishing ports in Circum-Bohai-Sea region, China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Oct 4;171:112782. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Qingdao Engineering Research Center for Rural Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

The concentration, composition, distribution, and possible sources of phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface sediments from fishing ports in the Circum-Bohai-Sea region were investigated. The potential ecological risks of PAEs on three sensitive aquatic organisms (algae, crustacean, and fish) were assessed based on the risk quotient. The concentrations of 16 PAEs were in the range of 8.53-86.13 μg/g. Six PAEs, which were considered as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, were main congeners. Fishing ports with high PAE concentration were located near the eastern area of the Shandong Peninsula, the southern area of the Liaodong Peninsula, and the estuary of the Yellow River. Wastewater, atmospheric deposition, plastic, and rubber products were possible sources of PAEs. The PAEs showed medium to high ecological risks on the three aquatic organisms, and the ecological risks were attributed to four PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and benzylbutyl phthalate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112782DOI Listing
October 2021

Multigene Combined Detection by RT-qPCR Using Cytological Specimens.

Acta Cytol 2021 3;65(5):393-402. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Cytology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the mutation status of multiple driver genes by RT-qPCR and their significance in advanced lung adenocarcinoma using cytological specimens.

Materials And Methods: 155 cytological specimens that had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma in the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University were selected from April to November 2019. The cytological specimens included serous cavity effusion and fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Among cytological specimens, 108 cases were processed by using the cell block method (CBM), and 47 cases were processed by the disposable membrane cell collector method (MCM) before DNA/RNA extraction. Ten drive genes of EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, HER2, RET, PIK3CA, and MET were combined detected at one step by the amplification refractory mutation system and ABI 7500 RT-qPCR.

Results: The purity of RNA (p = 0.005) and DNA (p = 0.001) extracted by using the MCM was both significantly higher than that extracted by using the CBM. Forty-seven cases of fresh cell specimens processed by the MCM all succeeded in multigene detections, while of 108 specimens processed by the CBM, 6 cases failed in multigene detections. Among 149 specimens, single-gene mutation rates of EGFR, ALK, ROS1, RET, HER2, MET, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations were 57.71%, 6.04%, 3.36%, 2.68%, 2.01%, 2.01%, 1.34%, 0.67%, 0% and 0% respectively, and 6 cases including 2 coexistence mutations. We found that mutation status was correlated with gender (p = 0.047), but not correlated with age (p = 0.141) and smoking status (p = 0.083). We found that the EGFR mutation status was correlated with gender (p = 0.003), age (p = 0.015) and smoking habits (p = 0.007), and ALK mutation status was correlated with age (p = 0.002).

Conclusion: Compared with the CBM, the MCM can improve the efficiency of DNA/RNA extraction and PCR amplification by removing impurities and enriching tumor cells. And we speculate that the successful detection rate of fresh cytological specimens was higher than that of paraffin-embedded specimens. EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 mutations were the main driver mutations in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. We speculate that EGFR and ALK are more prone to concomitant mutations, respectively. Targeted therapies for patients with coexisting mutations need further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514821DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficient direct mapping of the nonlinear optical response via modulated Airy beams.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3725-3728

We report a scheme to achieve efficient direct mapping of the nonlinear optical response into a spatial beam profile. Compared with previous methods where a standard two-dimensional Airy beam was used as a probe, a modulated beam configuration allows for an improved mapping efficiency, stemming from the induced nonlinearity caused by the applied modulation. We find that the mapping efficiency along different orientations is highly related to the beam patterns and the type of nonlinearity. The improvement of the mapping quality and new, to the best of our knowledge, features found in simulations are further verified in experiments by testing a photorefractive nonlinearity. Our results represent a further step towards an effective tool for the direct measurement of the nonlinear optical response with low power consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.430834DOI Listing
August 2021

Cisplatin Induces Pyroptosis via Activation of MEG3/NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD Pathway in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 22;17(10):2606-2621. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. China.

Cisplatin (DDP) was reported to improve pathological complete response (pCR) rates in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, however, the molecular mechanism still remains largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggested that some chemotherapeutic drugs played anti-tumor effects by inducing cell pyroptosis. Nevertheless, whether pyroptosis contributes to the DDP-induced anti-tumor effect in TNBC remains unexploited. In the present study, NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pyroptosis pathway was involved in the DDP-induced anti-tumor effect of TNBC and , providing evidence that DDP might induce pyroptosis in TNBC. Moreover, DDP activated NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pyroptosis pathway by up-regulating the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3). Furthermore, knockdown of MEG3 not only partly abolished the activation effect of DDP on NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pathway-mediated pyroptosis, but also reversed the suppression of DDP on tumor growth and metastasis ability and further confirming that MEG3 may partially mediate the pyroptotic signaling upon DDP treatment. Thus, our data uncovered a novel mechanism that DDP induced pyroptosis via activation of MEG3/NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pathway in TNBC to exert anti-tumor effects, which may help to develop new strategies for the therapeutic interventions in TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.60292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315016PMC
June 2021

Quantitative analysis of autophagy-related protein LC3B by quantum-dot-based molecular imaging.

Methods Cell Biol 2021 16;165:177-185. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a process that facilitates the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis by removing unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components. It plays a role in inhibiting tumorigenesis in the early stage of the disease and might promote progression after tumor formation. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAPLC3, better known as LC3), isoform B (LC3B), is one of the most commonly used markers of autophagy. The expression of LC3B has been studied in many cancers and was shown to be closely related to tumor progression. Here, we provide detailed experimental steps for the quantitative detection of LC3B expression in cancer tissue by quantum-dot-based molecular imaging. As compared to the traditional immunohistochemistry (IHC) employing standard fluorochromes, the present method has a higher signal amplitude and improved sensitivity enabling the accurate quantitative detection, which provides a foundation for functional research and the clinical application of LC3B biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2020.12.007DOI Listing
November 2021

Cryptococcus neoformans CAP10 Gene Regulates the Immune Response in Mice.

J Mycol Med 2021 May 29;31(4):101160. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, School of Medical Technology and Engineering, Fujian Medical University, 88 Jiaotong Road, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, 350004, PR China. Electronic address:

The capsule associated protein 10 gene (CAP10) is indispensable to the formation of the polysaccharide capsule, and is closely associated with Cryptococcus (C.) neoformans virulence. In this study, we designed the shRNA expression plasmid to interfere with the synthesis of CAP10 gene. We infected mice with yeast cells in the respiratory tract, and monitored the development of infections in lung tissues. Results showed that the cap10-shRNA group may alleviate pathological lesions in pulmonary C. neoformans infection, and a lower degree of inflammatory cells was observed in the cap10-shRNA group. Moreover, the fungal burden was significantly lower in the cap10-shRNA group, indicating that the clearance towards C. neoformans was somehow affected. Down-regulation of CAP10 was beneficial to the balance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios. Collectively, our results showed that the expression of CAP10 was associated with an antifungal immune response in mice, suggesting that CAP10 regulates the inflammatory response. Therefore, we expect that the CAP10 gene will become a new molecular therapeutic target in cryptococcosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2021.101160DOI Listing
May 2021

Cardiac toxicity assessment of pendimethalin in zebrafish embryos.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 17;222:112514. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Ganzhou Key Laboratory for Drug Screening and Discovery, School of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Gannan Normal University, China; Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory of Zebrafish Modeling and Drug Screening for Human Diseases, Ji'an 343009, Jiangxi, China; Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Organs, Ji'an 343009, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Pendimethalin (PND) is one of the best sellers of selective herbicide in the world and has been frequently detected in the water. However, little is known about its effects on cardiac development. In this study, we used zebrafish to investigate the developmental and cardiac toxicity of PND. We exposed the zebrafish embryos with a serial of concentrations at 3, 4, and 5 mg/L at 5.5-72 h post-fertilization (hpf). We found that PND exposure can reduce the heart rate, survival rate, and body length of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we identified many malformations including pericardial and yolk sac edema, spinal deformity, and cardiac looping abnormality. In addition, PND increased the expression of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase (Antioxidant enzymes); We examined the expression of cardiac development-related genes and the apoptosis markers, and found changes of the following marker: vmhc, nppa, tbx5a, nkx2.5, gata4, tbx2b and FoxO1, bax, bcl-2, p53, casp-9, casp-3. Our data showed that activation of Wnt pathway can rescue the cardiac abnormalities caused by PND. Our results provided new evidence for the toxicity of PND and suggested that the PND residual should be treated as a hazard in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112514DOI Listing
October 2021

Corrigendum to "A miR-567-PIK3AP1-PI3K/AKT-c-Myc feedback loop regulates tumour growth and chemoresistance in gastric cancer" [EBioMedicine 44 (2019) 311- 321].

EBioMedicine 2021 Jul 14;69:103469. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Pathology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283321PMC
July 2021

Quantitative determination of autophagy flux by probes.

Methods Cell Biol 2021 16;164:157-165. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system in which autophagosomes and autolysosomes degrade the contents they contain in order to realize cell homeostasis and organelle renewal. Measuring autophagy activity and autophagic flux is very important for studying the role of autophagy, but accurate measurement of autophagic flux is quite complicated. Here, we use the GFP-mRFP-LC3 tandem probe to evaluate the cell autophagic flux. GFP is more sensitive to acidic environment and can be degraded in autolysosome due to the acidic environment. On the contrary, mRFP can be stably present in autolysosome due to its better tolerance to PH reduction. Hence, autophagic flux can be evaluated by calculating the ratio of GFP/RFP signal values. In addition, using this probe, we can more accurately measure the basal autophagic flux and induced autophagic flux in cells or animals. Summarily, the GFP-mRFP-LC3 tandem probe is a simple quantitative method to evaluate autophagic flux of cells and even whole organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2021.02.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Evaluation of Ascending Aortic Longitudinal Strain Via Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Hypertensive Patients Complicated by Type A Aortic Dissection.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Objective: To explore the value of ascending aortic longitudinal strain (LS) in identification of hypertensive (HP) patients with a high risk of type A aortic dissection (AAD).

Methods: Total 40 primary HP patients with AAD (group C), 80 selected age- and sex-matched primary HP patients (group A, normal-sized ascending aorta (AA), n = 40; group B, dilated AA, n = 40) and 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Brachial blood pressures were measured, and the aortic stiffness index (β) determined by M-mode analysis was calculated as a conventional parameter of arterial stiffness. The LS of the anterior and posterior ascending aortic wall (AW-LS and PW-LS) were determined.

Results: Compared to the control group (34.21 ± 5.25%), the mean LS of AA in HP patients (group A 28.6 ± 5.95%; group B 23.64 ± 4.98%; group C 17.93 ± 3.96%; P < .001) were significantly reduced. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the mean LS (OR 0.719, 95% CI 0.615-0.839, P < .001) and pulse pressure (PP) (OR 1.055, 95% CI 1.006-1.106, P = .028) were identified as independent predictors of AAD in HP patients. The AUC of mean LS combined with PP reached 0.926 (sensitivity, 95.0%; specificity, 82.5%), which was higher than the mean LS, PP, stiffness index, and ascending aortic diameter (AAd) separately. Besides, the AW-LS and PW-LS were negatively correlated with the AAd, stiffness index, stroke volume, systolic blood pressure, and PP, respectively (P < .001).

Conclusion: The LS of AA evaluated by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography decreased significantly along with the expansion of aortic lumen and the occurrence of AAD in HP patients. It is also an independent predictor of AAD in HP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15777DOI Listing
July 2021

Application of Adaptive MOMEDA with Iterative Autocorrelation to Enhance Weak Features of Hoist Bearings.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Jun 22;23(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China.

Low-speed hoist bearings are characterized by fault features that are weak and difficult to extract. Multipoint optimal minimum entropy deconvolution adjusted (MOMEDA) is an effective method for extracting periodic pulses in a signal. However, the decomposition effect of MOMEDA largely depends on the selected pulse period and filter length. To address these drawbacks of MOMEDA and accurately extract features from the vibration signal of a hoist bearing, an adaptive feature extraction method is proposed based on iterative autocorrelation (IAC) and MOMEDA. To automatically identify the pulse period, a new evaluation index named autocorrelation kurtosis entropy (AKE) was constructed to select the optimal IAC. To eliminate the influence of the filter length on the decomposition effect, an iterative MOMEDA strategy was designed to gradually enhance signal impulse features. The Case Western Reserve University bearing dataset and bearing data from a self-made hoisting test setup were used to verify the effectiveness of IAC-MOMEDA in extracting weak features. Moreover, the capability of IAC-MOMEDA for features extraction of normal bearing vibration signal was further confirmed by field test data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23070789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304584PMC
June 2021

Effects of Biofeedback Combined With Pilates Training on Post-prostatectomy Incontinence.

Urology 2021 Sep 26;155:152-159. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

School of Rehabilitation, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To verify the effect of Pilates training combined with biofeedback training, Kegel training combined with biofeedback training, and Kegel training alone on post-prostatectomy incontinence in male patients.

Material And Methods: Forty-two patients were randomly divided into 3 groups. The changes occurring to the 3 groups before and after treatment and the differences between the 3 groups were assessed using a 1-hour pad test, number of incontinent episodes, the ICIQ questionnaire, and the Oxford Grading Scale. The 3 groups were required to undergo daily training for an 8-week period.

Results: At 8 weeks, groups A, B and C experienced a 34.3%, 61.9%, and 67% improvement in the 1-hour pad test, respectively, and 32.1%, 52.9%, and 58.8% reduction in the number of urinary incontinence episodes, respectively, and a 29.4%, 50%, and 64.7% reduction in the ICIQ Scale, respectively, and a 33.3%, 50%, and 50% in Oxford Grading Scale improvement, respectively. The graph results showed that the effect was noted after 3 weeks of treatment and a significant effect occurred by the eighth week of treatment.

Conclusion: Three methods were shown to optimize urinary continence and pelvic floor muscle strength of patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence. The treatment effect of group C was better than group B, but there was no statistically significant difference in the 1-hour pad tests. It is particularly important to understand the time sensitivity for patient training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.04.057DOI Listing
September 2021

A systematic review and meta-analysis of traditional Chinese medicine with chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Gland Surg 2021 May;10(5):1744-1755

Acupuncture and Tuina School/Third Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Background: With the continuous progression of a new generation of adjuvant chemotherapy, the survival time of breast cancer patients has also been significantly improved. Chemotherapy alone will cause a series of side effects, which will seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Chinese medicine combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy has a unique advantage in the treatment of breast cancer.

Methods: English databases were searched using combinations of the following search terms: "traditional Chinese medicine", "neoadjuvant hemotherapy", "breast cancer", and "tumor of breast". Publications in which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with neoadjuvant therapy was the experimental group and chemotherapy alone was the control group were screened.

Results: A total of 12 publications were included in the meta-analysis. The efficiency of the performance status score was used to test for heterogeneity, Chi=2.95, df=5, P=0.71>0.1, I=0%, Z=3.36, odds ratio (OR) =2.61, and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.49-4.58. The results of the heterogeneity test of the effective rate of the objective curative effect were as follows: Chi=1.04, df=7, P=0.99>0.1, I=0%<50%, Z=2.42, OR =2.00, and 95% CI, 1.14-3.49. The results for the heterogeneity test of the TCM syndrome score were as follows: I=83%, P<0.00001, mean difference (MD) =8.84, 95% CI, 6.43-11.25, P<0.05. The results for the heterogeneity test of the incidence of adverse reactions in the digestive system after chemotherapy were as follows: Chi=1.15, df=8, P=1.00>0.1, I=0%<50%, Z=1.68, OR =0.04, 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.09.

Discussion: The meta-analysis confirmed that using TCM combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat breast cancer has obvious advantages over chemotherapy alone in terms of the objective curative effect, the performance status score effective rate, the TCM syndrome score change, and the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions after chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-21-284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184394PMC
May 2021
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